By Q. Hauke. Philander Smith College.
Gently pat the skin dry with a soft cloth or towel rather than wiping it to prevent fragile skin from tearing buy 800mg viagra vigour fast delivery impotence nitric oxide. Aims of care: prevent dehydration generic 800mg viagra vigour with amex erectile dysfunction drugs muse, alleviate distress generic 800mg viagra vigour fast delivery erectile dysfunction in young, restore normal dietary habits discount 800 mg viagra vigour otc erectile dysfunction treatment pumps. The patient’s weight should be recorded daily and an accurate record of fluid intake and output should be maintained. If the patient is very weak or unconscious it may be necessary for the nurse to provide oral care using gauze soaked in mouthwash or fresh water, and using the index finger, gently cleanse the mouth, applying petroleum jelly to lips to prevent cracking. Possible interventions • Assessment of vital signs and body temperature should be recorded 4 hourly. Aims of care: Alleviate pain Possible Interventions • Assess the location, type, intensity and persistence of the pain. Aims of care: minimise the effects of neurological dysfunction, maintain a safe environment. Possible Interventions • Assess baseline mental status, including the patient’s ability to understand. Speak in a calm and relaxed manner, give one instruction at a time, and repeat information as necessary. Aims of care: keep the patient well nourished, prevent further weight loss, attain normal body weight Possible interventions • Assess previous dietary patterns including food likes and dislikes and any known allergies. Aims of care: establish a trusting/therapeutic relationship, improve motivation and self esteem, reduce the risk of self harm. Aims of care: establish a relationship in which the patient feels able to discuss their concerns, reduce/alleviate anxiety. Possible interventions • Set time aside to spend with the patient and encourage them to express their worry by asking open-ended questions. Weakness and fatigue Possible causes: Weakness and fatigue are common during acute and in chronic end-stage liver disease. Aims of care: to ensure personal hygiene needs are met, to ensure patient comfort, to ensure adequate rest is achieved, to promote self care when appropriate. Possible interventions • Assist the patient with washing or bathing according to their needs and wishes • Assist the patient with toileting as the patient requires • Assist the patient in achieving a comfortable position to promote rest and sleep, whilst preventing risk of pressure sore development • Promote self care and independence when appropriate, assessing and reviewing the patients needs continuously. Aims of care: Ensure adequate intake of nutritional needs Possible interventions • Patients with nausea and vomiting may require intravenous fluids of glucose and saline. This may be necessary due to the increased protein catabolism that occurs with acute liver disease and it can promote liver tissue repair. Jaundice Impaired liver function inhibits the body’s ability to excrete bile salts normally. Excess bile salts are excreted and deposited in the skin resulting in jaundice and generalized itching. Possible interventions • Administer antipruritics as prescribed (often not very effective). Possible complications due to cirrhosis Ascities Damage to liver cells can cause disturbance in the bodies excretory system, causing fluid to accumulate in the abdominal cavity. Possible interventions • Observe all patients with hepatitis B for possible accumulation of fluid in the abdomen. This may progress in terminal illness to incontinence of urine and faeces and coma. Possible Interventions • Observe the patient for early signs of altered mental functioning and report any changes promptly. Risk of haemorrhage The liver may be unable to metabolise Vitamin K, in order to produce prothrombin (clotting factor), therefore the patient is potentially at risk of haemorrhage. Aims of care: to minimize risk of hæmorrhage Possible interventions • Observe for symptoms of anxiety, epigastric fullness, restlessness and weakness, which may indicate bleeding. Recommendations for the Conduct, Reporting, Editing, and Publication of Scholarly Work in Medical Journals Updated December 2017 I. Roles and Responsibilities of Authors, Contributors, ical Journal Reviewers, Editors, Publishers, and Owners 1. Publishing and Editorial Issues Related to Publication porting of research and other material published in medical in Medical Journals journals, and to help authors, editors, and others involved A. Corrections, Retractions, Republications, and Ver- in peer review and biomedical publishing create and dis- sion Control tribute accurate, clear, reproducible, unbiased medical journal B. The recommendations may also provide useful in- and Retraction sights into the medical editing and publishing process for the C. Duplicate and Prior Publication These recommendations are intended primarily for use 3. Acceptable Secondary Publication by authors who might submit their work for publication to 4. Supplements, Theme