By A. Hengley. Northern Illinois University.
So it makes sense that many patients confuse pollen allergies with a cold 10mg nolvadex for sale zoloft menstrual cycle. Grass pollen is most prevalent in June and July purchase 20 mg nolvadex free shipping breast cancer treatment, and weed pollen takes over in August and September trusted 20 mg nolvadex breast cancer donation. In April and May nolvadex 20 mg low cost menstruation puns, tree pollen is the most common type of pollen in the environment. As the different types of plants bloom, they cause allergic reaction in many people. About 50 percent of all people have some sort of allergy. There is a common theme in conversations between families and acquaintances this time of year. This is especially important during high-pollen seasons. Mold is common where water tends to collect, such as shower curtains and damp basements. Pollen comes from flowering trees, grass, and weeds. If you have severe mold-spore allergies, replace carpets covering concrete with a hard flooring surface. • Use zippered, allergen-proof coverings for mattresses, pillows and box springs, all favorite hideaways of dust mites. • Shower soon after coming in from outdoors to wash off pollen that sticks to skin, hair and clothing. • Keep your lawn cut short because high grass produces more pollen. • Schedule outdoor activities in the afternoon when the air has less pollen. Allergy shots or immunotherapy are diluted allergens injected into the arm that act like an immunization and help to build up tolerance to the allergen. Pollutants also increase the likelihood of allergy symptoms. You can be allergic to just one allergen, like pollen, or a number of them. An allergy is an abnormal reaction to normal stuff,” said allergist Dr. Eli Meltzer, co-director of Allergy and Asthma Medical Group and Research Center in San Diego. Anyone can get an allergy at any time in life. And, when the Santa Ana winds blow, we get ever more pollen in the air.” Our wet winter has left us with abundant pollen-producing vegetation along with a bumper crop of mold spores. But your runny nose and watery eyes already told you that. But in others, rain can have the opposite effect, especially in the fall and winter seasons. The Effects of Pollen After Rain. Many men and women who have frequent headaches feel the effects of the weather more prominently than other people. This is why you can still get hay fever in built-up areas with few plants around. Pollen grains are very light, which means they travel through large distances. In the countryside, air cools more quickly and the pollen shower may occur during the evening. Grass releases its pollen from around 7.30am (later on a damp day), while birch trees release their pollen in the afternoon. On a warm day when there is more pollen around anyway, warm air rises up from ground level, taking pollen with it. When the air cools, once the sun goes down, the pollen drifts back to the ground. Pollen levels tend not to drop until after three 100-degree days in a row, a weather event that generally does not occur until after Memorial Day. For those hoping to ride out the allergy season, be patient. Many patients benefit from regular allergy shots that remedy symptoms, or oral immunotherapy tablets that can be placed under the tongue to combat the causal allergy. People with more severe symptoms — the kind that significantly disrupt daily routines — should see a doctor and get tested to identify their specific triggers. Take a shower every night and wash your hair and skin, so you are not sleeping in the very substances that aggravate your symptoms. There are non-medical steps you can take to lessen the effect of rain allergies, says Garcia-Lloret, citing tips from the National Institutes of Health : Now that lush landscapes abound and spring is upon us, what does this mean for allergy sufferers? According to the CDC , people with a weakened immune system, such as those receiving treatment for cancer, anyone who has had an organ or stem cell transplant, and people taking medicines that suppress the immune system, should avoid cleaning up mold. The best thing you can do to avoid mold-related issues is to keep it from growing in your home in the first place by reducing indoor humidity and moisture and to identify and repair water leaks from indoor sources or the walls, roof or windows, says Kemperman. In some cases, blood tests may be needed if there is a strong suspicion you have a mold allergy