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Database/retrieval system on the Internet with author afliation Title for Databases/Retrieval Systems on the Internet (required) General Rules for Title • Reproduce the title of a database/retrieval system as closely as possible to the wording that appears on the screen generic 80mg super levitra amex erectile dysfunction protocol download pdf, duplicating capitalization buy super levitra 80 mg erectile dysfunction drugs in ghana, spacing discount super levitra 80mg with visa icd 9 code for erectile dysfunction due to medication, and punctuation • Use a colon followed by a space to separate a title from a subtitle super levitra 80mg sale erectile dysfunction drugs new, unless another form of punctuation (such as a question mark, period, or an exclamation point) is already present • Follow non-English titles with a translation whenever possible; place the translation in square brackets • End a title with a space Specific Rules for Title • Determining the title if there is no standard title page • Titles not in English • Titles in more than one language • Titles ending in punctuation other than a period • Titles containing a Greek letter, chemical formula, or another special character 1640 Citing Medicine • No title can be found Box 16. While many databases/retrieval systems on the Internet display a traditional title page and clearly state the title, some sites do not. When there is no title page: • Look for the most prominent (usually the largest) wording on the opening screen • Look at the title bar of the Web browser (generally in the top lef corner) • Look for the title in the source code of the database/retrieval system if it is displayed by the Web browser • If a title cannot be determined, construct a title by using the frst series of words on the screen; place the constructed title in square brackets Box 17. Rome: Ministero della Salute, Direzione General del Sistema Informativo e Statistico. Tis rule ignores some conventions used in non-English languages to simplify rules for English-language publications. Databases/Retrieval Systems on the Internet 1641 Box 17 continued from previous page. Rome: Ministero della Salute, Direzione General del Sistema Informativo e Statistico. Database of β-Amino Acids may become Database of Beta-Amino Acids • If a title contains superscripts or subscripts that cannot be reproduced with the type fonts available, place the superscript or subscript in parentheses TiO2 Nanoparticles may become TiO(2) Nanoparticles Box 21. Database/retrieval system on the Internet title with upper/lowercase letters and symbols 14. Database/retrieval system on the Internet with title ending in other than a period 15. Database/retrieval system on the Internet published with equal text in two languages Content Type for Databases/Retrieval Systems on the Internet (optional) General Rules for Content Type • A content type alerts the user that the reference is not to a standard book but to a database or retrieval system • Begin type information with a lef square bracket • Enter the words "database on" or "retrieval system on" • End the content type with a space Specific Rules for Content Type • Titles ending in punctuation other than a period • Titles not in English Box 22. Databases/Retrieval Systems on the Internet 1645 Box 22 continued from previous page. Place the content type and type of medium in square brackets afer the title and end title information with a period. Rome: Ministero della Salute, Direzione General del Sistema Informativo e Statistico. Rome: Ministero della Salute, Direzione General del Sistema Informativo e Statistico. Database/retrieval system on the Internet with title ending in other than a period Edition for Databases/Retrieval Systems on the Internet (required) General Rules for Edition • Indicate the edition/version being cited afer the Type of Medium when a database/ retrieval system is published in more than one edition or version • Abbreviate common words (see Abbreviation rules for editions below) • Capitalize only the frst word of the edition statement, proper nouns, and proper adjectives • Express words and numbers representing editions in arabic ordinals. Databases/Retrieval Systems on the Internet 1649 Box 28 continued from previous page. Tis rule ignores some conventions used in non-English languages to simplify rules for English-language publications. Tis rule ignores some conventions used in non-English languages to simplify rules for English-language publications. Examples: ĉ or ç becomes c ⚬ Do not convert numbers or words for numbers to arabic ordinals as is the practice for English language publications. Databases/Retrieval Systems on the Internet 1651 Box 28 continued from previous page. Tis rule ignores some conventions used in non-English languages to simplify rules for English-language publications. Examples: ŏ becomes o ū becomes u ⚬ Do not convert numbers or words for numbers to arabic ordinals as is the practice for English language publications. If a database/retrieval system on the Internet provides