By S. Vigo. Quinnipiac College. 2019.
Under-triage may are common to both road and airframes such as noise requip 1 mg fast delivery symptoms 6 days before period, vibration generic requip 1 mg without prescription medications januvia, result in delayed transport with possible adverse patient outcomes buy 0.5mg requip mastercard medicine lake california. These Over-triage may increase resource utilization with associated costs discount requip 2 mg fast delivery premonitory symptoms, affect both patient care and crew wellbeing. Fatigue management is exposure of transport risks for crew and patients and risk that important as anyone who has spent time in the back of a transport services are not available for others in need. It requires signiﬁcant awareness, and forward Taskingisarisk–beneﬁtanalysis,balancingpotentialpatientben- planning to maintain concentration when it is cold and dark, and eﬁt with safety and optimal resource utilization. Effects of Transport Clinical Implications Vestibular dysfunction/spatial Fatigue; nausea Air transport involves the effects of altitude as outlined in disorientation Table 32. A simpliﬁed summary is that with increasing altitude Temperature – cold Coagulopathy; shivering; fatigue it is colder, with less oxygen and gas volumes expand. This mandates a high degree of planning fatigue addressing seating/stretcher conﬁgurations and access to packs, Conﬁned space Access to patient and equipment drugs, monitors and supplemental oxygen. Platform conﬁgurations Often poor ambient lighting Ability to visualize patient, monitors, are shown in Figures 32. These need to withstand considerable accelera- Equipment tion/deceleration and rotational forces and require endorsement Equipment selection should consider transport speciﬁc and general by regulatory bodies before use. Equipment should be essential for should be considered in relation to the stretcher conﬁguration. A cluttered ensure access to power (and power type) to minimize battery drain pack decreases the ability to locate equipment. Use of padding or elastic loops for oxygen for transport tasks and the ability to access and swap ampoules is one approach with plastic ampoules also preferred. Pack lists should be standardized with a daily ‘pack check’ followed Oxygen cylinders have been associated with aircraft critical inci- by sign off and bag seal. The amount of oxygen to pack without formal approval otherwise pack weights and volumes have on board, and knowing whether you have enough, often causes progressively increase (‘pack creep’). The overall amount should be determined by standard Retrieval and Transport 177 Table 32. Decisions about management What care is needed to improve the Determine what care is/may be patients condition? A safe Don’t forget your documentation approach would mean access to either a second C size cylinder or a larger cylinder Table 32. Blood, urine, vomitus and amniotic ﬂuid can damage avionic Does it offer ﬂexibility or Training needed? This is often dictated by retrieval service role Noise (including audible alarms)? Retrievalstaffshould of blood products from retrieval bases if blood is used frequently, know the size of oxygen cylinders on board (there are varying as well as preparation of ‘massive transfusion packs’. The decrease in size of these devices, Patient loading systems, while contributing to improved safety accompanied by improved picture resolution and utility has con- (securing patients and minimization of lifting injury) add weight tributed to this. For interfacility transfers it is essential that documentation is brought by the retrieval team. Failure to do this leads to increased Additional equipment may not always relate to patient care. The addition of any basic survival gear equipment, particularly large items, may mean leaving something • Be able to ﬁnd items in your pack blindfolded (literally) behind. This reinforces the need for retrieval and transport ser- • For retrievals from remote centres the quality of food offered to vices to compartmentalize equipment, minimize weight and space, the team is usually inversely proportional to the quality of care ensure ﬂexibility and remember they are part of a team. Personnel added to transport and retrieval services, if not part of the regular service, need additional support to ensure both their safety and ability to provide patient care. Emerg Med J 2006; 23: to the coordinating agency and then on arrival at the receiving 937–942. The strategic management of an incident is positive casualty outcomes in an overwhelmed medical system (to beyond the scope of this text. Ultimately this will lead to some less injured patients receiving care preferentially. The casu- alties may be trauma victims but incidents requiring mass medical The terminology describing incidents where a large number of treatment need to be considered such as the Tokyo Underground people are injured varies across the globe. If