but the skin tests are normal. There are hundreds of types of mold that do not cause any symptoms at all, and not all mold is bad,” she says. Most people automatically assume mold exposure, especially black mold exposure, causes poor health. At the tail end of a long rainy season, the Pacific Northwest is rewarded with cherry blossoms, camellias and magnolias in bloom. Besides medical therapies, there are non-medical steps you can take to lessen the effect of rain on your allergies, Dr. Carr said. Are your allergies worse in or after a rainstorm? Allergic rhinitis and asthma attacks are frequently caused by ragweed, cocklebur, and pigweed, Lambs Quarter, Dock, Marsh Elder, Mugwort, Plantain, Sorrel, Nettle and Goldenrod. During the late summer and early fall, weed pollens do most of their damage to pollen allergy sufferers. Of the 1,200 species of grass that grow in North America, only a small percentage of these cause allergies. Dry laundry in dryer during pollen season. Reduce outdoor activity when pollen counts are high. Your doctor or nurse can tell you the time of the year to expect the individual pollens to be present. Many who move acquire new airborne allergies within 1-2 years of moving. You cannot change what is happening outdoors, but you can have some control over your indoors environment, so keep windows closed and if possible use air conditioning to filter out pollen and mould. Check your local pollen forecast and plan to spend less time outdoors when the count will be high.
This ingredient is often used to help clarify white wines buy generic nolvadex 10 mg on-line breast cancer fundraiser ideas. Allergic reactions to isinglass often lead to cramps discount nolvadex 20 mg amex womens health today portland, diarrhea cheap 20 mg nolvadex free shipping menstrual tissue, flushing of the skin 20 mg nolvadex with mastercard menstrual suppression, wheezing and inflammation. It is especially important to know the ingredients of your wine if you have a known shellfish allergy. Extreme allergic reactions often result in anaphylaxis, which results in a rapid pulse, constricted airways and even shock. Corn, another common cause of migraines, is sometimes added to beer to increase its alcohol content. Yeast , a fungus, ferments the sugars in beer and wine, turning them into alcohol and carbon dioxide. Yeast, Pesticides, and More Hidden Ingredients in Beer and Wine. Some, but not all, unfined wines either state unfined” or list ingredients on the label. A 2006 Nutrition study concluded that wines fined with casein, egg whites or isinglass neither activated the immune system nor induced anaphylaxis in sensitive subjects. People with egg allergies might react with asthma, hives and even anaphylactic shock. Isinglass, a substance made from the swim bladders of sturgeon fish, is also used as a fining agent in both beers and wines. In fact, if you have seasonal allergies, the histamines in alcohol might make them worse. Insufficient quantity of this enzyme causes people to experience strong headaches, a runny nose or flushing—symptoms similar to a seasonal allergy. Histamines, which come from grape skins, are strongly indicted in red wine headaches. Both naturally-occurring and artificial sulfites essentially dissipate over time, says Fred Freitag, D., of the Diamond Headache Clinic in Chicago. No big deal, according to Mimi Gatens, director of sustainability at Benziger Winery The levels of sulfites found in a bottle of wine are less than those found in a bottle of prescription medication,” she says. Both PMB and SMB are known to trigger reactions in sensitive people, ranging from runny nose to anaphylaxis. According to the FDA, roughly 1 percent of people in the United States are sulfite-sensitive, almost all of them asthmatic. After several studies found that inhaling and ingesting sulfites could be deadly to asthmatics, the FDA began a regulation campaign that successfully curbed annual sulfite deaths to the single digits. What is it about these additives that alcohol producers consider essential enough to risk the well-being of millions of American food allergy sufferers? My throat closes up and my face puffs up when I drink wine or beer,” she says. What is your view on sulfites in wine? Read more: This Is Why Some People Get Headaches from Red Wine. So Why Do I Get a Headache When I Drink Red Wine? Domaine des Deux Ânes, in the Languedoc, is another organic wine producer using very little sulfites. Why Sulfites