information for both an edition and a version: • Give both, in the order presented • Separate the two statements with a semicolon and a space • End edition/version information with a period Examples: 2nd ed. Database/retrieval system on the Internet with an edition or version Editor and other Secondary Authors for Databases/Retrieval Systems on the Internet (optional) General Rules for Editor and other Secondary Authors • A secondary author modifes the work of the author. Tis rule ignores some conventions used in non-English languages to simplify rules for English-language publications. Databases/Retrieval Systems on the Internet 1655 Box 33 continued from previous page. Database/retrieval system on the Internet with editors where there is no author 1656 Citing Medicine 9. When databases/retrieval systems on the Internet do not display a traditional title page that clearly states the place of publication: • Look at the top, bottom, or sidebar of the frst screen or the bottom of the last screen of the site • If it is not in one of these locations, try to obtain it from a link within the site, usually under a "contact us" or similar link • Look in the source code for the database/retrieval system if it is displayed by the Web browser • If the place cannot be determined from the site itself: ⚬ Place the name in square brackets if the city can be reasonably inferred. For example, Chicago as the place of publication of a database/retrieval system issued by the American Medical Association. Databases/Retrieval Systems on the Internet 1657 Box 35 continued from previous page. Tis rule ignores some conventions used in non-English languages to simplify rules for English-language publications. Databases/Retrieval Systems on the Internet 1659 Box 37 continued from previous page. Database/retrieval system on the Internet with well known place of publication 20. Database/retrieval system on the Internet with geographic qualifer added to place of publication for clarity 21. Database/retrieval system on the Internet with unknown place of publication 1660 Citing Medicine Publisher for Databases/Retrieval Systems on the Internet (required) General Rules for Publisher • A publisher is defned as the individual or organization issuing the database/ retrieval system • Record the name of the publisher as it appears on the title page or opening screens, using whatever capitalization and punctuation is found there • Abbreviate well-known publisher names with caution to avoid confusion. When databases/retrieval systems on the Internet do not display a traditional title page that clearly states the name of the publisher: • Look at the top, bottom, or sidebar of the frst screen or the bottom of the last screen of the site • Look for the name afer a copyright statement, e. Publisher information is required in a citation; distributor information may be included as a note. If you abbreviate a word in one reference in a list of references, abbreviate the same word in all references. Place all translated publisher names in square brackets unless the translation is given in the publication. Tokyo: Medikaru Rebyusha Beijing (China): [Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, Population Research Institute] Taiyuan (China): Shanxi ke xue ji she chu ban she [Note that the concept of capitalization does not exist in Chinese. Terefore in transliterating Chinese publisher names only the frst word and proper nouns are capitalized. Tis rule ignores some conventions used in non-English languages to simplify rules for English-language publications. Databases/Retrieval Systems on the Internet 1663 Box 42 continued from previous page. Aarhus (Denmark): Aarhus-Universitetsforlag [Aarhus University Press] • As an option, you may translate all publisher names not in English. Place all translated publisher names in square brackets unless the translation is given in the publication. Designate the agency that issued the database/retrieval system as the publisher; include distributor information as a note, if desired. For those publications with joint or co-publishers, use the name given frst as the publisher and include the name(s) of the other(s) as a note if desired. Database/retrieval system on the Internet with publisher having subsidiary division 24. Database/retrieval system on the Internet with government agency or other national body as publisher 25. Database/retrieval system on the Internet with joint publication Databases/Retrieval Systems on the Internet 1665 Date of Publication for Databases/Retrieval Systems on the Internet (required) General Rules for Date of Publication • Always give the year • Convert roman numerals to arabic numbers. When databases/retrieval systems on the Internet do not display a traditional title page that clearly states the dates of coverage, i. Databases/Retrieval Systems on the Internet 1667 Box 47 continued from previous page. A copyright date is identifed by the symbol ©, the letter "c", or the word copyright preceding the date. Databases/Retrieval Systems on the Internet 1669 Box 51 continued from previous page. Tis convention alerts a user that the information is older than the date of publication implies.