unsure, the local health resources are initially unable to cope with the those on scene should seek immediate senior advice through their number, severity or type of live casualties or where the location chain of command. Inthisinstance, Depending on the type or location of the incident, further assis- where no other personnel are present this may just involve clearing tance maybe required before proceeding any further, for instance the scene of ambulant survivors to prevent further casualties. Those wishing to enter the inner cordon Survivors are best served by an informed and coordinated should have the permission of the scene commander. This may be limited to information arrive the responsibility of maintaining the inner cordon may fall on type of incident and suspected number of casualties. All information to ambu- tion tool can be used repeatedly to update information previously lance control should ideally be relayed through the designated provided. Famil- personnel should be directed into the inner cordon to triage all iarity with radio communications is desirable and messages should casualties. This information should then be collated and relayed to be kept as short as possible. It is important to remember that excessive medical intervention Scene safety needs to be assessed, this should consider ﬁrstly the should be avoided at this stage, but life saving intervention should responders own safety, that of the response team and survivors. Allowable interventions (though situation speciﬁc) would include: insertion of a Guedel airway, placing a casualty in the Table 33. Major incident standby or declared In these situations, if treatment is not delivered, by the time scene E Exact location – grid reference if possible triage is complete they may well have died from their injuries. This T Type of incident – chemical, transport, radiation was highlighted by the coroner as a speciﬁc failure on review of the H Hazards London bombings in 2005. A Access/egress N Number of casualties and severity E Emergency services on scene or required Access/egress C Casualties- number, type, severity The emergency services will need to get to and from the site. The best route may soon become gas in the underground system obstructed if there is only single lane access. Where helicopter S Safety evacuation is likely overhead obstructions should be considered. Clues of actual or potential chemical release may come from If not ﬁrst on scene: objects on or around the scene, toxidromes of casualties or most • listen to any brieﬁng prior to arrival likely vehicle labelling. The term comes from the French verb trier, loss of vital information; a robust handover is key. Triage in this context is a method medical practitioner will normally assume the role of overall scene of allocation of limited medical and transport resources. Therearemanytriagesystems and in some cases treat casualties awaiting evacuation (Figure 33. Casualties should be evacuated in order is designed to do more good than harm while accepting that some of triage category, within each category the order of evacuation is individuals, who would normally have been salvageable if resources decided by the senior clinician present based on the relative urgency were inﬁnite, will not survive. It may be necessary to restrict a means of assessing the physiological effects on the individual of use of oxygen in particular, as this is likely to be in limited supply. This is why it is important that triage is repeated, as the natural course of injuries is not static. A casualty for example who is walking initially may eventually collapse once blood loss from Type of incident internal injuries leads to a signiﬁcant degree of shock. Chemicals that may have caused an incident or have been released Triage is a dynamic process as casualty needs and medical by an incident may dictate that decontamination is required. The assessment process varies between triage systems, as do Red the exact deﬁnitions of the individual categories. However, many These are casualties who require immediate medical treatment and common features exist across the most widely triage systems. For example those with airway obstruction or systems but both follow a set sequence laid out as a ﬂow chart that catastrophic haemorrhage. It is instigated at the discretion of the senior medical Chemical Biological commander.
