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Melatonin in humans: physiological and clinical seasonal affective disorder: a review of efficacy aurogra 100mg lowest price erectile dysfunction medicine in homeopathy. Antidepressant and circadian to clonidine and yohimbine challenges order aurogra 100 mg with mastercard newest erectile dysfunction drugs. J Psychiatry Neurosci phase-shifting effects of light buy aurogra 100mg erectile dysfunction and coronary artery disease in patients with diabetes. Response of rat pineal serotonin N- light treatment of winter depression? The significance of hyper- acetyltransferase to one min light pulse at different night times aurogra 100mg with amex erectile dysfunction meds list. Results of experiments seasonal affective disorder is independent of time of day or under temporal isolation. Overview: light treatment and future directions of sleep deprivation. Photoperiodic mechanisms for depression and its of winter depression. Corrections and additions to the history 1998;55:890–896. Timed bright light and nega- Psychiatry 1990;47:90–91. Seasonal affective Treatment Bio Rhythms Abstracts 2000;12:22. The use of bright history, theory and experimental evidence. J Biol Rhythms 1988; light in the treatment of chronobiologic sleep and mood disor- 3:121–134. The placebo problem in phototherapy for winter 523–525. Circadian rest-activity chronobiologic disorders using plasma melatonin levels and disturbances in seasonal affective disorder. Arch Gen Psychiatry bright light exposure: the clock-gate model and the phase re- 1997;54:124–130. Arch Gen Psychiatry 1990;47: of bright light on human melatonin production: shifting 879–880. Phase typing and bright light therapy of Rhythms 2000;12:2. Melatonin administration phase advances ders, depression, and phototherapy: a new hypothesis. J Biol Rhythms during a constant routine in winter depression. Testing circadian tration shifts circadian rhythms according to a phase response rhythm hypotheses of winter depression in the constant routine curve [Abstract 021]. Circadian phase shifting of blind In: Hiroshige T, Honma K, eds. Melatonin and the acute sup- file as a marker for circadian phase position. J Biol Rhythms pressant effect of light may help regulate circadian rhythms in 1999;14:227–236. Melatonin rhythm observed during Rhythms 1997;12:467–477. An atlas of phase response curves for circadian and 1089–1091. Human plasma melatonin studies: effects of light and ogy, Vanderbilt University, 1990. A human phase response curve for bright Schloot W, eds. Different types of melatonin circadian response curve to light. In: Rensing L, an der Heiden U, Mackey winter depression: a preliminary study. Some effects of jet-lag and phase angle between sleep and other circadian rhythms may be their alleviation by melatonin. London: winter depression: the phase-shift hypothesis. Biological rhythms, mood disorders, light therapy, 74. Dawn simulation treat- review and critique of the literature. J Biol Rhythms 1997;12: ment of winter depression: a controlled study. Chapter 129: Circadian Sleep and Mood Disorders 1893 97. Melatonin administration to blind subjects: photic or non-photic? Treatment of elderly melatonin: preliminary results of controlled double blind trial. Melatonin and photoperiodic strategy to reduce 'jet lag' following transmeridian flight. Psy- time measurement: seasonal breeding in the sheep. Annual rhythm of human reproduc- free-running blind human with melatonin administration. Light treatment for sleep tion can entrain the free-running circadian system of blind sub- disorders: consensus report. Familial advanced sleep- sleep-wake cycle in a blind man by melatonin treatment [letter]. Commentary: evidence for melatonin as a circadian sleep/wake cycle by melatonin in a blind retarded boy. Entrainment of a´ time naps in darkness phase shift the human circadian rhythms free-running sleep-wake cycle with melatonin in a blind retarded of melatonin and thyrotropin secretion. Mathematical model running circadian rhythms by melatonin in blind people. N of the human circadian system with two interacting oscillators. Chronotherapy: melatonin secretion in some blind patients by exposure to bright resetting the circadian clocks of patients with delayed sleep phase light. Putative melatonin ment of the human circadian pacemaker. Am Physiol Soc 1998; receptors are located in a human biological clock. Supersensitivity to in the mammalian suprachiasmatic nucleus. BehavBrain Res light: possible trait marker for manic-depressive illness. Photic and non-photic to melatonin suppression by light in young people at high risk circadian phase-shifting responses in a diurnal monkey, the for affective disorder. Jet lag: clinical light in euthymic bipolar and unipolar patients.

