By W. Mason. Wells College. 2019.
Recently cheap rumalaya liniment 60 ml on-line spasms while sleeping, a new cohort of patients has been vaccinated while in remission discount rumalaya liniment 60 ml with visa infantile spasms 4 year old, and their follow-up is ongoing cheap 60 ml rumalaya liniment free shipping muscle relaxant pregnancy category. Induction of delayed-type hypersensitiv- ity (as measured by skin testing) to the antigen was seen with this vaccination approach cheap rumalaya liniment 60 ml amex spasms below left breast. Moreover, two of 12 patients experienced dramatic tumor regression and several other patients had stable disease. Interleukin-12 is produced by dendritic cells and medi- ates T helper 1 development as well as interferon-gamma production by T helper 1 cells. Human dendritic cells require exoge- nous interleukin-12-inducing factors to direct the development of nave T-helper cells toward the Th1 phenotype. Leishmania promastigotes selectively inhibit interleukin 12 induction in bone marrow-derived macrophages from susceptible and resis- tant mice. Impaired interleukin 12 production in human immu- nodeficiency virus-infected patients. Interleukin-12: a pro-inflammatory cytokine with immunoregulatory func- tions that bridge innate resistance and antigen specific adaptive immunity. Treatment of refractory disseminated nontuberculous mycobacterial infection with interferon : a pre- liminary report. Primary stimulation by dendritic cells induces antiviral proliferative and cytotoxic T cell responses in vitro. Failure or success in the restora- tion of virus-specific cytotoxic T lymphocte response defects by dendritic cells. Mechanisms of mouse spleen dendritic cell function in the generation of influenza-specific, cytolytic T lymphocytes. Morphology and phenotype of dendritic cells from peripheral blood and their productive and non-productive infection with human immunodeficiency virus type 1. Three populations of cells with dendritic mor- phology exist in peripheral blood, only one of which is infectable with human immuno- deficiency virus type 1. Susceptibility of human peripheral blood dendritic cells to infec- tion by human immunodeficiency virus. Distinct cytokine profiles of neonatal natural killer T cells after expansion with subsets of dendritic cells. Plasmacytoid monocytes migrate to inflamed lymph nodes and produce large amounts of Type I interferon. Uptake of Leishmania major amastigotes results in activation and interleukin 12 release from murine skin-derived den- dritic cells: implications for the initiation of anti-Leishmania immunity. Immunity to Chlamydia trachomatis Dendritic Cells 113 mouse pneumonitis induced by vaccination with live organisms correlates with early granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor and interleukin-12 production and with dendritic cell-like maturation. The cytotoxic T lymphocyte response to multi- ple hepatitis B virus polymerase epitopes during and after acute viral hepatitis. Dendritic cell immunization breaks cyto- toxic T lymphocyte tolerance in hepatitis B virus transgenic mice. The role of dendritic cells in the induction and regula- tion of immunity to microbial infection. Treatment of visceral leishmaniasis with pentavalent antimony and interferon gamma. A mutation in the interferon- -receptor gene and sus- ceptibility to mycobacterial infection. Interaction of dendritic cells with skin endothe- lium: a new perspective on immunosurveillance. Cutting edge: differential regulation of chemokine receptors during dendritic cell maturation: a model for their trafficking properties. Selective recruitment of immature and mature dendritic cells by distinct chemokines expressed in different anatomic sites. A dendritic-cell-derived C-C chemokine that preferentially attracts nave T cells. Dendritic cells: unique leukocyte populations which control the primary immune response. Cutting edge: receptor-mediated endocyto- sis of heat shock proteins by professional antigen-presenting cells. Neutrophil granulocyte-committed cells can be driven to acquire dendritic cell characteristics. Distinct dendritic cell subsets differentially reg- ulate the class of immune response in vivo. Human T, B, natural killer, and dendritic cells arise from a common bone marrow progenitor cell subset. Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor pro- motes differentiation and survival of human peripheral blood dendritic cells in vitro. Vaccination of patients with B-cell lymphoma using autologous antigen-pulsed dendritic cells. Efficient presentation of soluble antigen by cultured human dendritic cells is maintained by granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor plus interleukin 4 and downregulated by tumor necrosis factor alpha. Therapy of murine tumors with tumor peptide-pulsed dendritic cells: dependence on T cells, B7 costimulation and T helper cell 1-associated cytokines. Murine dendritic cells loaded in vitro with soluble protein prime cytotoxic T lymphocytes against tumor antigen in vivo. Vaccination of melanoma patients with peptide- or tumor lysate-pulsed dendritic cells. Dramatic increase in the numbers of function- ally mature dendritic cells in Flt3 ligand-treated mice: multiple dendritic cell