Issues, and Special Series no authority to monitor or enforce it. Sponsorship of Partnerships should use these recommendations along with individual I. Recommendations for the Conduct, Reporting, Editing, and Publication of Scholarly Work in Medical Journals Journals that follow these recommendations are en- that qualify an individual for authorship. Substantial contributions to the conception or de- request removal from this list. In addition, authors should have conﬁdence of standardizing manuscript format and preparation across in the integrity of the contributions of their co-authors. Over the years, issues in publishing that went well All those designated as authors should meet all four beyond manuscript preparation arose, resulting in the de- criteria for authorship, and all who meet the four criteria velopment of separate statements, up-dates to the docu- should be identiﬁed as authors. These authorship criteria are intended to reserve the Work in Medical Journals” to reﬂect its broader scope. Defining the Role of Authors and Contributors The individuals who conduct the work are responsible 1. Why Authorship Matters for identifying who meets these criteria and ideally should Authorship confers credit and has important aca- do so when planning the work, making modiﬁcations as demic, social, and ﬁnancial implications. It is the collective re- implies responsibility and accountability for published sponsibility of the authors, not the journal to which the work. The following recommendations are intended to work is submitted, to determine that all people named as ensure that contributors who have made substantive intel- authors meet all four criteria; it is not the role of journal lectual contributions to a paper are given credit as authors, editors to determine who qualiﬁes or does not qualify for but also that contributors credited as authors understand authorship or to arbitrate authorship conﬂicts. If agree- their role in taking responsibility and being accountable for ment cannot be reached about who qualiﬁes for author- what is published. If au- tributions qualiﬁed an individual to be an author, some thors request removal or addition of an author after man- journals now request and publish information about the uscript submission or publication, journal editors should contributions of each person named as having participated seek an explanation and signed statement of agreement for in a submitted study, at least for original research. Editors the requested change from all listed authors and from the are strongly encouraged to develop and implement a con- author to be removed or added. Such policies remove much of the am- The corresponding author is the one individual who biguity surrounding contributions, but leave unresolved takes primary responsibility for communication with the the question of the quantity and quality of contribution journal during the manuscript submission, peer review, 2 www. Recommendations for the Conduct, Reporting, Editing, and Publication of Scholarly Work in Medical Journals and publication process, and typically ensures that all the tiﬁc advisors,” “critically reviewed the study proposal,” “col- journal’s administrative requirements, such as providing lected data,” “provided and cared for study patients”, “partic- details of authorship, ethics committee approval, clinical ipated in writing or technical editing of the manuscript”). The corresponding author should be available author obtain written permission to be acknowledged from throughout the submission and peer-review process to re- all acknowledged individuals. Author Responsibilities—Conflicts of Interest work and cooperate with any requests from the journal for Public trust in the scientiﬁc process and the credibility data or additional information should questions about the of published articles depend in part on how transparently paper arise after publication. A conﬂict of interest exists when professional judg- When a large multi-author group has conducted the ment concerning a primary interest (such as patients’ wel- work, the group ideally should decide who will be an au- fare or the validity of research) may be inﬂuenced by a thor before the work is started and conﬁrm who is an secondary interest (such as ﬁnancial gain). They will also be expected as individuals to com- credibility of the journal, the authors, and science itself. However, conﬂicts can occur for other reasons, such as Some large multi-author groups designate authorship personal relationships or rivalries, academic competition, by a group name, with or without the names of individu- and intellectual beliefs. When submitting a manuscript authored by a group, agreements with study sponsors, both for-proﬁt and non- the corresponding author should specify the group name if proﬁt, that interfere with authors’ access to all of the one exists, and clearly identify the group members who can study’s data or that interfere with their ability to analyze take credit and responsibility for the work as authors.