The surface of the esophagus is com- Preliminary studies using a midline ingluviotomy to prised of longitudinal folds that vary depending upon enter the thoracic esophagus using the Storz 2 effective 80mg super levitra erectile dysfunction doctor in bhopal. For rigid endoscope and instrumented sheath have been example cheap super levitra 80 mg with amex erectile dysfunction treatment exercise, the number and size of folds and the degree performed proven 80 mg super levitra erectile dysfunction protocol ebook free download. Care was taken to avoid the passage of proventricu- lar contents into the trachea or choana by inserting It is a common misconception that all birds have an an absorptive gauze tampon into the cranial cervical ingluvies super levitra 80 mg erectile dysfunction pills otc. Galliformes, Psittaciformes, Columbifor- esophagus and ensuring that the endotracheal tube mes and some Passeriformes have a true crop. Whenever possible, patients were fasted ingluvies can be examined with either a flexible or for five to six hours in order to empty the proventricu- rigid endoscope after passing the instrument lus. In cases where fasting was not possible (eg, acute through the cervical portion of the esophagus. Insuf- foreign body ingestion), the proventriculus was flating the crop with air will help with visualization. A small skin insufflation channel on a 4 mm or greater diameter incision was made over the middorsal portion of the flexible endoscope, or the instrument channel on the crop. The entrance to the Storz rigid avian sheatha can be used to distend the thoracic esophagus was located on the ventral ingluvies with air. Some pressure will need to be midline border of the crop, and the telescope and maintained around the proximal cervical esophagus sheath were introduced. Patients undergoing elective ingluvioscopy should be fasted The sheath and endoscope were inserted into the for several hours before the procedure to reduce the thoracic esophagus. A 3-5 Fr rubber catheter con- effects of retained food materials upon visualization. The space is palpated just ventral to the Fr) can be inserted into the channel to manipulate scapula and a small skin incision is made. The crop incision was costal muscles are bluntly separated to the level of closed using standard techniques. Care must be taken during dissection through the intercostal muscle to avoid deep penetra- Ventral Hepatic Peritoneal Cavities tion, which can traumatize the surface of the lung. The liver of the bird is encapsulated within two The resulting hemorrhage may make visualization paired peritoneal cavities: the ventral and dorsal difficult and lead to sample artifact. The between the ribs so that the surface of the lung can right lobe of the liver is larger in most birds (Colors be visualized. A 5 Fr flexible forceps is advanced into the lung paren- To gain access to the liver, one or both of these ventral chyma, the jaws closed rapidly and removed. The liver can be visualized opsy hemorrhage may vary from mild to moderate from the cranial and caudal thoracic air sacs (Colors but is usually controlled by pressure. The ventral approach16 is best for collection of quality pulmonary biopsies with less risk of trauma to the patient. A skin incision is made on the midline just caudal to the forceps can be manipulated unaided through a simi- border of the sternum. Intestinal Peritoneal Cavity Under conditions of health, the liver should not pro- trude past the caudal border of the sternum. It is somewhat subdivided by a lateral approach has been used for a general diag- the several mesenteries formed by reflections of the nostic examination and liver lesions have been noted. This approach is contraindicated in sac even though they are covered by the air sac wall patients with ascites because fluid will drain into the and the confluent peritoneum (Color 13. The thin but substantial air third or fourth intercostal space where pulmonary sac/peritoneal wall can be seen clearly covering the tissue is the thickest in cross section. The dorsal mesentery, the dorsal extension of endoscopic examination and offers a far parietal peritoneum and the peritoneum covering the less traumatic method for obtaining diagnostic speci- left abdominal air sac fuse to form a serous pocket mens. Under routine en- respiratory disease, polyuria and polydipsia (see Ta- doscopic examination from a lateral approach only ble 13. The endoscopist should be prepared to the lateral wall of the abdominal air sac is pene- collect biopsies during routine examinations. Thus, the ovarian pocket would obvious lesions are easily collected from the border not be disrupted. Tissues will Cloaca frequently appear grossly normal even though there are significant histologic lesions present. Flushing the proc- Sampling the end stage liver is seldom illuminating todeum with saline and then insufflating the struc- beyond confirming a poor prognosis that should be ture while closing the vent lips around the telescope 18 