Are Often Necessary in Wine. So even if you do not add any additional SO2, your wine will still contain sulfites. Fact: Dried fruits have about 10 times more sulfites than wine. Another surprising fact is that wine contains about ten times less sulfites than most dried fruits, which can have levels up to 1000 ppm. Myth #3: Wine Should Be Avoided Because It Contains Sulfites. They contain tannin, which is a stabilizing agent, and almost all red wines go through malolactic fermentation. In the EU the maximum levels of sulfur dioxide that a wine can contain are 210 ppm for white wine, 400 ppm for sweet wines — and 160 ppm for red wine. There are many other compounds in wine such as histamines and tannins that are more likely connected to the headache effect (not to mention alcohol!). Myth #1: Sulfites in Wine Cause Headaches. 4 Myths About Sulfites in Wine. The amount of sulfites that a wine can contain is highly regulated around the world. How Much Sulfites Are in Wine? And if you do have a sulfite allergy (which can develop over the course of your life) it is more likely to reveal itself through something other than wine. Consumption of sulfites is generally harmless, unless you suffer from severe asthma or do not have the particular enzymes necessary to break down sulfites in your body. The Facts About Sulfites in Wine. "Contains Sulfites." These are words you see on almost every bottle of wine. ^ Kaufman and D. Starr, Prevention of the Red Wine Headache (RWH); A Blind Controlled Study. "No correlation between wine intolerance and histamine content of wine". This also means that the so called "Natural" wine can also contain sulfites. This includes added and natural sulfites, like sulfites that come from the soil, or those produced by yeasts during alcoholic fermentation. Some wines may be exempt from including a sulfite warning. Other irritants are spices used in cooking, alcoholic beverages (particularly beer and wine), aspirin, and certain blood pressure medications. If you suffer from this allergy, you may also have a similar reaction to certain products which contain sulphites, like dried fruits, cider and pickled food. What are the symptoms of a wine allergy? For anyone who has ever misbehaved after a few glasses of wine, blaming an allergy to alcohol may seem the perfect way to wriggle out of any post-booze apologies the morning after. Most treatments meant for allergies will be effective for non-allergic rhinitis as well. These allergens, although factually harmless, lead prone immune systems to overreact, producing a glut of histamines that can cause irritation in localized areas, or in extreme causes lead to full-body reactions and life-threatening airway closures. Your immune system also releases histamines during an allergic reaction. Combining alcohol with certain medications also can cause reactions. The only way to prevent these uncomfortable reactions is to avoid alcohol.
Platelet granule secretion continuously prevents intratumor hemorrhage discount nolvadex 10mg mastercard womens health boutique oklahoma city, Cancer Res Vol purchase nolvadex 10 mg without a prescription menstruation low blood sugar. Iannacone purchase 10 mg nolvadex free shipping breast cancer 0 stage, Sitia cheap 10mg nolvadex otc breast cancer vaccine, Isogawa, Marchese, Castro, Lowenstein, Chisari, Ruggeri, & Guidotti (2005). 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Reciprocal coupling of coagulation and innate immunity via neutrophil serine proteases, Nat Med Vol. Platelets: inflammatory firebugs of vascular walls, Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol Vol. Haemostasis, blood platelets and coagulation, Anaesthesia & Intensive Care Medicine Vol. The non-classical functions of the classical complement pathway recognition subcomponent C1q, Immunol Lett Vol. Complement activation on platelets: implications for vascular inflammation and thrombosis, Mol Immunol Vol. Platelet P-selectin is required for pulmonary eosinophil and lymphocyte recruitment in a murine model of allergic inflammation, Blood Vol. The involvement of circulating microparticles in inflammation, coagulation and cardiovascular diseases, Can J Cardiol Vol. Complement: a key system for immune surveillance and homeostasis, Nat Immunol Vol. The Platelet as an Immunomodulator: The Old Thespian with New Roles in Atherosclerosis, Sepsis and Autoimmune Disease 119 Rivera, Lozano, Navarro-Nunez, & Vicente (2009). 