Data are not equally available for all diseases generic 800 mg viagra vigour overnight delivery new erectile dysfunction drugs 2013, injuries purchase viagra vigour 800 mg without a prescription erectile dysfunction and stress, risk factors discount 800mg viagra vigour erectile dysfunction icd 0, and impairments for all geographies 800mg viagra vigour for sale erectile dysfunction shake ingredients. Model performance may not be the same for all diseases, injuries, risk factors, and impairments for all countries. Similarly, methodological experts and country experts may have differing opinions about the level of all-cause mortality for a particular country. Adjudication process To resolve such disagreements, steps should be pursued in the following order: 1. For any of the types of disagreement, resolution should first be sought through discussion between the individuals with differing opinions. We believe that the majority of differences in opinion can be managed in this way, resolved through the usual process of scientific testing and iteration. This will be especially true in instances where the dispute is about the inclusion of data or of the effects of different analytic strategies, as each of the different viewpoints can often be tested and the results compared with one another. We expect that such discussions will take place in a spirit of respectful academic disagreement. In such cases, the rationale for the final decision taken should be made explicit to all individuals formerly in dispute. In this scenario, the involved individuals should attempt to jointly reach a resolution. The text below the flowchart provides additional detail and is numbered to match the numbered component(s) of the flowchart it describes. This estimation task is facilitated by the use of appropriate covariates that can be 25 used as independent variables in the modeling process. For each covariate in our covariate database we have a complete time series for each country, and by age and sex, where appropriate. In cases where the development of a new covariate requires new research, such covariates will only be made public after that research is published. Incorporated into this database are all relevant sources of cause of death data, including vital registration, verbal autopsies, census and survey data, police records, hospital data, surveillance systems, and population based registries for specific diseases. Ensuring consistency between cause-specific estimates and all-cause mortality estimates In accordance with the published methodology, models will be developed for each cause of death separately; the estimates for each cause will then be combined into estimates for all causes 26 simultaneously that sum to the demographic estimates of all-cause mortality. Key inputs into this database include systematic reviews of the published and unpublished literature, analysis of household survey data, antenatal clinic surveillance data, reportable disease notifications, disease registries, hospital admissions data, outpatient visit data, population-based cancer registries, active screening data, and other administrative data. In each case, the quality and extent of data on the overall impairment level has been determined to be stronger than the data on how individual etiologies or conditions lead to that impairment. Attribution to each underlying cause of the impairment will be performed after calculation of the total envelope for that impairment. Each injury is characterized by the nature of injury such as a femur fracture or head trauma and the external cause of injury such as a road injury or a fall. To assess disability, data are required on the frequency of the nature of injury as well as follow-up data on reduced health functioning at certain points in time after the injury. Since the cause list assigns death and disability due to injury by external cause, we also need to capture data on the matrix between the nature of injury incidence and the external causes leading to these injuries. The analysis will include survey, hospital, and outpatient data on the incidence of external causes and perhaps more importantly multiple sources of long-term follow-up data to estimate the fraction of individuals with each nature of injury progressing to 27 permanent disability. Core Analytic Theam members will be responsible for carrying out this computational exercise. Disability weights may be updated over time by expanding the original data sets with additional data from comparable population-based surveys and then re-analyzing the dataset as a whole. A single, uniform, set of disability weights will be applied for all time periods and for all geographic estimates, be that global, regional, national, or subnational to ensure comparability. We will try to find more national-level surveys with both diagnostic information and general health status to improve upon the measurement. Wherever possible, the inputs to the micro-simulation for each country, age, sex, year group will be at the level of detailed sequelae. Healthy life expectancy Healthy life expectancy results provide an important summary of overall levels of