otherwise clinically evident. Uroliths, papillomatous in- cases of hepatic disease demonstrate few clinical flammation and true prolapse have been documented signs. Bacterial and fungal cloacitis may procedures, particularly the measurement of bile ac- also occur. Bile acids deter- Endoscopic examination of the distal oviduct (uterus) mination is a sensitive and specific indicator of liver is possible in reproductively active birds and may be damage (see Chapters 11, 20). Histologic changes are a useful procedure for the sampling and diagnosis of seen in the livers of patients with persistent in- oviductal disease. A liver biopsy is recom- mended in cases where the bile acids measurement remains elevated following the completion of therapy for a systemic disease (eg, chlamydiosis) or where continued elevation of two weeks or more is confirmed. Biopsy Techniques Renal disease can also be challenging to recognize and diagnose in its early stages (Color 13. Elevations in uric acid levels may not occur until a Patient Considerations relatively large number of renal tubules have been Indications damaged. Kidney bi- opsy is recommended when uric acid levels are con- Open (surgical) and percutaneous techniques for bi- sistently above reference values or show evidence of opsy of the liver have been described in avian medi- cine. In focal disease (eg, granulomas, neoplasia), the lesion should be specifically targeted taking care not to open the jaws of the forceps too wide when pushing into the liver. In some smaller birds, the 5 Fr round potential space would need to be insufflated. The Storz system may be used to enter the intercostal space and visualize the lung, or a rigid forceps may be guided by the surgeon unaided. The spleen is located on the right side of the proventriculus near the junction with the ventriculus. Ventriculus The greater curvature of the ventriculus, particularly the A 7 or 9 Fr elliptical forceps is recommended. A minimum of two specimens clinical examination, radiographic studies or auscul- is obtained from the caudoventral surface of the ven- tation reveal persistent, nonresponsive respiratory triculus. Dyspnea upon exertion is common in parrots sen in an attempt to harvest nervous tissue. The with chronic respiratory disease but is not diagnostic thick ventricular muscularis prevents perforation of because other thoracoabdominal pathology (eg, hepa- the viscus. These sites heal well, as only a portion of tomegaly, abdominal tumors) may also generate this the serosa and outer muscularis is required. Biopsy of lacking, in cases of unexplained splenomegaly and in the proventriculus is contraindicated due to its thin granulomatous inflammation of the spleen. Local and systemic infec- 7046 Lyndon Avenue tions may cause testicular lesions, although these Rosemont, Illinois 60018 have been poorly documented. The blood film should be examined for the presence of adequate designed for otolaryngology can be guided along thei thrombocyte numbers. Biopsies of the liver, kidney, spleen, air sacs, lung and testes can A biopsy cup shape and diameter appropriate to the be obtained under direct observation. Forceps too large for the purpose may cause a relatively large, elliptical sample.
Body mass index and delayed conception: a European multicentre study on infertility and subfecundity buy super levitra 80 mg with mastercard erectile dysfunction drugs grapefruit. The impact of cigarette smoking on zona pellucida thickness of oocytes and embryos prior to transfer into the uterine cavity generic super levitra 80mg online erectile dysfunction protocol free. Effect of cigarette smoking upon reproductive hormones in women of reproductive age: a retrospective analysis purchase super levitra 80 mg without prescription 5 htp impotence. Caffeine intake and delayed conception: a European multicenter study on infertility and subfecundity super levitra 80 mg free shipping erectile dysfunction pills generic. The impact of lifestyle factors on reproductive performance in the general population and those undergoing infertility treatment: a review. Early follicular phase hormone levels in relation to patterns of alcohol, tobacco, and coffee use. Alcohol and caffeine consumption and decreased fertility Fertility and Sterility 1998 Oct; 70(4): 632–637. The effects of moderate alcohol consumption on female hormone levels and reproductive function Alcohol and Alcoholism 2000 Sep–Oct; 35(5): 417–423. Moderate maternal and paternal alcohol consumption and the risk of spontaneous abortion. The preconception Mediterranean dietary pattern in couples undergoing in vitro fertilization/intracytoplasmic sperm injection treatment increases the chance of pregnancy. Role of micronutrients in the periconceptional period Human Reproduction Update 2010 Jan– Feb; 16(1): 80–95. L-carnitine supplementation reduces oocyte cytoskeleton damage and embryo apoptosis induced by incubation in peritoneal ﬂuid from patients with endometriosis. Adjuvant L-arginine treatment for in-vitro fertilization in poor responder patients. Modiﬁed classiﬁcation of Gram-stained