Tabulated are the reported increments in CMRglc and CMRO2 from studies using positron emission tomography (PET) or quantitative functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to measure these parameters effective aurogra 100 mg erectile dysfunction treatment diabetes. The increase in adenosine triphosphate (ATP) production was calculated for each study using a value of 2 ATP molecules produced per glucose molecule consumed in the glycolytic pathway buy generic aurogra 100mg on-line erectile dysfunction pump images, and 32 additional ATP molecules produced when glucose is completely oxidized discount aurogra 100mg visa impotence 1. The energy yield is expressed as the percent of the total increase in ATP production from nonoxidative glycolysis [(non-ox)CMRglc] and the oxidative breakdown of glucose in the TCA cycle [(ox)CMRglc] buy aurogra 100 mg with visa erectile dysfunction protocol hoax. As shown in the table, even in the most extreme reported cases of uncoupling between CMRglc and CMRO2 the majority of ATP production is from glucose oxidation due to the greater ATP yield. The 1:2 ratio is approximately lepticus where total glucose consumption increases to four- the ratio measured during status epilepticus, in which al- fold the prestatus value, whereas oxidation is increased most all cortical electrical activity is involved in a burst and twofold (49,148). In bicuculline-induced status epilepticus, suppress pattern. The presence of simultaneous synthesis brain cerebral cortex electrical activity is characterized by a and breakdown of glycogen has been demonstrated in the burst of intense firing followed by a suppressed period of exercising muscle (155), and more recently in the cerebral little electrical activity. Figure We have proposed a model to explain these observations 25. In this model the majority of glucose required to fuel surement of the glutamate/glutamine cycle under different the pumping of glutamate from the synaptic cleft during levels of electrical activity (see the above sections In Vivo the intense bursts of neuronal firing induced by sensory MRS Measurements of the Rate of the Glutamate/Gluta- stimulation is provided by brain glycogen (150,151). Glyco- mine Cycle: Findings and Validation, and Determination gen phosphorylase is kinetically well suited for rapid in- of the In Vivo Coupling Between the Rate of the Glutamate/ creases in activity through its regulation by signaling path- Glutamine Neurotransmitter Cycle and Neuronal Glucose ways and phosphorylation. There is in vivo evidence that Oxidation) has shown that the majority of brain energy brain glycogen may be rapidly mobilized to support func- production in even the nonstimulated state supports neu- tion including in status epilepticus (49) and in physiologic ronal activity. Several MRS studies have provided insight brain activation (152–154). In the glycogen shunt model, into the mismatch between glucose consumption and oxida- after an initial period of glycogen depletion during intense tion during sensory stimulation. Lactate elevation during stimulation, a steady state is reached in which the glycogen visual stimulation provided direct validation of the findings used to rapidly generate ATP for the transport of glutamate using PET (132) of the mismatch between oxygen con- into the glial cell and conversion to glutamate during bursts sumption and glucose consumption (136–138). Although of intense activity is resynthesized during the interim quies- there is a significantly greater increase in glucose consump- cent periods. Only one ATP molecule is produced per glu- tion than oxidation in certain stimulated states, studies of 25: Glutamate and GABA Neurotransmitter Cycles 335 under these conditions (30) may be able to directly test this hypothesis, and better establish the role of glycogen in functional neuroenergetics. IMPLICATIONS OF MRS STUDIES FOR UNDERSTANDING BRAIN FUNCTION The stoichiometry of the rate of the glutamate/glutamine FIGURE 25. Glucose taken up by the glia can flow through two path- cycle and oxidative glucose metabolism has implications for ways after phosphorylation to glucose 6-phosphate. In the stan- connecting models of brain function at the macroscopic dard pathway (left arrow), which occurs during normal electrical level, as studied by functional imaging, with neurobiological activity, glucose 6-phosphate is directly converted to lactate by glycolysis producing two ATP molecules per glucose molecule. The stoichiometry between glucose uptake and glutamate trans- This section reviews work in which this relationship was port and conversion to glutamine is 1:1 in this pathway. The ma- used to calibrate the PET and fMRI signals and neuroener- jority of lactate is subsequently oxidized in the neuron. In the glycogen shunt pathway (right arrow), which occurs during in- getic signals, which are either indirectly or directly measures tense repeated bursts of electrical activity, such as in seizures or of functional glucose metabolism, with neurotransmitter cy- intense sensory stimulation, glucose is synthesized into glycogen cling (5,139,157). Some implications of this calibration for first before being converted to lactate. An ATP molecule is used in the synthesis of glycogen, resulting in a reduction in the energetic the interpretation of brain functional imaging are explored. The