health and help elucidate important trends such as the compression or expansion of morbidity. These computations are conducted by the Core 28 Analytic Theam centrally for all diseases and injuries. For a number of risk factors, primary survey data will be collated and re-analyzed along with published studies. For some risks such as ambient air pollution, alternative modeling strategies will be used. In all cases, the estimation of exposure prevalence will generate uncertainty distributions. Estimating relative risks for risk-outcome pairs Risk-outcome pairs will be included where the evidence meets the criteria for convincing or probable evidence2. Uncertainty in the relative risks for each risk-outcome pair by age and sex is propagated into all final estimates. Uncertainty for risk factors will reflect both uncertainty from the disease and injury estimation and from the population attributable fractions. Over time, estimates at the subnational level may be generated for a number of countries, pending mutual interest, availability of data, and identification of funding mechanisms to support this work. Age groups The minimum set of age groups for which estimates will be generated is as follows: 0-6 days 15-19 years 45-49 years 7-27 days 20-24 years 50-54 years 28-364 days 25-29 years 55-59 years 1-4 years 30-34 years 60-64 years 5-9 years 35-39 years 65-69 years 10-14 years 40-44 years 70-74 years 31 75-79 years 80+ years Point estimates may be released using more aggregated age groups. Sex Calculations will be made separately by sex; point estimates will be reported by sex and for both sexes combined. The sections below provide an overview of the cause lists for diseases and injuries and for risk factors. The cause list is organized in a hierarchical structure so that different levels of aggregation are included. The cause list is mutually exclusive and collectively exhaustive at every level of aggregation; causes not individually specified are captured in residual categories. Further revisions to the cause list will be based on causes not currently included where there is substantial health-care provider demand and expenditure. Level 1 risks in the hierarchy are groups of risk factors that are related by mechanism, biology, or potential policy intervention. Most risks are presented at level 2 but in some cases such as occupational carcinogens calculations are done at a third level as there are many detailed but relatively small burden risks included in the grouping. Physical inactivity has been separated from the dietary risks given the different policy implications. Because the leading causes of burden tend to have some influence on the perception of disease control priorities, the choice of aggregation is at once important and subject to debate. To help convey the complexity of the burden of disease results we have identified a ranking list selected to distinguish and cluster diseases and injuries together and one to cluster risks together that may have programmatic or public health significance. The ranking cause lists are flat; it is one set aggregation of causes or risks, not multiple levels of hierarchy like the main cause lists. For the disease and injury ranking list, we aggregate detailed causes within the broader categories of maternal causes, diarrheal diseases, lower respiratory infections, stroke, and road injury for this reason. The causes included in the ranking list do not include residual categories such as other parasitic or other cardiovascular because these categories represent complex aggregations of detailed causes for which there is no clear public health program. The causes on the ranking list along with the excluded residual categories are also mutually exclusive. For the risk factor cause list, we group all dietary risks as many of policy recommendations would be similar, while we separate physical inactivity within the ranking list given the different implications for public health strategies. For similar reasons, we group all occupational risks into a single risk within the ranking list. Data High quality, ongoing estimation requires a constant stream of the most up-to-date data available for a wide range of indicators. There will be continuous extraction of studies from the literature and key data sources throughout the Global Burden of Disease.