subpopula- tions identified. Altered peptide ligand vaccination with Flt3 lig- and expanded dendritic cells for tumor immunotherapy. A recombinant Listeria mono- cytogenes vaccine expressing a model tumor antigen protects mice against lethal tumor 116 Kundu-Raychaudhuri and Engleman challenge and causes regression of established tumors. Immunoregulation of murine myeloma cell growth and differentiation: a monoclonal model of B cell differ- entiation. Monoclonal anti- idiotype antibodies against the murine B cell lymphoma 38C13: characterization and use as probes for the biology of the tumor in vivo and in vitro. Systemic administration of interleukin 2 enhances the therapeutic efficacy of dendritic cell-based tumor vaccines. The molecu- lar weight of most cytokines ranges between 6 and 60 kD, and these proteins can be glycosylated or myristylated. Although their primary role is in the host-defense response, they can stimulate the growth and differentiation of a number of target cells, e. Because of the breadth of their activity, the cytokines have been characterized by investigators in different disciplines, with a resul- tant variety of names. The intent of this chapter is to provide some background on the biology of cytokines and to describe their role in the earlier stages of the immune response to infectious agents prior to the immune systems commitment to either a cellular or humoral response. Knowledge of their role in infections should help us understand the rationale for use of cytokines or cytokine antagonists as therapy for the specific infections dis- cussed in subsequent chapters. This grouping is based on some gross structural similarities in the receptors for the cytokines within the two groups. The last section provides a sketch of the activity of cytokines in the immune response to infections that are the focus of many of therapeutic interventions intended to modulate cytokine activity. Depending on the type of stimulation, a given cell can pro- duce different cytokines. Induction of cytokine production with measurable tissue or serum concentrations occurs rapidly when cells are stimulated by antigen or bacterial products.
Unique dietary patterns and chronic disease risk profiles of adult men: The Framinghan nutrition studies buy rumalaya liniment 60 ml mastercard muscle relaxant pain reliever. The protective effect of the Mediterranean diet: focus on can cer and cardiovascular risk buy rumalaya liniment 60 ml low cost muscle spasms xanax withdrawal. Free radicals and antioxidants in normal physiological functions and human disease discount 60 ml rumalaya liniment mastercard muscle relaxant without drowsiness. Nutrients and phytochemicals: from bioavailabili ty to bioefficacy beyond antioxidants buy rumalaya liniment 60 ml visa spasms in spanish. Cancer chemoprevention and chemotherapy: dietary polyphenols and signaling pathways. In vitro bioacces sibility assessment as a prediction tool of nutritional efficiency. Health benefits of fruit and vegetables are from additive and syner gistic combinations of phytochemicals. Mechanisms of combined action of different chemopreventive dietary compounds: a review. A physiological approach for preparing and conducting in testinal bioavailbility studies using experimental systems. Stability of polyphenols in chokeberry (Aronia melanocarpa) subjected to in vitro gastric and pancreatic digestion. Models for intestinal fermentation: associ ation between food components, delivery sustems, bioavailability and functional in teractions in the gut. Estimation of the fermentability of dietary fibre in vitro: a European interlaboratory study. Development of a 5-step multi- chamber reactor as a simulation of the human intestinal microbial ecosystem. A multi com partmental dynamic computer-controlled model simulating the stomach and small intestine. Entero cyte-like differentiation and polarization of the human colon carcinoma cell line Ca co-2 in culture. Availability of polyphenols in fruit beverages subjected to in vitro gastrointes tinal digestin and their effects on proliferation, cell-cycle and apoptosis in human colon cancer Caco-2 cells. Fermented wheat aleurone induces enzymes involved in detoxification of carcionogens and in antioxidative de fence in human colon cells. Cellular antioxidant activity of Feijoada whole meal coupled with an in vitro digestion. Health promotion by flavonoids, toco pherols, tocotrienols, and other phenols: direct or indirect effects? Supplementation of test meals with fat-free phytosterol products can reduce cholesterol micellarization during simulated digestion and cho lesterol accumulation by Caco-2 cells. Polyphenolic profile and antipro liferative activity of bioaccessible fractions of zinc-fortified fruit beverages in human colon cancer cell lines. Evaluation of antioxidant activity and antiproliferative effect of fruit juices enriched with Pycnoge nol in colon carcinoma cells. The growth-inhibitory effects of tomatoes digested in vitro in colon adenocarcinoma cells occur through down regulation of cyclin D1, Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL. Antioxidant effect derived from bioaccessible fractions of fruit beverages against H2O2-induced oxida tive stress in Caco-2 cells. Antioxidant