stoichiometry between glucose uptake and glutamate transport is increased to 2:1 in this pathway. The extra lactate produced in the shunt pathway is not required for neuronal en- Calibration of the Relationship Between ergy metabolism and eventually leaves the brain. The functional imaging signal in PET and fMRI is tion in the stimulated state (14,15). The conclusion derived either directly or indirectly coupled to the change in glucose from the MRS studies is consistent with PET measurements oxidation with activation (1,2,134). The tight coupling be- of the mismatch when the much greater efficiency of ATP tween the glutamate/glutamine cycle and neuronal glucose production from glucose oxidation is taken into account oxidation in the rat cerebral cortex (26,90) provides a rela- (135), as shown in Table 25. A potential explanation of tionship for calibrating the functional imaging signal to the the mismatch has been proposed based on the requirement specific neuronal process of glutamate release and recycling for rapid glycolytic energy generation to clear glutamate (5). In glutamine cycle to neuronal glucose oxidation in human this glycogen shunt model, the power required is provided cerebral cortex and the rat cerebral cortex supports a similar by rapid glycogen breakdown. The glycogen is resynthesized during the inter-burst periods resulting in a reduction in relationship holding for the awake nonstimulated human the normal stoichiometry between glutamate transport into cerebral cortex. Although studies are needed to establish the glia and glial glucose uptake from 1:1 to 1:2. Paramount possibly stoichiometric) relationship between changes in the among these is the need for a measurement of the glutamate/ rate of neuronal glucose oxidation and the glutamate/gluta- glutamine cycle during sensory stimulation. Using this relationship, the although the majority of the increase in energy consumption functional imaging signal may be converted to a first order during stimulation is associated with glutamatergic neurons to changes in the rate of glutamate/glutamine neurotrans- (15,156), the relative contributions of glia and GABAergic mitter cycle (5). The advantage of performing this calibra- neurons are not known. At present there are only minimal tion over the direct MRS measurement of the glutamate/ data from brain studies supporting the glycogen shunt glutamine cycle is that several orders of magnitude of higher model of the mismatch between glucose consumption and spatial and temporal resolution is possible with the MRI oxidation. Studies measuring glycogen turnover directly measurement. Schematic representation of possible increase in the functional imaging signal, as measured by neuroenergetics, mental mental processes in a region during sensory stimula- upon sensory stimulation for an animal that is nonanesthetized tion or a cognitive task (5). This interpretation is trivially (A) and anesthetized (B,C). The difference in the magnitude of valid if there is insignificant neuronal activity in the non- the functional imaging signal, as quantified by glucose oxidation, between stimulated and nonstimulated states is represented by stimulated state. The high rate of the glutamate/glutamine 13 the shaded rectangles. In functional imaging these increments neurotransmitter cycle found by C MRS in the nonstimu- are commonly used to identify focally activated regions. The re- lated brain raises the question of whether the incremental maining signal, which is represented by white rectangles, is re- moved by fMRI analysis methods. This question was processes coupled to neuronal activity. If the neuronal activity addressed by analyzing previous studies that measured the needed to perform the task was the same as the increment from the awake state, then the increase in the signal upon stimulation change in glucose consumption during stimulation in the would be the same for the anesthetized or awake states (compare sensory cortices of animals stimulated under anesthetized A andC). If insteada largefraction of thetotal neuronal activityin and awake conditions. The studies chosen used anesthetics the region supports the sensory processing, then the incremental signal from anesthesia would be much larger (compare A and B). During anesthesia, the baseline glu- when anesthetics such as -chloralose that do not block stimu- cose consumption was reduced by as much as two- to three- lated electrical activity are used, the total glucose consumption and oxidation rises to the same absolute level during stimulation fold. Based on the standard paradigm, a constant increment independent of the initial awake state. These results support the of neuronal activity, and by inference glucose consumption, magnitude of the neuronal activity required to support a task (B) during stimulation would be expected regardless of whether being substantially larger than the increment in neuronal activity over the resting awake state (C). Stimulated changes in localized cerebral energy con- majority of regional neuronal activity was required for sen- sumption under anesthesia. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1999;96: sory processing, then the glucose consumption required 3245–3250, with permission. The prediction of these two models is diagrammed in Fig.