Sterilisation time starts when the required temperature (pressure) is achieved discount viagra vigour 800mg on line impotence from priapism surgery, not from the start of heating buy discount viagra vigour 800mg on line erectile dysfunction doctors san francisco. Use clean rainwater if tap water has high mineral and salts content buy viagra vigour 800 mg line erectile dysfunction pump uk, to prevent corrosion and rusting of metal equipment and steriliser buy viagra vigour 800mg fast delivery erectile dysfunction after testosterone treatment. Re-using syringes or needles without proper sterilisation puts the health worker and the patient at risk of cross-infection with bloodborne diseases, e. Always follow national policies regarding the use of sterilisable syringes and needles and sterilisation. If national policies are not available, use the following guidelines for sterilising reusable syringes and needles. Plunger (piston) Plunger seal Adaptor (hub) Shaft Parts of syringe and needle Barrel Scale Adaptor (hub) Bevel Before sterilisation Preparing reusable syringes and needles for sterilisation involves two steps, soaking and cleaning. Soaking • Immediately after the injection, flush the needle and syringe with clean water 4-5 times. To prevent needle- stick injuries, lay the syringes side by side in the container, so that all the needles are pointing in the same direction. Cleaning • Just before sterilising, pour away the water used for soaking and Separating needle refill the container with clean water. Throw away barbed needles, because an injection with barbed needle is painful, damages tissues and causes infections. Section 2 Procurement and management of supplies and equipment 49 Sterilisation Pressure control valve Sterilise syringes and needles using a (air removal/steam release/pressure valve) pressure cooker type steriliser. Gasket Base (chamber, vessel) Parts of a pressure cooker type steam steriliser Loading the syringe and needle rack Loading a tray and needle cases 50 Section 2 Procurement and management of supplies and equipment Table 2. To make assembly after pack the trays or container or the needle case too sterilisation easier, place syringes near the tightly. Position the V support, trivet or shelf using a hard water pad, place this in the water. If using a steriliser drum, make sure valve is down and the pressure control (pc) valve the vents (holes) are open and position the is opened. After a few minutes of heating, water will start boiling and steam will start escaping strongly from • Before sterilising, check the small pin in the safety the pc valve. During valve is down and the pressure control (pc) valve this period, air will be flushed from the steriliser is opened by pushing up the lever. The steam can be heard escaping minutes of heating, the water will boil and steam and forms a strong and steady jet. Start timing for 15 minutes, turn the heat flushed from the steriliser with steam. The steam down making sure steam can still be clearly heard can be heard escaping and forms a strong and escaping from the pc valve at all times. When the timer rings, close the pc there should be 20 minutes of uninterrupted valve by pushing down the lever. In total there should be 20 and open the pressure valve to release the steam minutes of uninterrupted steam. Leave the steriliser allow the pressure to reduce (if the steam is not and its contents to cool for at least 1 hour. After all the steam has escaped, close • Before using the sterilised supplies, check the the pc valve so that sterility is maintained. Assembling directly from the steriliser and steriliser drum • Do not open the sterilised unit until you are ready to use the sterilised syringe and needle. Place the forceps so that the tips lay Sterile forceps resting on the steriliser lid inside and the handle rests on the edge of the lid. Fitting the plunger into the barrel using sterile forceps Fixing the needle into the syringe using sterile forceps • Use the forceps to pick up the needle by its hub and to fit the needle on the syringe. Turn the needle to fix it securely • Be careful not to touch the needle shaft or bevel. Or remove using sterile forceps to lift out the barrels and plungers and to place them in a sterilised container. If you are not using needle cases, Storing sterilised syringes take out the needles using sterile and needles forceps and place in a sterile container. Assembling from stored sterile containers • Do not open the sterilised unit until you are ready to use the sterilised syringe and needle. Hold the barrel in your hand being careful to touch only the outside, not the hub. Section 2 Procurement and management of supplies and equipment 53 Practical tips for sterilising syringes and needles ● Never use soap, detergents or chemical disinfectants for soaking or cleaning sterilisable syringes and needles. Traces of these chemicals left on syringes and needles can cause irritation and inactivate vaccines. However, hard water salt deposits reduce the life of reusable syringes, and in hard water areas they will only last for about 140 sterilisation cycles. Using hard water pads during sterilisation can help to extend the life of reusable syringes. The high temperatures required for effective sterilisation damage disposable syringes and needles. Practical tips on using and re-using gloves Health workers should: ● Wear gloves to protect against infection during certain patient procedures, e. If there are not enough disposable gloves for a ‘one use’ only approach, wash and disinfect gloves carefully between use: ● Examine gloves carefully and dispose safely of damaged gloves, e. To check for tears or punctures: – Gently blow into the gloves until they are full of air, twist the cuff and hold them under clear water. Good quality latex gloves can be disinfected using either of these methods