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Factor H dysfunction in patients with atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome contributes to complement deposition on platelets and their activation, Blood Vol. Thrombotic microangiopathy in anti-glomerular basement membrane glomerulonephritis, Arch Pathol Lab Med Vol. Role of complement in lethal bacterial lipopolysaccharide- induced hypotensive and coagulative changes, Infect Immun Vol. Evidence that platelet alpha-granules are a major determinant of platelet density: studies in storage pool deficiency, Thromb Haemost Vol. Washington, Gibot, Acevedo, Gattis, Quigley, Feltz, De La Mota, Schubert, Gomez- Rodriguez, Cheng, Dutra, Pak, Chertov, Rivera, M orales, Lubkowski, Hunter, Schwartzberg, & McVicar (2009). Inflammation, Chronic Diseases and Cancer – 120 Cell and Molecular Biology, Immunology and Clinical Bases Washington, Schubert, Quigley, Disipio, Feltz, Cho, & McVicar (2004). Calpain functions in a caspase-independent manner to promote apoptosis-like events during platelet activation, Blood Vol. Yamaguchi, Yu, Kumamoto, Sugawara, Kawamura, Takada, Yokochi, Sugawara, & Endo (2006). Involvement of Kupffer cells in lipopolysaccharide-induced rapid accumulation of platelets in the liver and the ensuing anaphylaxis-like shock in mice, Biochim Biophys Acta Vol. Classical pathway complement activation on human endothelial cells, Mol Immunol Vol. Complete reversal of acid-induced acute lung injury by blocking of platelet-neutrophil aggregation, J Clin Invest Vol. Introduction The mammalian immune system has the ability to distinguish self from non-self-antigens, a phenomenon which begins in the thymus during T cell development. Because of this mechanism, T cells in the periphery are primarily specific for non-self-antigens. However, this process is somewhat inefficient, because some self-reactive cells escape deletion therefore additional mechanisms are required to maintain peripheral immune tolerance. Regulatory T cells (Tregs) are a distinct subset of T cells that are critical for maintaining both immune homeostasis and peripheral immune tolerance. Tregs are typically identified by expression of the forkhead box 3 (FoxP3) transcription factor. Interestingly, Th3 cells suppress the activation of both Th1 and Th2 cell clones while other subsets primarily inhibit Th1 cells and have no effect on Th2 cells (Beissert S, 2006). The ability of viruses to induce proliferation and activation of regulatory T cells likely contributes to delayed clearance and persistence in the host. The best characterized are Th1 and Th2 subsets that have been associated with cell-mediated (Th1) and humoral (Th2) immunity (reviewed in (Sakaguchi S, 2010). In addition to T cells, B cells, and plasma cells are vital in development of humoral immunity. The role of plasma cells in antibody development is beyond the scope of this discussion. Recently, additional subsets have been described, including Th9, Th17, Th22, T-follicular helper cells (Tfh), and regulatory T cells. The effector cells secrete large amounts of cytokines, chemokines, and other proteins that can produce cytotoxicity to host tissues, or induce autoimmunity. Until recently, control of Treg function was believed to have primarily been through cytokine signaling. Regulatory T cells can be divided into two groups – natural Tregs develop in the thymus, while inducible Tregs are generated in the periphery from conventional T cells in response to different stimuli. The natural Tregs are the best characterized of the two groups and make up approximately 5-10% of circulating T lymphocytes in mice and humans (Gückel E, 2011). Regulatory T cells are primarily characterized by the expression of the transcription factor FoxP3. FoxP3 maintains Regulatory T Cells and Viral Disease 123 Treg gene expression induced by other transcription factors rather than actually driving Treg development. Humans express two isoforms of FoxP3 (A and B), either of which has regulatory function. In humans, FoxP3 expression on Tregs is transient, and downregulation of FoxP3 expression decreases the ability of these cells to suppress. Both natural and induced Treg cells have unique surface markers that differentiate them from conventional T cells. Natural regulatory T cells develop in the thymus through interactions between the high-affinity T cell receptor and cognate antigens on thymic epithelial cells.