A multiattribute approach to health-status measurement and clinical management illustrated by an application to brain tumors in childhood purchase aurogra 100 mg on line impotence of organic origin. Assessment of health-related quality of life in children: a review of conceptual buy cheap aurogra 100mg on-line impotence effects on marriage, methodological 100mg aurogra for sale erectile dysfunction ginkgo biloba, and regulatory issues aurogra 100 mg lowest price erectile dysfunction types. Quality-of-life measures in chronic diseases of childhood. Measuring Health Outcomes in Pediatric Populations: Issues in Psychometrics and Application. Quality of Life and Pharmacoeconomics in Clinical Trials. The measurement of quality of life in young children. Reducing emergency admissions: are we on the right track? Centre of Health Economics, University of York; 2010. The experience of being the parent of a technology-dependent child. Health care professional support for self-care management in chronic illness: insights from diabetes research. Exploring reactions to a guided self-management intervention in a randomised controlled trial for IBS with reference to prior experience of managing a long term condition. Transfer of asthma management responsibility from parents to their school-age children. Craig P, Dieppe P, Macintyre S, Michie S, Nazareth I, Petticrew M, et al. Developing and evaluating complex interventions: the new Medical Research Council guidance. Hewitt CE, Gilbody SM, Brealey S, Paulden M, Palmer S, Mann R, et al. Methods to identify postnatal depression in primary care: an integrated evidence synthesis and value of information analysis. Juniper EF, Guyatt GH, Feeny DH, Ferrie PJ, Griffith LE, Townsend M. Bukstein DA, McGrath MM, Buchner DA, Landgraf J, Goss TF. Evaluation of a short form for measuring health-related quality of life among pediatric asthma patients. This issue may be freely reproduced for the purposes of private research and study and extracts (or indeed, the full report) may be included in professional journals provided that 65 suitable acknowledgement is made and the reproduction is not associated with any form of advertising. Applications for commercial reproduction should be addressed to: NIHR Journals Library, National Institute for Health Research, Evaluation, Trials and Studies Coordinating Centre, Alpha House, University of Southampton Science Park, Southampton SO16 7NS, UK. This issue may be freely reproduced for the purposes of private research and study and extracts (or indeed, the full report) may be included in professional journals provided that 67 suitable acknowledgement is made and the reproduction is not associated with any form of advertising. Applications for commercial reproduction should be addressed to: NIHR Journals Library, National Institute for Health Research, Evaluation, Trials and Studies Coordinating Centre, Alpha House, University of Southampton Science Park, Southampton SO16 7NS, UK. APPENDIX 1 # Query Results S139 TI ( “primary care” N1 (visit* or contact* or attendance* or admission* or episode*) ) OR AB 796 ( “primary care” N1 (visit* or contact* or attendance* or admission* or episode*) ) S138 TI ( number N2 (nights or days) ) OR AB ( number N2 (nights or days) ) 2300 S137 TI ( (patient* or inpatient* or in-patient*) N1 (cost* or stay*) ) OR AB ( (patient* or inpatient* or 5482 in-patient*) N1 (cost* or stay*) ) S136 TI “hospital day*” OR AB “hospital day*” 827 S135 TI time N2 discharg* OR AB time N2 discharg* 1206 S134 TI “hospital cost*” OR AB “hospital cost*” 1254 S133 TI ( hospital N1 (access* or uptake or visit* or attendance* or admission* or admit* or episode*) ) OR 9825 AB ( hospital N1 (access* or uptake or visit* or attendance* or admission* or admit* or episode*) ) S132 TI duration N2 stay OR AB duration N2 stay 840 S131 TI length N2 stay OR AB length N2 stay 11,520 S130 (MH “Health Resource Utilization”) OR (MH “Health Resource Allocation”) 18,081 S129 (MH “Readmission”) 5960 S128 (MH “Hospitalization”) OR (MH “Length of Stay”) OR (MH “Patient Admission”) 48,675 S127 TI budget* OR AB budget* 6666 S126 TI (value N1 money) OR AB (value N1 money) 447 S125 TI (expenditure* not energy) OR AB (expenditure* not energy) 5192 S124 TI ( econom* or cost or costs or costly or costing or price or prices or pricing or pharmacoeconomic* ) 112,768 OR AB ( econom* or cost or costs or costly or costing or price or prices or pricing or pharmacoeconomic* ) S123 (MH “Health Care Costs+”) 34,309 S122 (MH “Economic Aspects of Illness”) 5807 S121 (MH “Economics, Dental”) 96 S120 (MH “Economics, Pharmaceutical”) 1694 S119 (MH “Economic Value of Life”) 488 S118 (MH “Costs and Cost Analysis+”) 75,720 S117 (MH “Economics”) 9773 S116 S92 OR S93 OR S94 OR S95 OR S96 OR S97 OR S98 OR S99 OR S100 OR S101 OR S102 OR S103 OR 398,552 S104 OR S105 OR S106 OR S107 OR S108 