Physical Therapy Churchill Livingstone discount requip 0.25mg mastercard symptoms 0f yeast infectiion in women, Edinburgh 70(12):808–819 Lederman E 2000 Harmonic technique buy 0.25mg requip overnight delivery symptoms 5 days before missed period. Williams Livingstone order requip 2 mg online symptoms 7 days before period, Edinburgh & Wilkins discount 2mg requip with visa symptoms 7, Baltimore Lederman E 2005a Science and practice of manual Liebenson C 1996b Active rehabilitation protocols. Williams p 87–224 & Wilkins, Baltimore Chapter 7 • Modalities, Methods and Techniques 291 Liebenson C 2006 Rehabilitation of the spine, 2nd edn. Maitland G, Hengeveld E, Banks K et al 2001 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Philadelphia Maitland’s vertebral manipulation, 6th edn. Butterworth-Heinemann, London Ligeros K 1937 How ancient healing governs modern therapeutics. Indian Journal of Physiology and of the inﬂuence of a sclerosing solution in rabbit medial Pharmacology 46(3):313–320 collateral ligaments and its junction strength. Connective Tissue Research 11:95–102 Malone D, Baldwin N, Tomecek F et al 2002a Complications of spinal manipulation: a comprehensive Long A, Donelson R, Fung T 2004 Does it matter which review of the literature. Spine 29:2593–2602 Malone D, Baldwin N, Tomecek F et al 2002b Lowenkopf A 1976 Osteopuncture. Lukban J, Whitmore K, Kellog-Spadt S et al 2001 The Neurosurgical Focus 13(6):1–11 effect of manual physical therapy in patients diagnosed Manheim C, Lavett D 1994 The myofascial release with interstitial cystitis, high-tone pelvic ﬂoor manual. Urology 57(suppl 6A):121–122 Manjunath N, Telles S 2005 Inﬂuence of Yoga and Ayurveda on self-rated sleep in a geriatric population. Lum L 1984 Hyperventilation and anxiety state Indian Journal of Medical Research 121(5):683–690 [editorial]. Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine Mann F 1971 Acupuncture: the ancient Chinese art of Jan:1–4 healing and how it works scientiﬁcally. Vintage Books, Macfadden B 1916 Macfadden’s encyclopedia of New York physical culture, 5 vols. Physical Culture Publishing, Manocha R, Marks G, Kenchington P et al 2002 Sahaja New York yoga in the management of moderate to severe asthma: Mackay H, Long A 2003 The experience and effects of a randomised controlled trial. Lancet University of Salford, Health Care Practice Research 1:352 and Development Unit. Therapeutische Umschau Magnuson P 1941 Differential diagnosis of causes of 53(3):217–224 pain in the lower back accompanied by sciatic pain. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science McCracken L, Turk D 2002 Behavioural and cognitive in Sport 6(6):323–328 behavioral treatment for chronic pain: outcome, predictors of outcome, and treatment process. Topics in Clinical Chiropractic 2(3):63–73 McKenzie R 1981 The lumbar spine: mechanical Maigne J-Y, Chatellier G 2001 Comparison of three diagnosis and therapy. Butterworth-Heinemann, Oxford Association 105:283–291 292 Naturopathic Physical Medicine Meade T, Dyer S, Browne W et al 1990 Low back pain Mullhearn S, George K 1999 Abdominal muscle of mechanical origin. Randomized comparison of endurance and its association with posture and low chiropractic and hospital outpatient treatment. British back pain: an initial investigation in male and female Medical Journal 300:1431–1437 elite gymnasts. McGraw-Hill, New York Penguin, Harmondsworth, Middlesex Myers T 2001 Some thoughts on intra-nasal work. Melzack R, Wall P (eds) 1994 Textbook of pain, 3rd Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies edn. Churchill Livingstone, London, p 201–224 5(3):149–159 Mengert W 1943 Referred pelvic pain. Journal Medical Journal 36:256–263 of the American Chiropractic Association 27(11):21 Mennel J 1975 The therapeutic use of cold. American Osteopathic Association 100(12):776–782 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Philadelphia Norkin C, Levangie P 1992 Joint structure and function: a comprehensive analysis, 2nd edn. Therapeutics 25(7):472–483 Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies 3(3):150–158 Mitchell F Jr, Moran P, Pruzzo N 1979 An evaluation of osteopathic muscle energy procedures. Canadian Medical Mock L 1997 Myofascial release treatment of speciﬁc Association Journal 163(1):38–40 muscles of the upper extremity (levels 3 and 4). Clinical Bulletin of Myofascial Therapy 2(1):5–23 Oken B, Kishiyama S, Zajdel D et al 2004 Randomized controlled trial of yoga and exercise in multiple Mogyoros I, Kiernan K, Burke D et al 1997 Excitability sclerosis. Neurology 62:2058–2064 changes in human sensory and motor axons during hyperventilation and ischaemia. Brain 120(2):317–325 Oleson T, Flocco W 1993 Randomized controlled study of premenstrual symptoms treated with ear, hand, and Moore M, Kukulka C 1991 Depression of Hoffman foot reﬂexology. Obstetrics and Gynaecology reﬂexes following voluntary contraction and 82:906–911 implications for proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation therapy. Mootz R, Dhami M, Hess J 1994 Chiropractic treatment Lancet 2(8551):143–146 of chronic episodic type headache in male subjects: a case series analysis. Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies 1(5):307–308 Morris C (ed) 2006a Low back syndromes: integrated clinical management. McGraw-Hill, New York, p 638–639 O’Sullivan P 2005 Diagnosis and classiﬁcation of chronic low back pain disorders. Manual Therapy Morris C (ed) 2006b Low back syndromes: integrated 10(4):242–255 clinical management. McGraw-Hill, New York, p 636–637 Oyama I, Rejba A, Lukban A et al 2004 Modiﬁed Thiele Morrissey D 2002 Unloading and proprioceptive taping. Spine Pilkington K, Kirkwood G, Rampe H 2005 Yoga for 14(9):1002–1011 depression: the research evidence. Indian Journal of Physiology and Williams & Wilkins, Baltimore Pharmacology 39:111–116 Plaugher G 1993b Upper cervical spine. In: Plaughter G Patel C, North W 1975 Randomised controlled trial of (ed) Textbook of clinical chiropractic. Wilkins, Baltimore, p 308 Lancet 2:93–95 Pool-Goudzwaard A, Hoek van Dijke G, van Gurp M et Patel P 2002 Comparison of neuromuscular technique al 2004 Contribution of pelvic ﬂoor muscles to stiffness and a muscle energy technique on cervical range of of the pelvic ring. Protopapas M, Cymet T 2002 Joint cracking and Williams & Wilkins, Baltimore, p 764–765 popping: understanding noises that accompany Patterson J 2004a History of prolotherapy. Journal of the American Osteopathic the Hackett Hemwall Foundation Annual Prolotherapy Association 102(5):283–287 Conference 2004. Edinburgh, p 353 Presented at the Hackett Hemwall Foundation Annual Puustjarvi K 1990 Effects of massage in patients with Prolotherapy Conference 2004. Clinical Journal Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics of Sport Medicine 15(5):E376 27(3):180–185 Ramaratnam S, Sridharan R 2000 Yoga for epilepsy. Spine Ramirez M 1989 Low back pain – diagnosis by six 12(8):732–738 newly discovered sacral tender points and treatment Perrin D 2005 Taping and bracing, 2nd edn. Journal of Alternative and and 844-ins68bp genotype in young adults with Complementary Medicine 8(6):797–812 spontaneous cervical artery dissection and Ravin T, Cantieri M, Pasquarello G 2005 Course notes: atherothrombotic stroke. England College of Osteopathic Medicine, Biddeford, Biological Psychology 43(3):267 Maine 294 Naturopathic Physical Medicine Reeves K 1993 Treatment of consecutive severe Rozmaryn L, Dovelle S, Rothman E et al 1998 Nerve ﬁbromyalgia patients with prolotherapy. Journal of and tendon gliding exercises and the conservative Orthopaedic Medicine 16:3 management of carpal tunnel syndrome. Journal of Alternative and Rydeard R, Leger A, Smith D 2006 Pilates-based Complementary Medicine 6(4):311–320 therapeutic exercise: effect on subjects with nonspeciﬁc Reeves K, Hassanein K 2000b Randomized, prospective, chronic low back pain and functional disability: a double-blind, placebo-controlled study of dextrose randomized controlled trial. Annals of the Swiss Chiropractic laxity: a prospective and consecutive patient study. Churchill Livingstone, Edinburgh Baltimore, p 436–437 Richard R 1978 Lésions ostéopathiques du sacrum. Presse Medicale 33(13):852–857 of muscle energy technique on lumbar range of motion. Roberts E, Cremata E, Collins S 2003 Fibrosis release Journal of Manual and Manipulative Therapy procedures, including manipulation under anesthesia: a 5(4):179–183 handbook deﬁning the mobilization, myofascial release, Schiowitz S 1990 Facilitated positional release. A comparison of selected protocols during Chiropractic Journal of Australia 29(3):87–102 proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation stretching.
Genetic research may ways in which environmental manipulation might mitigate pathogenic endowment from our genes discount requip 0.25mg without a prescription medications held before dialysis. Pyeritz (1990) pointed out that this would need to be attempted soon after conception buy generic requip 0.5 mg on line medicine education. Somatic gene therapy involves the introduction and expression of recombinant genes in somatic cells for the purpose of treating a disease safe requip 0.5 mg medications on a plane. Modified fibroblasts that produce nerve growth factor have been transplanted in human forebrain to ameliorate the cognitive effects of Alzheimer’s disease buy cheap requip 0.25 mg on line treatment endometriosis. A nucleus taken from a sheep’s mammary gland and implanted into an 901 unfertilised oocyte which has had its genome destroyed. Cloning of rhesus monkeys followed in America, leading to presidential concerns about the cloning of human beings. Cloning of human embryos in order to produce tissues for transplant purposes was reported from America in November 2001. Cloning in humans was thought to be prohibited in Britain under the Human Fertilisation and Embryology Act 1990 but a November 2001 High Court ruling pointed out that such was not the case and led to a governmental reaction to ensure prohibitive legislation. However, in May 2005, the Law Lords ruled that such cloning was not prohibited, i. It regulates assisted reproduction (vide infra) allows scientific investigation into treatments for conditions such as Parkinson’s disease. Extracorporeal embryos are regulated as are human-admixed embryos (a mixture of human and animal genetic material that is used in stem cell research). Same-sexed parents are