Speciﬁc headache triggers are seldom identiﬁed except for stress buy generic nolvadex 10mg pregnancy after 40, lack or excess of sleep purchase nolvadex 20mg otc contemporary women's health issues for today and the future 4th edition, Introduction and missed meals purchase 20mg nolvadex with mastercard women's health clinic foothills hospital calgary. Some migraines are bilateral and nonthrobbing and some tension-type headaches will develop migraine-like symptoms if the headache becomes intense or prolonged cheap nolvadex 10 mg line womens health nurse practitioner salary. Avoiding caffeine may decrease relaxants (such as benzodiazepines) and migraine- headache frequency, although caffeine-withdrawal speciﬁc drugs are seldom effective. They should expect Nonpharmacologic treatments are often effec- recurring headaches that continue for years and tive and include hot and cold packs to the head or the need to develop their own patterns of coping neck and hot baths or showers. If the headache becomes severe, treatment is Migraine Headache often difﬁcult as simple analgesics are seldom effective. Stronger analgesics and medications Introduction aimed at inducing sleep are often needed. If headaches become frequent (>15 d/mo), pro- Migraine headache is a common and often-debili- phylactic treatment is indicated. The syndrome is regular aerobic physical exercise (walking, jogging, characterized by recurrent attacks of headache that or swimming for 20 to 30 min 5 times per week), vary widely in intensity, duration, and frequency. It neck-stretching exercises, and pharmacologic pro- is associated with varying amounts of nausea, phylaxis. About 28 million and nortriptyline) in low doses taken daily are Americans suffer from migraine, with a prevalence widely used and often successful in reducing fre- rate of 18% for adult women and 6% for adult quency and intensity of the headache. Migraine usually begins during adolescence headache frequency reduces (usually over weeks to or young adulthood. After the age of 50 years, several months), the drugs are then slowly discon- migraines begin to subside spontaneously. A few patients take analgesics in high doses sionally children from ages 5 to 10 years also may many times daily to control the pain. There is a dominant genetic viduals are prone to developing a rebound predisposition to migraines, but speciﬁc genes headache when they do not take the analgesic. The etiology of migraine is unknown and the Occasionally patients have a prodrome and are pathophysiology is incompletely understood. Early aware a migraine attack is coming hours before the theories focused on intracranial blood vessels that headache begins. These vague symptoms are often were thought to vasoconstrict during the migraine described as irritability, mood changes, ﬂuid reten- aura and dilate during the headache. More-recent theories have focused on the roles The aura of most patients is visual, but a few of the trigeminal nerve, meningeal blood vessels, patients have sensory, motor, or aphasic auras. These hypothe- visual aura usually begins as a vague diminishing ses are labeled the “trigeminovascular theory. These are released when expand and move into the periphery of one visual the trigeminal nerve is stimulated. The trigger for trigeminal causes of visual disturbance disappear with closure nerve stimulation is unknown, but release of these of the eyes. The time from headache onset to trigeminal nerve travel to the brainstem and are severe headache is usually less than 1 hour. About thought to activate autonomic responses such as 1/4 of patients will describe their severe headache nausea and vomiting. Nausea and vomiting eling to the reticular activating system and cortex are common and may occur early in the headache are thought to activate the pain responses. Patients commonly note photophobia The aura of a migraine is felt to represent a (increased pain from bright light) or phonophobia direct cortical event. During the occurs mainly in the occipital cortex, with neuro- headache phase, many ﬁnd concentration and transmitter release to adjacent neurons producing higher cortical functioning difﬁcult, even if the a wave of depolarization spreading at 2 to 3 pain is controlled with medication. The lasts 4 to 24 hours, with occasional headaches last- term spreading depression refers to this phenome- ing up to 3 days. Major Clinical Features Migraine attacks usually occur 1 to 2 times per Major Laboratory Findings month. How- ever, triggers noted by patients include consump- The diagnosis of