vaginal smears to predict spontaneous preterm birth: a prospective cohort study. Are oestrogens involved in falling sperm counts and disorders of the male reproduction tract? Effect of cell phone usage on semen analysis in men attending infertility clinic: an observational study. Effect of cigarette smoking on levels of seminal oxidative stress in infertile men: a prospective study. Alcohol intake and cigarette smoking: impact of two major lifestyle factors on male fertility Indian Journal of Pathology and Microbiology 2010 Jan–Mar; 53(1): 35–40. Interplay between endocannabinoids, steroids and cytokines in the control of human reproduction. Phospholipid composition of human sperm and seminal plasma in relation to sperm fertility. Relationship of omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids with semen characteristics, and anti-oxidant status of seminal plasma: a comparison between fertile and infertile men. Role of antioxidants in treatment of male infertility: an overview of the literature. Reactive oxygen species in semen of infertile patients: levels of superoxide dismutase- and catalase-like activities in seminal plasma and spermatozoa. Relationship between oxidative stress, semen characteristics, and clinical diagnosis in men undergoing infertility investigation. Ascorbic acid in human seminal plasma: determination and its relationship to sperm quality Journal of Clinical Biochemistry and Nutrition 2009 Sep; 45(2): 144–149. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 1991; 88: 11003–11006. Analysis of the relationship between defective sperm function and the generation of reactive oxygen species in cases of oligozoospermia. The effect of antioxidant treatment on human spermatozoa and fertilization rate in an in vitro fertilization program. Factors contributing to gender differences in serum retinol and alpha-tocopherol in infertile couples. Spermatogenesis and blood-testis barrier in rats after long-term vitamin A deprivation. Zinc levels in seminal plasma are associated with sperm quality in fertile and infertile men. Zinc deﬁciency in men with Crohn’s disease may contribute to poor sperm function and male infertility. Comparison of zinc concentration in blood and seminal plasma and various sperm parameters between fertile and infertile men. Effect of zinc administration on plasma testosterone, dihydrotestosterone and sperm count. Effects of folic acid and zinc sulfate on male factor subfertility: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology 2007; 47: 216–221. Selenium-vitamin E supplementation in infertile men: effects on semen parameters and micronutrient levels and distribution. Efﬁcacy of selenium and/or N-acetyl-cysteine for improving semen parameters in infertile men: a double-blind, placebo controlled, randomized study. Chemoprotective effect of lipoic acid against cyclophosphamide- induced changes in the rat sperm. Antioxidant treatment with carnitines is effective in infertile patients with prostatovesiculoepididymitis and elevated seminal leukocyte concentrations after treatment with nonsteroidal anti- inflammatory compounds. A placebo-controlled double-blind randomized trial of the use of combined L-carnitine and L-acetyl-carnitine treatment in men with asthenozoospermia. Use of carnitine therapy in selected cases of male factor infertility: a double-blind crossover trial. Placebo-controlled, double-blind, randomized trial on the use of L-carnitine, L- acetylcarnitine, or combined L-carnitine and L-acetylcarnitine in men with idiopathic asthenozoospermia. Coenzyme Q(10) supplementation in infertile men with idiopathic asthenozoospermia: an open, uncontrolled pilot study. Coenzyme Q10 treatment in infertile men with idiopathic asthenozoospermia: a placebo-controlled, double-blind randomized trial. Improvement of seminal parameters with Prelox: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over trial. Improvement in sperm quality and function with French maritime pine tree bark extract. Ginsenoside R(e) increases fertile and asthenozoospermic infertile human sperm motility by induction of nitric oxide synthase. Ginsenoside Re promotes human sperm capacitation through nitric oxide-dependent pathway. Reactivation of the secretion from the prostatic gland in cases of reduced fertility: biological study of seminal fluid modifications. The hormonal effects of Tribulus terrestris and its role in the management of male erectile dysfunction—an evaluation using primates, rabbit and rat. The aphrodisiac herb Tribulus terrestris does not inﬂuence the androgen production in young men. Phytochemicals and the breakthrough of traditional herbs in the management of sexual dysfunctions. Effect of Mucuna pruriens on semen proﬁle and biochemical parameters in seminal plasma of infertile men. Mucuna pruriens improves male fertility by its action on the hypothalamus-pituitary- gonadal axis. Withania somnifera improves semen quality by regulating reproductive hormone levels and oxidative stress in seminal plasma of infertile males.
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