OR S109 OR S110 OR S111 OR S112 OR S113 OR S114 OR S115 S115 (MH “Mental Health”) 17,397 S114 TI “school refusal” OR AB “school refusal” 49 S113 (MH “Panic Disorder”) 1597 S112 (MH “Phobic Disorders+”) 3618 S111 (MH “Bipolar Disorder+”) 7408 S110 (MH “Schizophrenia+”) 16,421 S109 (MH “Eating Disorders+”) 11,947 S108 (MH “Psychotic Disorders+”) 77,469 S107 (MH “Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic+”) 13,346 S106 (MH “Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder+”) 3756 S105 (MH “Affective Disorders+”) 71,774 68 NIHR Journals Library www. This issue may be freely reproduced for the purposes of private research and study and extracts (or indeed, the full report) may be included in professional journals provided that 69 suitable acknowledgement is made and the reproduction is not associated with any form of advertising. Applications for commercial reproduction should be addressed to: NIHR Journals Library, National Institute for Health Research, Evaluation, Trials and Studies Coordinating Centre, Alpha House, University of Southampton Science Park, Southampton SO16 7NS, UK. APPENDIX 1 # Query Results S70 (MH “Psychoeducation”) 1836 S69 (MH “Psychotherapy, Group”) 4012 S68 (MH “Psychotherapy, Brief”) 753 S67 TI ( (behavior* or behaviour*) N1 (manag* or modif*) ) OR AB ( (behavior* or behaviour*) N1 3662 (manag* or modif*) ) S66 (MH “Behavior Modification”) 1651 S65 (MH “Behavior Therapy”) 7714 S64 TI “parent* training” OR AB “parent* training” 455 S63 (MH “Parenting”) 10,162 S62 (MH “Social Media”) 2963 S61 (MH “Blogs”) 2147 S60 (MH “Internet”) 33,921 S59 (MH “Bibliotherapy”) 308 S58 TI ( “educational material*” or leaflet* or booklet* or toolkit* ) OR AB ( “educational material*” or 5141 leaflet* or booklet* or toolkit* ) S57 (MH “Pamphlets”) 2455 S56 (MH “Teaching Materials”) 9621 S55 TI ( CBT or “cognitive therap*” or “cognitive behav*” ) OR AB ( CBT or “cognitive therap*” or 7897 “cognitive behav*” ) S54 (MH “Cognitive Therapy”) 12,009 S53 (MH “Motivational Interviewing”) 1517 S52 (MH “Exercise+”) 67,755 S51 (MH “Diet+”) 71,326 S50 TI ( “goal set*” or “individual goal*” )ORAB(“goal set*” or “individual goal*” ) 1364 S49 TI ( decision* N2 (shared or support* or aid or aids or making) ) OR AB ( decision* N2 (shared or 31,517 support* or aid or aids or making) ) S48 (MH “Goal-Setting”) 3952 S47 (MH “Decision Making”) 29,422 S46 TI ( “contingent payment*” or “deposit contract*” )ORAB(“contingent payment*” or “deposit 2 contract*” ) S45 TI ( ((financial or monetary or money) N2 (incentive* or competition* or contest* or lotter* or reward* 1528 or prize*)) ) OR AB ( ((financial or monetary or money) N2 (incentive* or competition* or contest* or lotter* or reward* or prize*)) ) S44 (MH “Consumer Health Information”) 9291 S43 TI nurse N2 educator* OR AB nurse N2 educator* 3624 S42 TI ( (“consumer health” or patient) N1 information ) OR AB ( (“consumer health” or patient) N1 3409 information ) S41 TI ( patient N2 (educat* or advice or advis* or instruct* or instruct* or train* or coach*) ) OR AB 11,053 ( patient N2 (educat* or advice or advis* or instruct* or instruct* or train* or coach*) ) S40 (MH “Patient Education”) 49,243 S39 TI ( involv* or participat* or collaborat* ) OR AB ( involv* or participat* or collaborat* ) 236,994 S38 (MH “Consumer Participation”) 12,803 70 NIHR Journals Library www. This issue may be freely reproduced for the purposes of private research and study and extracts (or indeed, the full report) may be included in professional journals provided that 71 suitable acknowledgement is made and the reproduction is not associated with any form of advertising. Applications for commercial reproduction should be addressed to: NIHR Journals Library, National Institute for Health Research, Evaluation, Trials and Studies Coordinating Centre, Alpha House, University of Southampton Science Park, Southampton SO16 7NS, UK. APPENDIX 1 # Query Results S8 TI ( self-monitor* or selfmonitor* or self-report* or selfreport* ) OR AB ( self-monitor* or selfmonitor* 34,036 or self-report* or selfreport* ) S7 TI ( self-manag* or selfmanag* ) OR AB ( self-manag* or selfmanag* ) 6324 S6 TI ( self-care* or selfcaring or selfcare* or selfcaring ) OR AB ( self-care* or selfcaring or selfcare* or 8332 selfcaring ) S5 (MH “Self Care”) 23,936 S4 S2 NOT S3 1589 S3 TI ( self-administer* N2 (questionnaire* or survey* or interview*) ) OR AB ( self-administer* N2 4926 (questionnaire* or survey* or interview*) ) S2 TI self-administer* OR AB self-administer* 6515 S1 (MH “Self Administration+”) 4246 The Cochrane Library (via Wiley Online Library) Date searched: 18 March 2015. The same search strategy was used across all five databases: 1. Search strategy #1 MeSH descriptor: [Self Administration] this term only (653) #2 self next administer*:ti,ab,kw (2287) #3 (self next administer* near/2 (questionnaire* or survey* or interview*)):ti,ab,kw (792) #4 #2 not #3 (1495) #5 MeSH descriptor: [Self Care] this term only (2833) #6 (self next care* or selfcaring or selfcare* or selfcaring):ti,ab,kw (4256) #7 (self next