five or more times. Sprinkle gloves inside with talcum or starch powder when dry and before re-use, to re-lubricate them. Proper management of waste products helps to keep the health facility clean and tidy, prevents the spread of disease, reduces the risk of injury, and prevents re-sale and re-use. Incorrect management of waste places waste handlers, health workers and the community at risk of infection and injury. Waste handling and management Waste handling, treatment and disposal methods must be practical, safe, affordable, appropriate and sustainable. To ensure proper management of waste: • Adopt a safe disposal policy that conforms to national guidelines. This includes appointing an official waste handler to collect and manage waste, and making sure health staff sort the waste they produce into categories for different disposal methods. Provide waste handlers with protective clothing (overalls), heavy duty gloves and boots; provide clinic staff with disposable gloves, and provide goggles to those responsible for incineration to protect their eyes. Waste collection, treatment and disposal Waste material should be sorted, ideally at the site where it is generated, for collection. In some urban areas, the MoH may collect waste for centralised treatment and disposal. If there is no collection service, seperate waste into material for incineration, burning or burying and, where appropriate, recycling or re-use. Collect waste daily and take it to a secure, safe central collection or storage point for treatment and/or disposal. Follow these practical guidelines: • Collect waste in good quality metal or plastic buckets which have a close-fitting lid or in strong, leakproof plastic bags. If you use chlorine for disinfection, use plastic buckets because chlorine causes metal buckets to rust. In very hot climates, organic waste such as organs and placenta should be disposed of immediately if possible. The site should be at least 30m away from the health facility and from drinking water sources, to avoid contamination.
They work synergisti- cally with vitamin C order viagra vigour 800 mg with mastercard erectile dysfunction treatment costs, enhancing its activity and promoting capillary stabil- ity viagra vigour 800 mg lowest price erectile dysfunction tea. Both radical scavenging and inhibition of human neutrophil elastase by the oligomeric procyanidin fragment of the leaves and flowers may enhance cardioprotection safe 800mg viagra vigour impotence back pain. Cholesterol degradation to bile acids is enhanced order 800mg viagra vigour erectile dysfunction treatment doctor, and animal studies sug- gest that cholesterol absorption is reduced by downregulation of intestinal acyl coenzyme A/cholesterol acyltransferase activity. By interfering with angiotensin-converting enzyme, a vasoconstrictor, hawthorn may normalize blood pressure in mild hypertension. Some flavonoids increase coronary flow, left ventricular pressure, and heart rate; some have no effect; and others may even decrease these parameters. In Europe, hawthorn is used as frequently as digoxin for treatment of heart failure and arrhythmia. Animal stud- ies have shown that hawthorn extract prolongs the refractory phase, poten- tially reducing the risk of arrhythmias. Chapter 74 / Hawthorn (Crataegus oxyacantha) 571 The antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects, the peripheral and coro- nary vasodilation, the protection afforded against ischemia-induced ventric- ular arrhythmias and the cyclic adenosine monophosphate–independent positive inotropic effect detected in vitro, and experimental animal studies have resulted in an international study. The additive vasodilatory effect of hawthorn and antihypertensive agents may result in hypotension. Congestive heart failure and hypercholesterolemia, Am Fam Physician 62:1325-30, 2000. Diefendorf D, Healey J, Kalyn W, editors: The healing power of vitamins, minerals and herbs, Surry Hills, Australia, 2000, Readers Digest. Zhang Z, Chang Q, Zhu M, et al: Characterization of antioxidants present in hawthorn fruits, J Nutr Biochem 12:144-52, 2001. Mills S, Bone K: Principles and practice of phytotherapy, Edinburgh, 2000, Churchill Livingstone. The thyroid gland may enlarge as a result of either iodine deficiency or iodine excess. Thyroxine is more plentiful, but triiodothyronine is the more biologically potent hormone. They con- trol the rate of oxygen utilization and release energy from energy-producing nutrients. When the dietary intake of iodine is inadequate, plasma levels of thyroid hormones fall, and more thyroid-stimulating hormone is released from the pituitary. If iodine deficiency persists, the thyroid gland enlarges in a vain attempt to trap more iodine and produce more thyroid hormones. Depending on the amount of iodine present, the glandular response, and the stage of the disease, the concentration of thyroid hormones may be increased or decreased. Epidemiologic studies suggest that the major consequence of mild to moderate iodine deficiency is hyperthyroidism, potentially com- plicated by cardiac