effect of casein phosphopeptides compared with fruit beverages supplemented with skimmed milk against H202-induced oxidative stress in Caco-2 cells. Bioactivity of ellagic acis-, lutein- or sesamol-enriched meat patties assessed using an in vitro digestion in Caco-2 cell model system. Mineral and/or milk sup plementation of fruit beverages helps in the prevention of H202-induced oxidative stress in Caco-2 cells. Caseinophosphopep tides exert partial and site-specific cytoprotection against H202-induced oxidative stress in Caco-2 cells. Tryptophan from human milk induces oxidative stress and upregulates Nrf-2-mediated stress re sponse in human intestinal cell lines. Antioxidative and angiotensin-I-converting enzyme inhibitory potential of Pacific hake (Merluccius productus) fish protein hydrolysate subjected to simulated gastrointestinal digestion and Caco-2 cell permeation. Antioxidant properties of breast milk in a novel in vitro digestion/enterocyte model. Colon-available raspberry polyphenols exhibit anti-cancer effects on in vitro models of colon cancer. Identification of hen egg yolk-de rived phosvition phosphopeptides and their effects on gene expression profiling against oxidative-stress induced Caco-2 cells. An investigation of the relationship between the anti-inflammatory activity, polyphenolic content, and anti oxidant activities of cooked and in vitro digested culinary herbs. Butyrate is only one of several growth inhibitors produced during gut flora-mediated fermentation of diet ary fibre sources. Both wheat (Triticum aestivum) bran arabinoxylans and gut flora-mediated fermentation products protect human colon cells from genotoxic activities of 4-hy droxynonenal and hydrogen peroxide. Fermentation products of inulin-type fructans reduce proliferation and induce apoptosis in human colon tu mour cells of different stages of carcinogenesis. Chemopreventive effects of in vitro digested and fer mented bread in human colon cells. Fermentation of resistant starches: influence of in vitro models on colon carcinogenesis. Epidemiology of chronic degenerative diseases in Mexico and the world During the last 30 years relevant changes in the public health field have arisen worldwide, among which the most representative are observed in developed countries where a big deal of infectious diseases have been reduced and controlled as a result of the creation and intro duction of powerful antibiotics . Those re ductions have been the result of social changes and of the improvement of preventive methods of infectious diseases. However, in recent years the prevalence of chronic degen erative diseases has increased . Mexico does not escape this situation as a result of specific factors to our country such as economic development, concentration of population in urban areas, lack of support to im prove the health services and the limitations in preventive programs, particularly in the population under 10 years. Besides, there is a transformation of the population pyramid due to a reduction in mortality and a decrease in birth rate; both phenomena are identi fied as epidemiologic and demographic transitions . Although in those reports not all the existing cases are included (not all patients request healthcare services), they are a good help to understand the dam age behavior along with other indicators of prevalence that estimate the number of cases in the population within a specific period of time. Such indicators are obtained from the national healthcare survey and from the national healthcare and nutrition survey 2006 . On the other hand, the mortality statistics are considered as more reliable due to the per manent job in updating the database. As mentioned above, the epidemiological and demographic transitions are important factors for the prevalence of chronic degenerative diseases and indicate changes in the behavior of population dynamics, as well as damage to health which are the result of the low socioeco nomic development and the impact of government policies on public health. The demo graphic transition shows the change in a steady state population with high fertility and mortality associated with the low socioeconomic development process and/or moderniza tion. This process is irreversible and was constructed from the first countries reaching socio- economic development in Europe such as France and England. In the case of the epidemiological transition, this is characterized by a reduction of morbidi ty and mortality from transmissible diseases and an increase in chronic degenerative diseas es. In the specific case of Mexico, it is well-known that infectious diseases made up the profile of mortality in the fifties, since half of the deaths were caused by diarrhea and respiratory infections, for reproductive problems and associated malnutrition conditions. Nowadays, these diseases (classified as lag diseases) are concentrated in less than 15% of deaths . In the last 10 years, there has been an overlap between lag diseases and the so-called emerg ing diseases. Definition, importance and control of oxidative stress The term "oxidative stress" was first introduced in the eighties by Helmut Sies (1985), defin ing it as a disturbance in the prooxidant-oxidant balance in favor of the first.