manag* or selfmanag*):ti,ab,kw (2420) 72 NIHR Journals Library www. This issue may be freely reproduced for the purposes of private research and study and extracts (or indeed, the full report) may be included in professional journals provided that 73 suitable acknowledgement is made and the reproduction is not associated with any form of advertising. Applications for commercial reproduction should be addressed to: NIHR Journals Library, National Institute for Health Research, Evaluation, Trials and Studies Coordinating Centre, Alpha House, University of Southampton Science Park, Southampton SO16 7NS, UK. APPENDIX 1 #32 ((telephon* or remote or phone) near/2 (follow* or support* or consult* or advice or advis* or intervention* or instruct* or assist* or educate or education or information or monitor*)):ti,ab,kw (2831) #33 MeSH descriptor: [Case Management] this term only (652) #34 (case next manag* or action next plan* or care next plan* or care next manag* or management next plan* or management next program* or care next program* or goal next setting or individual next goal*):ti,ab,kw (6445) #35 MeSH descriptor: [Patient Participation] this term only (890) #36 (involv* or participat* or collaborat*):ti,ab,kw (72,418) #37 MeSH descriptor: [Patient Education as Topic] this term only (6657) #38 patient next education:ti,ab,kw (8086) #39 (patient near/2 (educat* or advice or advis* or instruct* or train* or coach*)):ti,ab,kw (8784) #40 ((consumer next health or patient) next information):ti,ab,kw (553) #41 (nurse near/2 educator*):ti,ab,kw (73) #42 ((financial or monetary or money) near/2 (incentive* or competition* or contest* or lotter* or reward* or prize*)):ti,ab,kw (513) #43 (contingent next payment* or deposit next contract*):ti,ab,kw (17) #44 MeSH descriptor: [Decision Making] this term only (1692) #45 (decision* near/2 (shared or support* or aid or aids or making)):ti,ab,kw (7150) #46 (goal next set* or individual next goal*):ti,ab,kw (446) #47 MeSH descriptor: [Diet] explode all trees (12,385) #48 MeSH descriptor: [Exercise] explode all trees (14,181) #49 MeSH descriptor: [Motivational Interviewing] this term only (136) #50 MeSH descriptor: [Cognitive Therapy] this term only (5146) #51 (CBT or cognitive next therap* or cognitive next behav*):ti,ab,kw (9693) #52 MeSH descriptor: [Teaching Materials] this term only (383) #53 MeSH descriptor: [Pamphlets] this term only (623) #54 (educational next material* or leaflet* or booklet* or toolkit*):ti,ab,kw (1977) #55 MeSH descriptor: [Bibliotherapy] this term only (105) 74 NIHR Journals Library www. This issue may be freely reproduced for the purposes of private research and study and extracts (or indeed, the full report) may be included in professional journals provided that 75 suitable acknowledgement is made and the reproduction is not associated with any form of advertising. Applications for commercial reproduction should be addressed to: NIHR Journals Library, National Institute for Health Research, Evaluation, Trials and Studies Coordinating Centre, Alpha House, University of Southampton Science Park, Southampton SO16 7NS, UK. APPENDIX 1 #81 (parent* or mother* or father* or caregiver* or carer* or guardian* or advocate* or family):ti,ab,kw (40,218) #82 #76 or #77 or #78 or #79 or #80 or #81 (182,717) #83 MeSH descriptor: [Diabetes Mellitus] explode all trees (16,726) #84 MeSH descriptor: [Cystic Fibrosis] this term only (1102) #85 mucoviscidosis:ti,ab,kw (33) #86 MeSH descriptor: [Asthma] explode all trees (9404) #87 MeSH descriptor: [Attention Deficit and Disruptive Behavior Disorders] explode all trees (1865) #88 MeSH descriptor: [Hyperkinesis] this term only (168) #89 MeSH descriptor: [Anxiety] explode all trees (5226) #90 MeSH descriptor: [Depression] this term only (5541) #91 MeSH descriptor: [Depressive Disorder] this term only (4754) #92 MeSH descriptor: [Self Mutilation] this term only (25) #93 MeSH descriptor: [Self-Injurious Behavior] this term only (205) #94 MeSH descriptor: [Epilepsy] explode all trees (2311) #95 MeSH descriptor: [Conduct Disorder] explode all trees (179) #96 MeSH descriptor: [Mood Disorders] explode all trees (9310) #97 MeSH descriptor: [Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder] explode all trees (662) #98 MeSH descriptor: [Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic] this term only (972) #99 MeSH descriptor: [Psychotic Disorders] explode all trees (1562) #100 MeSH descriptor: [Eating Disorders] explode all trees (838) #101 MeSH descriptor: [Schizophrenia] explode all trees (4966) #102 MeSH descriptor: [Bipolar Disorder] explode all trees (1601) #103 MeSH descriptor: [Phobic Disorders] this term only (847) #104 MeSH descriptor: [Panic Disorder] this term only (758) #105 school next refusal:ti,ab,kw (14) 76 NIHR Journals Library www. This issue may be freely reproduced for the purposes of private research and study and extracts (or indeed, the full report) may be included in professional journals provided that 77 suitable acknowledgement is made and the reproduction is not associated with any form of