recognised as legal parents of children conceived via donated sperm, eggs or embryos. Assisted reproduction Advances in this technology are beyond the way people normally think and feel about having a baby. Sperm from an anonymous donor or an ovum from the mother’s sibling may create problems of identification with the baby for the woman’s spouse. Peripheral stem cell transplantation often leads to delirium because of infection, metabolic perturbation, subdural or cerebral bleeding, or (rarely) Wernicke’s encephalopathy. Severe marble bone disease (osteopetrosis), for example, has been treated with stem cell transplantation. Discovering the molecular genetic basis of schizophrenia: the impact on clinical practice. Areas affected areas include mood , thinking 906 907 908 or talking , behaviour , and social functioning. Schizophrenia (Andreasen, 1999): A brain disease Manifested as diseased mind Symptoms and signs too diverse to localise the disorder to a single brain region 909 A disorder of neural connectivity (Symond ea, 2005) caused by multiple factors affecting brain development 910 Final common pathway is a misregulation of information processing in the brain 902 Prof Saks is a law professor in Southern California who has schizophrenia controlled by clozapine. The word schizophrenia comes from two Greek words meaning a disconnection or splitting of the psychic functions and has no connection, except in popular fiction, with the Jekyl and Hyde character, the latter being more likely a psychopath. Bleuler’s ‘schizophrenia’ is reminiscent of Kraepelin’s ‘intrapsychic ataxia’ (splitting/fragmentation of functions of the mind). People with schizophrenia have difficulties identifying emotions correctly, spontaneously simulating the emotional world of another person, and responding adequately in terms of their personal emotional experience. Semaphorins are one of a family molecular cues (receptors) implicated in nervous system development, including guidance of axonal projections and neuronal migration. Inconstancy - patients’ symptoms change over time Number of patients diagnosed with schizophrenia depends on classification system employed (Murray, 2002) Bias – simply changing the ethnicity of vignette cases may change the given diagnosis (Kay & Tasman, 2006, p. Andreasen agrees with Bleuler that thought disorder is the primary defining feature of schizophrenia, rather than some positive symptoms (additions to behaviour and emotion) as delusions and hallucinations. She was eventually diagnosed with schizophrenia at the Burghholzi psychiatric clinic in Zurich and died at St Andrews Hospital, Northampton. Reduction in tardive dyskinesia with atypical antipsychotics may not be cost-effective. Using Standard Cost of Illness procedures Behan ea (2008) estimate total cost (in millions) of schizophrenia in Ireland, subject to limitations posed by unavailable data, was €460. Incidence: The incidence of schizophrenia is much higher in the unmarried of both sexes than in the married and is probably no higher in Ireland than elsewhere. The figures for schizophrenia vary widely 916 917 depending on admission policies , diagnostic practices , and differing methods of case finding. Taking admission diagnoses made by inexperienced staff and lumping together anything half-resembling 918 schizophrenia all too often represents official statistics. Studies showing a higher incidence among males 919 may suffer from missing late-onset female cases. There is some indication that the risk to siblings for developing schizophrenia in the case of late-onset disorder may be less than for younger onset but higher than for the general population. The study in which these interesting if unexplained figures were reported (Kendler & Walsh, 1995) found no sex difference in age of onset. The same group later found no connection between age of onset and the risk for schizophrenia in relatives. Aleman ea (2003) conducted a meta-analysis of the literature and found that the incidence risk ratios for men to develop schizophrenia relative to women varied from 1. The point prevalence (prevalence at a point in time) of broadly defined schizophrenia in inner London in 1991 was 5. According to Jeste and McClure (1997), the prevalence of schizophrenia is 7% in siblings and 3% in parents of probands with late-onset schizophrenia. A Finnish study (Salokangas ea, 2010) found that annual first admission rates (per 100,000) fell from 1980 to 1991 but increased slightly thereafter. Bed number availability changes, admission policy, and diagnostic practice may explain most variation, and the authors wondered if increased use of illegal drugs and better treatment of depression might be reflected in the increased figures. Earlier work tended to look for ‘nuclear’ (narrow) schizophrenia whereas ‘broad’ definitions yield greater differences between countries. The McGrath ea (2004) systematic review found up to fivefold differences