One type of cholesterol (the good cholesterol) is good for you cheap rumalaya liniment 60 ml spasms 5 month old baby, but another type (the bad cholesterol) is not buy rumalaya liniment 60 ml cheap spasms kidney. Over time order rumalaya liniment 60 ml amex muscle relaxer sleep aid, cholesterol deposits cheap rumalaya liniment 60 ml line spasms right side under rib cage, called plaque, can narrow your arteries and allow less blood to pass through. Plaque is a thick, hard layer of cholesterol that can narrow the blood vessels and clog arteries. A build-up of plaque in the arteries causes a condition called atherosclerosis, or hardening of the arteries. Also, a stroke or a heart attack happen when an artery bursts open and blood can no longer reach the brain or heart. When you take in too many calories or eat a diet too high in carbs and trans fats, your body makes more triglycerides. You should try to be physically active for 30 minutes or more on most, if not all, days. Saturated fat, trans fats, cholesterol, or triglycerides in the food you eat makes your blood cholesterol level go up. Saturated fat is the main problem, but cholesterol, trans fat in foods and in the oils used to cook food can also add to the problem. Cutting back on the amount of saturated fat, cholesterol, and trans fats in your diet helps lower your blood cholesterol level. Eating too much food that is high in fats and eating too many carbohydrates means your body will turn the fats and carbohydrates into triglycerides. If you have high cholesterol level, smoking and high blood pressure add to your risk of developing heart disease or having a stroke. The damage makes it more likely that cholesterol will collect along the walls and make them hard and narrow. Type 2 diabetes (the kind that usually develops in adulthood) can also cause blood vessels to narrow, making high levels of cholesterol in the blood even more dangerous to your health. Many people have never had their cholesterol checked, so they dont know theyre at risk. The good news is that there are steps you can take to prevent high cholesterolor to reduce your levels if they are high. Healthy adults aged 20 years and older should have their blood cholesterol checked at least once every fve years. If a person has high cholesterol levels or other risk factors for heart disease, such as diabetes, he or she should be tested as often as advised by his or her doctor. One is a fnger prick test that gives a general reading of the blood cholesterol level. The other is a lipid profle test, which gives more detailed and accurate information. If you have a fnger prick test and your total cholesterol number is close to or higher than 200, it is a very good idea to see your doctor. The cholesterol in your blood is measured in milligrams per deciliter of blood (mg/dl). Your total blood cholesterol number (the sum of all the cholesterol in your blood) should be less than 200 mg/dl, but the lower the better. Depending on your other risk factors, you may be at higher risk for heart disease. The lipid profle test that your doctor will order gives a reading for all four of these blood cholesterol levels. This test is also more accurate than the fnger prick test and is also the better test because you get a more complete picture of your blood cholesterol. Your doctor or nurse will ask you to fast (not to eat food) for 12 hours before a lipid profle test. Ask them to talk about how they might help people in the community understand the importance of having normal cholesterol levels. If you have high cholesterol levels or other risk factors for heart disease and stroke, you should get this test as often as your doctor advises. Talking Points: Only 1 out of every 3 adults with high cholesterol has the condition under control. But you can take steps to manage your cholesterol levels and lower your risk for heart disease and stroke. Try not to eat foods (like snacks that come in packages) that have trans fat in them. Trans fat is vegetable oil that is used to keep baked goods fresher in the store and for cooking food in restaurants and fast food places. The most important change you can make in your diet is to limit the amount of saturated fat that you eat. Saturated fat, found mainly in foods that come from animals, has the greatest effect on raising blood cholesterol. However, if your cholesterol level does not fall enough from making these lifestyle changes, a doctor may prescribe medicine. In that case, the second step is taking cholesterol-lowering medicines that your doctor prescribes and getting follow-up lipid profle tests to check your cholesterol numbers. Reducing cholesterol levels can slow or even reverse the build-up of cholesterol in the walls of the arteries. Talking Points: As community health workers, you can help people in your community lower their cholesterol levelsoften without medicine. By taking these steps to lower your cholesterol, you can lead a life that is heart healthy. Talking Points: In the chapter on healthy eating, we will talk about different kinds of fat and how to read food labels to pick healthier products when you shop. Talking Points: Many people dont have regular access to medical care, prescription medicines, or support for making lifestyle changes. Activity 85: What Community Health Workers Can Do to Help Community Members Control High Blood Cholesterol Levels? They can help people understand why its important to take medicine for their high cholesterol, as prescribed by their doctors. National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion Division for Heart Disease and Stroke Prevention Tips for Lowering Cholesterol Activity 8-3 You can protect your heart health by keeping your blood cholesterol levels low. By developing following healthy habits, you can reduce your risk of high cholesterol. A high amount of saturated fat, cholesterol, and trans fat in food that you eat can increase blood cholesterol. The most important change you can make in your diet is to reduce the amount of saturated fat that you eat. Saturated fat, which is found mainly in foods that come from animals, raises blood cholesterol more than anything else you eat. Here are some other important things to remember about eating a healthy diet Stick margarine is not a healthy substitute for butter. How to Control Your Fat and Cholesterol: A Promotora Guide How to Control Your Fat and Cholesterol: A Fotonovela National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion Division for Heart Disease and Stroke Prevention What Community Health Workers Can Do to Help Community Members Control High Blood Cholesterol Levels (with Program Support) Activity 85 What Community Health Workers Can Do to Help People Who Are at Risk for High Blood Cholesterol Ways to Support People in Their Health Care Needs: Teach community members to get screened for high blood cholesterol. Help People Make Better Lifestyle Choices: Encourage people to take part in regular physical activity, stop smoking, lose weight (if they are overweight), and drink no more than one alcoholic drink a day for women and no more than two for men. National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion Division for Heart Disease and Stroke Prevention What Community Health Workers Can Do to Help People Who Have High Blood Cholesterol All of the suggestions for people at risk for high blood cholesterol apply, plus the following: Help those who have high blood cholesterol and diabetes understand the importance of controlling their diabetes and regularly taking their diabetes medications. This page left intentionally blank Diabetes 9 Objectives By the end of this session, community health workers will be able to Describe the three types of diabetes.
Item National Occupational Research Agenda The conference agreement includes increased funding over the fiscal year 2009 level for the National Occupational Research Agenda rumalaya liniment 60 ml without a prescription muscle relaxant list by strength. The identifcation of the idioty- peanti idiotype network was born out of the discovery that the antigen binding site of the antibody itsself can act as an antigen for anti-idiotypic antibodies purchase rumalaya liniment 60 ml online spasms define. Anti-idiotypic immune responses are part of the physiological immune surveillance aimed at limiting the extent of an immune response trusted 60 ml rumalaya liniment muscle relaxant pharmacology. The identifcation of diferent lineages of antigen presenting cells has taken away much attention from T lymphocytes as the exclusive regulators of immune and autoimmune re- sponses discount rumalaya liniment 60 ml fast delivery spasms just below rib cage. Major interest has recently focused on dendritic cells, bone marrow-derived an- tigen presenting cells with potent capacity to induce primary T-cell-mediated immune re- sponses. However, accumulating evidence has demonstrated that the dendritic cell system bears much more plasticity than originally thought. Dendritic cells can arise from several diferent types of progenitor cells and diferent functional types of dendritic cells can be generated from the same precursor. It thus appears that dendritic cells have the potential to modulate immune responses within the wide spectrum of immunity on the one hand and immunological tolerance on the other hand. The rapid development of immunological research has also provided major insights in the pathogenesis of autoimmune disorders which has implications for classifcation, di- agnosis and therapy of these disorders. Classical examples for well-characterized autoim- mune disorders are myasthenia gravis, pemphigus vulgaris, and hemolytic anemia. Fur- thermore, the availability of recombinant forms of the major autoantigens of these disor- ders has provided critical tools to investigate autoimmunity versus immunological toler- ance to these self proteins in afected patients and healthy individuals. Several clinical studies have sought to restore immunological tolerance to self by the administration of modifed self peptides, such as the administration of altered peptide ligands of myelin proteins in mul- tiple sclerosis. Immature dendritic cells hold great promise as highly efcient tools to in- duce immunological tolerance to defned self proteins or peptides as demonstrated in mu- rine allograf rejection models. Tey may induce tolerance by inducing antigenspecifc an- ergy of autoreactive T cells and/ or by the induction of regulatory T lymphocytes that in- hibit the activation of autoaggressive T cells. I am very grateful that internationally leading experts in the feld of cutaneous autoim- mune disorders spontaneously agreed to provide comprehensive and well-illustrated over- views of the major autoimmune disorders of the skin. In addition, I would like to acknowledge the support and eforts of Springer Ver- lag in making this kind of book possible. We hope that the concept of this book will indeed help to broaden the understanding of cutaneous autoimmune disorders for those working in the many clinical disciplines