advertising. Applications for commercial reproduction should be addressed to: NIHR Journals Library, National Institute for Health Research, Evaluation, Trials and Studies Coordinating Centre, Alpha House, University of Southampton Science Park, Southampton SO16 7NS, UK. APPENDIX 1 #131 ((patient* or inpatient* or in-patient*) next (cost* or stay*)):ti,ab,kw (772) #132 (number near/2 (nights or days)):ti,ab,kw (1889) #133 (primary next care next (visit* or contact* or attendance* or admission* or episode*)):ti,ab,kw (139) #134 (surgery next (visit* or contact* or attendance* or admission* or episode*)):ti,ab,kw (36) #135 (GP next (access or uptake or visit* or contact* or attendance* or admission* or episode*)):ti,ab,kw (65) #136 ((uptake or access) next (service* or care or intervention*)):ti,ab,kw (39) #137 ((clinic or surgery or hospital or “accident and emergency”) near/2 (work-flow or work next flow)): ti,ab,kw (2) #138 (consultation* near/2 (time or length)):ti,ab,kw (116) #139 (hospitalisation* or hospitalization* or rehospitalisation* or rehospitalization* or re-hospitalisation* or re-hospitalization*):ti,ab,kw (15,517) #140 (hrql or hrqol or “h qol” or h-qol or hql or hqol):ti,ab,kw (1887) #141 MeSH descriptor: [Quality-Adjusted Life Years] this term only (3773) #142 (qaly* or “quality adjusted life” or “quality of life” or “life quality”):ti,ab,kw (37,642) #143 {or #108-#142} (97,676) #144 #20 or #75 (169,797) #145 #144 and #82 and #107 and #143 (1739) #146 “Cool Kids”:ti,ab,kw (3) #147 “Sweet talk”:ti,ab,kw (2) #148 “Timid to Tiger”:ti,ab,kw (0) #149 “problem solving for life”:ti,ab,kw (2) #150 “Incredible Years”:ti,ab,kw (67) #151 “Triple P”:ti,ab,kw (77) #152 friends next program*:ti,ab,kw (12) #153 #146 or #147 or #148 or #149 or #150 or #151 or #152 (162) #154 #145 or #153 (1894) 78 NIHR Journals Library www. This issue may be freely reproduced for the purposes of private research and study and extracts (or indeed, the full report) may be included in professional journals provided that 79 suitable acknowledgement is made and the reproduction is not associated with any form of advertising. Applications for commercial reproduction should be addressed to: NIHR Journals Library, National Institute for Health Research, Evaluation, Trials and Studies Coordinating Centre, Alpha House, University of Southampton Science Park, Southampton SO16 7NS, UK. This issue may be freely reproduced for the purposes of private research and study and extracts (or indeed, the full report) may be included in professional journals provided that 81 suitable acknowledgement is made and the reproduction is not associated with any form of advertising. Applications for commercial reproduction should be addressed to: NIHR Journals Library, National Institute for Health Research, Evaluation, Trials and Studies Coordinating Centre, Alpha House, University of Southampton Science Park, Southampton SO16 7NS, UK. The IDEAS search interface is only suitable for one-word or phrase searching, so a number of small searches were conducted to identify potentially relevant records (e. The search results were cut and pasted into word documents to enable scanning. Ovid MEDLINE(R) In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations and Ovid MEDLINE(R) Date searched: 18 March 2015. Internet/ or Blogging/ or Social Media/ (52,994) 55. This issue may be freely reproduced for the purposes of private research and study and extracts (or indeed, the full report) may be included in professional journals provided that 83 suitable acknowledgement is made and the reproduction is not associated with any form of advertising. 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Allosteric modulations of the nicotinic leus neurons: an analysis of peripheral versus central induction aurogra 100mg overnight delivery erectile dysfunction doctors austin texas. Are adolescent smokers concentration of nicotine and catecholamines and related cardio- dependent on nicotine? Drug Alcohol vascular effects after smoking order 100mg aurogra otc how to fix erectile dysfunction causes, nicotine nasal spray purchase aurogra 100 mg on line xyzal erectile dysfunction, and intrave- Depend 2000;59:S83–S95 aurogra 100mg line erectile dysfunction drugs in the philippines. Treating tobacco use and and carbon monoxide and plasma cotinine levels. Arch Pediatr dependence: clinical practice guideline. Chronic nicotine treat- bupropion, nicotine patch, or both for smoking cessation. Prev ment potentiates behavioral responses to dopaminergic drugs in Med 2000;30:209–216. Pharmacology of nicotine and dependence among youth: a review of available approaches and its therapeutic use in smoking cessation and neurodegenerative instruments. The effects of nicotine on neural path- of fast excitatory synaptic transmission in CNS by presynaptic ways implicated in depression: a factor in nicotine addiction? Genetic and environmen- in smokers: preliminary evidence of an opioid component in tal contributions to smoking. Smoking behaviour and compensation: a review of acute tolerance to multiple nicotinic effects in humans. A review of tobacco amine oxidase B in the brains of smokers. Nature 1996;379: smoking in adolescents: treatment implications. Evidence that nico- oxidase A inhibition in cigarette smokers. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA tinic alpha (7) receptors are not involved in the hyperlocomotor 1996;93:14065–14069. Psychoneuroendocrinology 1998;23: high affinity nicotinic receptors in subjects with schizophrenia. Nicotine depen- 1542 Neuropsychopharmacology: The Fifth Generation of Progress dence in schizophrenia: clinical phenomena and laboratory find- for smoking cessation: Agency for Health Care Policy and Re- ings. A nicotine conjugate neurophysiological deficit in schizophrenia to a chromosome 15 vaccine reduces nicotine distribution to brain and attenuates its locus. Preexposure to amphetamine ment of nicotine dependence with emphasis on nicotine re- and nicotine predisposes rats to self-administer a low dose of placement therapy: a status report. Tobacco Advisory Group, Royal College of Physicians. Non-nicotine pharmacotherapy for addiction in Britain: a report of the Tobacco Advisory Group of the smoking cessation: mechanisms and prospects. A population-based the pharmacotherapy of smoking [see Comments]. JAMA 1999; twin study in women of smoking initiation and nicotine depen- 281:72–76. Inter-species consistency in the behavioural phar- 2000. Reduced smoking: an introduction and review of cern. Anxiolytics and antidepres- ability for nicotine and alcohol dependence in men. Drug abuse: hedonic homeostatic dysreg- of naltrexone for smoking cessation. An animal model of adolescent diverse, human nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subtypes by bu- nicotine exposure: effects on gene expression and macromolecular propion, phencyclidine, and ibogaine. J Pharmacol Exp Ther constituents in rat brain regions. A comparison of sus- pregnancy and adult male criminal outcomes. Arch Gen Psychiatry tained-release bupropion and placebo for smoking cessation. Four beliefs that may impede progress in the treat- of major depression or alcoholism. Fetal nicotine or cocaine exposure: which one is the clinical practice recommendations in the AHCPR guideline worse? Chapter 107: Therapeutics for Nicotine Addiction 1543 90. A genetic association for tobacco products: results of a national survey. Regular review: effectiveness rent smoking patterns. In: Koop CE, Pearson CE, Schwarz MR, of interventions to help people stop smoking. Trends Pharmacol Sci 1990;11: treatment for smoking cessation: the role of pre-cessation therapy. J Addict Dis 1999;18: smoking during pregnancy and psychopathology in offspring fol- 31–40. Gender differences in the pharma- Nicotine Tobacco Res 1999;1:286–287. RICAURTE As defined in this chapter, the term psychedelic drugs includes 14. Despite the longstanding popularity of psychedelic 15. Use is more common in male Caucasians and Hispanics. This Of note is that although the parents of LSD users tend to chapter reviews preclinical and clinical research involving be of a higher socioeconomic status, the users themselves indolalkylamines, arylcyclohexamines, and substituted am- exhibit an inverse relationship between LSD use and educa- phetamines, for which LSD, PCP, and MDMA are used as tional achievement (4). Significant recent advances are highlighted, and promising areas toward which future re- Early Neurophysiologic Studies search should be directed are identified. Work in the 1950s intimated that hallucinogens simultane- ously activate and depress neural systems in mammals. In INDOLALKYLAMINES 1953, Gaddum (5) reported that LSD antagonizes the ef- fects of serotonin (5-HT). In the visual system, LSD de- Epidemiology creased by 80% the amplitude of the postsynaptic response Surveys in the United States and Western Europe reveal an in the lateral geniculate nucleus of the cat following stimula- increased use of indolalkylamine hallucinogens. Pentobarbital was found to sensi- ple, trend data in the United States, gathered from 15,000 tize the cells to LSD, and asphyxia transiently overcame high school seniors, showed a rise in prevalence of lifetime the LSD effect. These observations were among the first to hallucinogen use from 6% to 13. Similarly, in Great Britain, the use of LSD rose aminobutyric acid (GABA), and is antagonized by excita- from 7% to 11% between 1989 and 1993. Among German tory amino acids released during hypoxia. Multiple EEG studies of LSD in rabbits, cats, and humans have docu- Henry David Abraham: Department of Psychiatry, Harvard Medical mented an increasing shift of alpha frequencies to low volt- School, Cambridge, Massachusetts. McCann: Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, of evoked sensory potentials in cats, a low dose of LSD The Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland. Ricaurte: Department of Neurology, The Johns Hopkins facilitated both auditory and visual primary responses, School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland.

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