internationally. Not surprisingly, a Danish study (Thorup ea, 2007) found that incidence rates for males significantly exceeded those for females in the age range 17-40 years but by the age of 72 years 1. Peak age of onset of schizophrenia is in the third 922 923 decade ; onset is 3-5 years later in females than in males. Long-term treatment with conventional antipsychotic drugs in women produces better outcomes and, even when controlling for body weight, lower doses are needed than in males. Attempts to equate puberty with age of onset of symptoms have suffered from small numbers and possible recall bias. One group (Cohen ea, 1999) found the earlier was puberty (menarche) in females the later were onset of psychosis and first hospitalisation, with men showing a trend in the opposite direction. A retrospective Chinese study (Phillips ea, 2004) suggests schizophrenia is more prevalent in women than in men, a finding criticised on methodological grounds by Ran and Chen. Inner city areas may attract people who already have, or will later develop, schizophrenia. Aetiology926 ‘It is likely that schizophrenia is the final common pathway for a group of disorders with a variety of etiologies, courses, and outcomes. Instead they suggest, without much in the way of evidence, that schizophrenia represents an end stage in which certain symptoms are shared and which is reached by a gradual decompensation of personality. Bergemann ea (2007) reported significant improvement in psychotic (but not depressive) symptoms in females with schizophrenia during the luteal phase. Also, in a randomised double-blind study, Kulkarni ea (2008) found that adjunctive transdermal oestrogen reduced positive symptoms and general psychopathological symptoms in women with schizophrenia. A fundamental problem with all attempts at finding a cause or causes for schizophrenia arises from the strong likelihood that ‘schizophrenia’ represents a heterogeneous group of disorders.
Disruption may be due to overprotection purchase 1 mg requip visa medicine pouch, rigid behaviour requip 0.5mg lowest price medicine 600 mg, poor conflict resolution order requip 0.5mg medicine 100 years ago, or the involvement of offspring in marital conflict requip 1mg without a prescription treatment xyy. Crisis Theory and Therapy A crisis is a response to a hazardous event and is experienced as a painful state. The person learns more about adaptation because of the experience, and psychological growth may follow. Maladaptive reactions make matters worse and can cause psychiatric symptoms leading to neurotic behavior and poor function. Hopefully, he learns how to foretell, resolve or prevent such events in the future. The therapist, when faced with a patient of limited resources, aims at shoring up existing defences using supportive measures. In the case of people who are basically sound, but who from time to time experience neurotic breakdowns, and who are able to handle anxiety, he may indulge in dynamic psychotherapies which tend to provoke further anxiety. Supportive techniques include explanation, reassurance, advice, medication, environmental manipulation, and, if necessary, brief periods in hospital. Brief psychotherapy may be conducted in individual (therapist and patient only) or group (e. Anxiety-provoking techniques are only suitable for those clients who are highly motivated to understand themselves better and who are highly desirous of change. In dynamic therapies the therapist focuses on the crisis itself, the client works actively with the therapist in a therapeutic alliance, transference reactions are made use of (ignored in supportive cases), and the hope is that this turns out to be a true learning experience. Sifneos (1979) discusses short-term dynamic psychotherapy 577 Concepts or models of Disease How can we capture the essence of disease when health, often defined by the absence of disease, is itself difficult to put into words? Psychiatric disorders are symptom-dependent and the symptoms themselves are hard to describe. This rejuvenated the debate as to whether the personality disordered were ill per 577 According to Jager (1999), ‘Prostitutes and lawyers may have clients. Leifer (1971) - an ideology Scheff and others – we are simply labelling people Labelling (see Gould, 2005) may lead to ‘secondary deviance’, promoting or reinforcing socially deviant behaviour. Traditionally in medicine, when a cause is known the term disease is substituted for other labels. Scadding’s (1967) biological disadvantage concept of disease may be qualified by saying that, in certain circumstances, the individual’s disadvantage (e. Foulds’ hierarchy, after Graham Foulds, a psychologist, who described it (Fould, 1976), places neuroses and personality disorders at the base of a pyramid. At progressively higher levels we find anxiety, depression, schizophrenia, and dementia. Disorders at a given level can have features of all the disorders 578 