migraine in an adult patient is usu- tion of alcohol, excessive salt intake, menstrual ally based on a typical history and a normal neuro- periods, use of birth control pills or conjugated logic exam. There is no diagnostic test for the estrogen tablets, sleep irregularities, certain foods, disease. Side The migraine of patients who experience auras is effects, mainly nausea and vomiting, are common. These drugs work best if given early in the Patients without auras are classiﬁed as migraine headache phase or during the aura. Patients who patients, vomiting, nausea, and gastroparesis may develop prolonged auras or headaches with neuro- prevent systemic absorption of oral medications, logic signs that persist are classiﬁed as migraine with making oral treatment ineffective. Occasional In 1990, treatment of headache pain dramati- patients will experience a visual aura without the cally improved with the introduction of triptan headache (migraine equivalent). Triptans may also inhibit transmission through sec- In many patients, migraine responds well to ond-order neurons of the trigeminocervical com- simple treatment at the time of an attack. Triptan medication can be given at any time such as aspirin, acetaminophen, ibuprofen, or during the headache. Subcutaneous formulations naproxen should be taken as soon as the headache deliver pain relief within 1 to 2 hours in about 3/4 component of the attack is recognized. A variety of of patients while oral tablets deliver pain relief in 2 other drugs are aimed at inducing sleep, a potent to 4 hours in slightly fewer patients. Migraine— avoiding alcohol, caffeine, and other known trig- current understanding and treatment. Clinical evaluation of a patient present- placebo-controlled trials: amitriptyline, dival- ing with headache. Changes in gravity are detected by the bending of hair cells in the Dizziness and vertigo are especially common in the macula of the utricle and saccule when there is elderly, but symptoms occur at any age. Dizziness, a movement of otoconia (tiny calcium carbonate nonspeciﬁc term, implies a sense of disturbed rela- crystals embedded in a gelatinous matrix). Patients fre- Impulses sent via the vestibular nerve to vestibular quently use such words as imbalance, off-balance, nuclei are processed and then transmitted to ante- swaying, ﬂoating, light-headed, impending faint, rior horn cells of antigravity muscles to maintain giddiness, fuzzyheaded, reeling, and anxiety. Changes in posture usually tigo is an illusion of rotation or body movement occur without an individual’s awareness. Table 21-1 lists the major causes steady eye position in space during head move- of dizziness and vertigo. Angular acceleration is detected by one or causes are often present (multifactorial). The signals are inte- integration of sensory signals gives rise to dizziness grated, resulting in appropriate signals transmitted and vertigo. The vestibular system The visual system locates the horizon and divides into 2 major components. Vestibulotoxic drugs that cause permanent vestibular hair cell damage Aminoglycoside antibiotics (gentamycin and kanamycin) Cancer chemotherapeutics (cisplatin and chlorambucil) Central nervous system drugs Sedatives (benzodiazepines and sleeping pills) Psychoactive (phenothiazines, lithium, and tricyclics) Anticonvulsants (phenytoin and carbamazepine) Circulatory drugs Antihypertensives (prazosin, ganglionic blockers, and β-blockers) Vasodilators (isosorbide and nitroglycerin) Antiarrhythmics (mexiletine, flecainide, and amiodarone) Loop diuretics (furosemide and ethacrinic acid) Herbal medicines Dizziness is a side effect of many herbs *(%) refers to the approximate distribution of causes. The visual system is com- Balance prised of eyes, optic nerves, lateral geniculate Vestibular System nuclei, optic radiations, visual cortexes, and path- Detects changes in gravity and adjusts body posture ways from the lateral geniculate bodies and occip- Maintains eye steadiness during head movement ital cortex to vestibular nuclei. However, it is the Proprioceptive System major compensating system when other sensory Knowledge of position of feet systems are impaired. As such, patients commonly Detection of leg and foot movement (sway) have good balance during the day but feel off bal- ance and dizzy and fall at night when they have Visual System diminished vision. Detection of head movement from horizon The proprioceptive system delivers knowledge Feedback (“retinal slip”) information on integrity of of foot position, detecting and compensating for vestibuloocular reflex leg and foot movement (sway). Joint position sen- Vestibular Nuclei in Brainstem and sors located in the feet transmit changes in foot Cerebellum position via small myelinated peripheral nerves to Integrates signals from vestibular, visual, and the spinal cord. Information then rises to the proprioceptive systems, sending information to vestibular nuclei via the posterior columns. Nerve the semicircular canals, eye muscles, and impulses sent from joint position sensors in the cerebral cortex to make appropriate changes feet are important for maintaining balance while in posture and eye movements. Middle Ear Ossicles Anvil Hammer Stirrup Vestibular Nerve (Stapes) Acoustic Nerve Auditory (Cochlear) Nerve Cochlea Eustachian Tube Tympanic Membrane (Eardrum) External Acoustic Meatus Auditory Canal Oval (Vestibular) Round (Cochlear) Window Window Figure 21-1 Anatomy of the inner ear.
These nodules develop at sites of trauma to the bony surfaces in patients who have active disease 20mg nolvadex amex menstruation and fatigue. Chest Radiography Chest radiography findings vary according to the clinical presentation nolvadex 10mg on line menopause 100 years ago. Cardiomegaly and increased broncho-vascular markings reflecting pulmonary venous congestion may be noted generic 20 mg nolvadex with mastercard breast cancer hoodies. Occasionally generic nolvadex 10mg with visa womens health 042013, intermittent 2:1 atrioventricular block or rarely complete heart block may be seen. Echocardiography Transthoracic echocardiography is a valuable tool for assessing the degree of valve regurgitation and for follow-up of rheumatic valvular lesions. It is of great value in diagnosis and grading of pericardial effusion, and if needed, pericardiocentesis may be performed at the bedside under echocardiography guidance. Color Doppler is used to assess the extent of mitral regurgitation, which is initially the result of mitral valve leaflet disease. However, in moderate to severe mitral regurgitation, the left ventricle and atrium dilate over time resulting in mitral valve annulus dilation and worsening mitral regurgitation. Mitral stenosis is a late manifestation of rheumatic fever and not seen during the acute phase of illness. The aortic valve may be involved, and echocardiography would demonstrate thickening of aortic valve cusps with regurgitation. Unlike the mitral valve, aortic valve stenosis is not noted as a complication of rheumatic fever. Cardiac Catheterization Cardiac catheterization is seldom needed in the diagnosis of cases of rheumatic heart disease. Aspirin 100 mg/kg/day divided Q4 hours for 1 week, then reduce to 75 mg/kg/day for 4 weeks, then taper over 2 weeks. In significant carditis (significant valve pathology, congestive heart failure), use steroids (prednisone 2 mg/kg/day) instead of aspirin for 2 weeks, then taper steroids over 2 weeks. Treatment of Congestive Heart Failure: most cases of mild heart failure respond well to steroid therapy and bed rest. If the patient has moderate to severe congestive heart failure, digoxin Lasix and afterload reducing agents may be needed for treatment. Treatment of Sydenham Chorea: long-term antimicrobial prophylaxis and halo- peridol treatment. Length of prophylaxis may be one of the following: • Ten years after the last episode of rheumatic fever or to adulthood, whichever is longer. Case Scenarios Case 1 History: A 16-year-old female presented to her primary care physician with history of sore throat for the past few days. The patient initially described diffuse joint pain, but after careful questioning, she states that there was severe bilateral knee pain and she was unable to stand. A grade 2/6 systolic murmur at the left upper sternal border was detected by auscultation with no radiation. Management: Rheumatic fever was suspected; therefore, penicillin was prescribed to eradicate acute infection and was advised to start long-term prophylaxis for rheumatic fever. Evaluation by the pediatric cardiologist revealed similar findings through history and physical examination. Echocardiography revealed normal cardiac structure and function with no evidence of mitral or aortic valve disease. Discussion: History and physical examination in this patient do not support rheu- matic fever. Joint pain alone without evidence of inflam- mation, such as swelling, redness, tenderness, etc. The