arrhythmia, osteoporosis, and muscle wasting in the elderly. In addition to iodine, kelp contains carotenoids, fatty acids, and various other minerals. In areas of Poland classified as being mildly to moderately iodine- deficient, iodine prophylaxis based only on iodized household salt (30 mg potassium iodide/kg salt) is highly effective. Hypothyroidism presents clinically as changes in menstruation, altered bowel function, a tendency to gain weight, increased sensitivity to heat or cold, and mood changes. Although pregnant women and small children are not immediately endangered, an adequate iodine supply in utero and shortly after birth is crucial for physical and mental development. Iodine deficiency during preg- nancy may lead to enlargement of the thyroid (goiter) in both mother and child and may cause neuropsychologic and intellectual impairment in the child. In adults, iodine deficiency may lead to mental slowness; however, the consequence of severe iodine deficiency in utero and in infancy is cre- tinism, a form of mental retardation. Although elevated hearing thresholds have been demonstrated in populations with endemic cretinism caused by severe iodine deficiency, a randomized, placebo-controlled trial has demon- strated that even children with mild iodine deficiencies have significantly higher hearing thresholds in the higher frequency range (≥2000 Hz). The authors suggest that iodine supplementation of schoolchildren with iodine defi- ciency may have a “catch-up” effect in terms of mental performance. There is also evidence that a high iodine intake may be associated with autoim- mune hypothyroidism and that Graves’ disease may manifest at a younger Chapter 75 / Iodine 575 age and be more difficult to treat. Szybinski Z, Delange F, Lewinski A, et al: A programme of iodine supplementation using only iodised household salt is efficient—the case of Poland, Eur J Endocrinol 144:331-7, 2001. The time required to deplete reserves of iron is 750 days in men but only 125 days in women. In Australia, about 4% of all women and 8% of women aged 30 to 49 years have iron deficiency. One in 10 female blood donors, pregnant women, teenage girls, and infants have depleted iron stores. Electrons are readily transferred between ferrous (Fe2+) and ferric (Fe3+) iron, a property that makes iron physiologically invaluable. As a component of heme, iron is involved through hemoglobin in the transport of oxygen in the blood. As a component of cytochromes, iron contributes to energy production through the electron transport chain. Endothelium- derived nitric oxide favors vasodilation and increased perfusion provides an interim compensatory mechanism. Iron supplementation restores circulating haemoglobin levels and the elevated nitric oxide concentrations detected in iron deficiency anemia return to normal. Except in patients with a high mean cellular volume or erythrocyte disorders such as thalassemia, a low reticulocyte hemoglobin content is a sensitive and specific predictor of inadequate bone marrow iron stores. Important sources of dietary iron include the following: ● Lean red meat, fish, and poultry, which contain heme iron. High levels of available iron are found in citrus fruit, tomatoes, papaya, broccoli, pump- kin, and cabbage. Acidity promotes conversion of ferric to ferrous iron, the form most easily absorbed. Otherwise, maximal iron absorption from a meal that includes inorganic iron can be achieved by simultaneous ingestion of 50 to 100 mg of vitamin C. As little as 50 mg of vitamin C can double the absorp- tion of iron from other components in a meal. Phytates (found in most grains, cereals, and spinach), polyphenols (found in tea, coffee, sorghum, and legumes), tannins (found in St. John’s wort and saw palmetto), and cal- cium (found in dairy products) can inhibit iron absorption. Menstruating woman require more iron than men, as do pregnant (30 mg/day) and breast-feeding (15 mg/day) women. Iron salts used for supplementation differ little in their absorption capacity and likelihood of inducing side effects. Absorption and side effects are related to the concentration of iron present and to dose. At the clin- ical level, hypochromic microcytic anemia presents as pale conjunctivae, edematous atrophic papillae on the tongue, dysphagia, koilonychia, brittle nails, parasthesia, reduced resistance to infection, pica, and behavioral changes (e. Iron deficiency induces ventricular hypertrophy; and cardiac func- tion demonstrates an increased inotropic, but not chronotropic response, to norepinephrine, the sympathetic neurotransmitter. Although iron deficiency may follow a hemorrhage, it is more frequently the result of a chronic problem. Iron deficiency may result from an inade- quate diet, a physiologically determined increased demand for iron, or blood loss. A diagnosis of iron deficiency anemia is incomplete until a cause has been identified. Iron deficiency attributable to chronic blood leakage from an underlying neoplasm or ulcer may be detected by means of an occult blood test.
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