which are involved in the care of these patients. Finally, I thank my wife for her continous support and her help and criticism during the develop- ment of this book. Under most conditions, autoimmunity is determined in terms of immunoglobulins that react with either unknown or well-de- fned human antigens. Today it is supposed that the production of these autoantibodies re- quires prior activation of potentially autoreactive B cells by memory T cells. Importantly, these T cells can stimulate B cells only when primed by activated antigen presenting cells. Most likely, any individual raises immune reactions against numerous self antigens. Terefore, the development of autoimmune disease requires trespassing of a large number of additional security levels, beyond autoimmune reactivity (Schwartz, 1998). Most of them progress during short waves of disease activity and in between these waves have long periods of quiescence. Since autoreactive T and B cells do normally not disappear during these periods of quies- cence, a series of control mechanisms protect from manifest autoimmune disease. Appropriate activation of T cells requires a series of additional events, such as ad- hesion molecules and costimulatory molecules (reviewed in Biedermann et al. B cells are characterized by the production of antigen recognition structures, the B cell receptor and immunoglobulins. Tey produce immunoglobulins mainly when stimulated appropriately through T-B-cell interactions (Lanzavecchia, 1985). Tey recognize free antigen and their major function seems to be the binding to either cell-bound or free an- tigens. Tus, the thymus constitutes an im- portant site of education which ultimately determines the specifcity of the ensuing T cells (Kisielow and von Boehmer, 1995). In contrast, the structure of the immunoglobulin rec- ognition site is not terminally fxed when B cells leave the bone marrow and mature B cells undergo somatic mutation and the afnity of the antigen recognition site of secreted im- munoglobulins can mature during the course of immune responses. Thymic maturation and selection of T cells Precursor T cells develop within the bone marrow and reach the thymus through the blood. This interaction of the double positive cells, which are highly sensitive to death sig- nals, will decide their further outcome as most of the double positive cells die during this selection process. Tolerance of self-reactive T and B cells Central tolerance and peripheral tolerance The thymus and the apoptosis and paralysis occurring during the development of B cells recognizing abundant antigens in the periphery delete about 90% of self-reactive T and B 4 Martin Rcken and Tilo Biedermann cells. Moreover, not all antigens are pre- sented in thymus, bone marrow or peripheral blood. However, each cell also expresses its own set of antigens that is related to its function and localization. Tus, the mature immune system encounters a larger spectrum of antigens in the periph- ery than in the thymus. Tolerance against these antigens requires a multitude of mecha- nisms which are summarized under the term peripheral tolerance (Bonomo and Matzinger, 1993). While central tolerance is mainly based on deletion of potentially autoreactive T cells, a larger spectrum of mechanisms constitutes peripheral tolerance (Arnold et al. Mechanisms of peripheral tolerance One mechanism of peripheral tolerance may be deletion, too. Deletion is mainly associated with the sudden appearance of a large number of antigens. This mechanism has been dem- onstrated for antigens that were presented in large numbers, thus during infection or fol- lowing injection of superantigens (Moskophidis et al. Dur- ing pregnancy, pregnant female mice become even tolerant to otherwise highly immu- nogenic tumor cells expressing this same antigen (Alferink et al. Tese data, even though very elegant, do not exclude that other mechanisms signifcantly contribute to peripheral tolerance (Alferink et al. Such a situation may be the consequence of ignorance of the target structure by the autoreactive T cells (Ohashi et al. Ignorance may be the consequence of miss- ing adhesion molecules or the absence of co-stimulatory signals (von Herrath et al. Subsequently, T cells develop towards memory cells that are theoretically capable of pro- ducing a large spectrum of cytokines. Today it is established that T cells normally do not secrete a random pattern of cytokines, but diferentiate into phenotypes that produce dis- tinct sets of cytokines associated with well defned functional phenotypes (Mosmann and Sad, 1996; Rocken et al. Tese types of immune responses are required for the control of infections with viruses, funghi or parasites. However, when directed against autoanti- gens, they may cause infammatory autoimmune diseases (Adorini and Sinigaglia, 1997; Arnold et al. Tese infammatory autoimmune diseases are normally well local- ized to one single organ or a group of organs that share a common antigen. Tese T cells do not only induce direct tissue destruction, they also induce B cells to produce complement binding antibodies, which may enhance local infammation and tissue destruction, as it is the case in patients with bullous pemphigoid (Budinger et al. The most important counterpart of type 1 immune responses are type 2 responses. T2 cells are primarily known by their ca- pacity to switch the immunoglobulin isotype of human B cells towards IgE and proba- bly also IgG4 (Mosmann and Cofman, 1989).
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