heart murmur noted in this patient is consistent with an innocent heart murmur rather than a pathological murmur. The pediatric cardiologist may have chosen not to obtain an echocardiogram; however, echocardiogram may be worthwhile in cases where clinical presentation is not clear or when the cardiologist desires to document normality to avoid mislabeling a healthy child with a chronic illness. It is important to appreciate that a normal echocardiogram does not rule out rheumatic fever without cardiac involvement. Case 2 History: A 16-year-old female was referred to the cardiology clinic by her primary care physician. Over the past few days, she has had joint pain and swelling and has felt progressively tired. She first noted joint pain, swelling, and redness in her right knee that resolved just as she began experiencing similar symptoms in the left knee. Cardiac examination revealed distant S1 and S2 with a 3/6 holosystolic murmur heard best over the apical region; in addition, a 1–2/4 diastolic murmur was heard over the apical region. Transthoracic echocardiography revealed dilated left ventricle with mildly decreased systolic function. The mitral valve leaflets were thickened with moderate to severe 27 Rheumatic Fever and Rheumatic Heart Disease 323 regurgitation. Diagnosis and Discussion: This patient manifested two major Jones criteria: pol- yarthritis and carditis, thus satisfying criteria for the diagnosis of rheumatic fever and rheumatic heart disease. The time lapse between sore throat and the onset of the symptoms is consistent with the diagnosis of rheumatic fever. The migratory nature of polyarthritis in this patient is consistent with rheumatic fever. Carditis in this patient involves a valve lesion (mitral regurgitation), myocardial affliction (poor myocardial function), and pericardial disease (pericardial effusion). This young lady should be admitted to the hospital for bed rest and monitoring and for the management of pancarditis. She should receive penicillin to eradicate the streptococcal infection and be started on anti-inflammatory therapy with aspirin to reduce arthritis and carditis. Anti-inflammatory therapy may also include steroids in this case due to the severity of carditis. Prophylaxis should continue for a minimum of 10 years or longer if there is evidence of permanent cardiac disease. Long-term therapy includes low dose (antiplatelet) aspirin and in some cases warfarin to prevent clot formation within dilated coronary arteries. The higher rate among people of Japanese ethnicity and within siblings and twins suggests both genetic and environmental factors in the pathophysiology of this disease. The epidemiologic features of the disease suggest an infectious agent(s), which is supported by temporal (winter and early spring) and spatial clustering of cases as well as sharing some clinical features with inflamma- tory diseases that have well established underlying infectious causes (e. More recent theories suggested a toxin-mediated syn- drome similar to toxic shock syndrome and the possible role of superantigens induced by certain viral or bacterial agents. Coronary artery involvement is common and leads to much of the morbidity and mortality; however, other arteries like axillary, femoral, iliac, and renal arteries can be involved as well. The acute inflammation of the coronary arteries can lead to thrombus formation and myocardial infarction. Moreover, the inflammatory changes can weaken the structure of the coronary vessels and lead to dilation and ultimately aneurysm formation. The fever is usually high and remittent and does not typically completely respond to antipyretics. It usually lasts 1–2 weeks with a mean duration of 12 days in untreated patients, but it may last up to 30 days. Desquamation around the fingers and toes (periungual desquamation) usually follows at a later stage in the second or third week of illness. Later (1–2 months after onset), deep transverse grooves in the nails (Beau’s lines) may be noted. However, the rash may be scarlatiniform, morbilliform, or urticarial; infants may have an evanescent rash involving the intertriginous areas particu- larly the perineum. Felten • Conjunctivitis: bilateral, nonpurulent conjunctivitis involving the bulbar conjunctivae and sparing the palpebral conjunctiva and the limbus area imme- diately around the cornea. Other ophthalmologic involvement like anterior uveitis, which occurs in up to 83% of cases, is usually asymptomatic.