George L Engel (1913-1999) at Rochester, New York State. Once popular, this diagnostic approach and explanatory paradigm has 580 been largely displaced by an era of multiple diagnoses, i. Diagnoses are often critiqued as being over-simplifications of real dilemmas, mixtures of other diagnoses, pejorative (e. Diagnoses are concepts whose usefulness may (and have been) replaced by other concepts. They do, however, describe real phenomena, with the possible exception of some esoterica such as ‘multiple personality disorder’. Kraupl-Taylor stated that the disorder must be abnormal by the standards of the population or the norms of the individual and associated with concern experienced by the sufferer, other people, or doctors. The use of antidepressants to treat minor mood fluctuations and psychological problems in general has been condemned by Lader. Disability occurs at the level of the person as a result of impairments, poor exercise tolerance due to compromised pulmonary function. Handicap refers to disadvantages due to impairment and disability, as when one person suffers more because he hoped to continue sprint running, despite equal lung damage to a second person. In schizophrenia, for example, contributions to disability and handicap may arise from psychiatric impairment, such as social withdrawal and delusions, social disadvantages, like poor education level or lack of social support, and adverse personal reactions (low self-esteem, social discrimination) to impairments and disadvantages. A statistically significant positive correlation between certain variables is not synonymous necessarily with 581 a common causation. Philosophers argue among themselves about what terminology most suits the constellation of problems psychiatrists deal with. Is it a malfunction of some organ or tissue regardless of whether the aetiology is known or not? Did pernicious anaemia only become a disease with the discovery of cyanocobalmin or intrinsic factor? René Descartes separated mind from body and thought from feeling, with profound implications for psychiatric thinking. Psychiatrists are sometimes accused of being too expansionist, taking over the management of problems of living,(Double, 2002) or of being too restrictive in the territory which they define as their own. Craddock et al (2008) are critical of attempts to downgrade medical aspects of care, viewing it as disadvantaging patients. Psychoanalysts interpret the psychoses as the loss of firm ego boundaries with intrusion of repressed noxious material into consciousness. The pure organic psychiatrist might view psychological/ behavioural problems as manifestations of brain dysfunction, however subtle the latter may be. It could be argued that at least some 583 psychiatric problems are simply a way of communicating distress , avoiding painful stresses, or evading 580 In practice, patients often have symptoms of more than one disorder or fulfil criteria for multiple disorders. Descartes’s separation of mind from body and thought from feeling had major implications for psychiatric thinking. Unlike Freud, he asserted that mental processes are limited to conscious awareness. There are serious shortcomings attached to diagnosing depression by employing severity criteria and a cross-sectional examination. Major depression is a loosely defined category that trumps adjustment disorder and dysthymia. Jacob (2009) pleads for an emphasis on context (stress, coping, and support), a return to older categories (melancholia, dysthymia, and adjustment disorder), and avoidance of medicalisation of distress. We do not know many of the answers to such questions and it is likely that all the various theories are true to some extent in some people some of the time. What brings a person to a psychiatrist or other mental health professional is rarely simple. The terms endogenous and exogenous were introduced into medicine by the neurologist Mobius in 1893. Their usefulness, like so many other terms, has not been straightforward, and modern practice assumes contributions from biological, psychological and environmental sources. There is no other practical alternative at present, unless we are to become enslaved by theory. No matter what the diagnosis or however chronic the illness, we must not regard patients as objects. The former model sees people as animals subject to various diseases that present in certain ways. This approach attempts to apply scientific objectivity to the understanding of a dysfunctional nervous system. The latter model grants pre- eminence to empathising with the mental/psychological activity of independent human agents. As pointed out by McHugh and Slavney,(1986) the approach from form asks ‘what’ (is the patient suffering from) whereas the approach from function asks ‘why’ (is he feeling, thinking, or behaving in this way)? Some disorders lend themselves to one approach more than another when different questions are being asked, e.