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By W. Miguel. University of Massachusetts Medical School.

The geographic con¿guration (urban or rural suburban area) and social con¿guration (industrialised or developing countries) will determine the type of disaster and the rela- tive physical consequences on persons cheap 100mg kamagra polo erectile dysfunction drugs walgreens, as well as the number of victims and the rapidity of rescues generic kamagra polo 100 mg erectile dysfunction at age 50. Geographical extension (<1 km buy discount kamagra polo 100mg erectile dysfunction pills not working, between 1 and 100 km kamagra polo 100mg on line best male erectile dysfunction pills, >100 km) essentially depends on the type of event that has occurred, considering that technological accidents 27 Disaster Preparedness 323 are usually circumscribed, whereas large-scale natural disaster generally extent over en- tire regions. According to the number of victims, meaning persons involved in the event, we can distinguish between small disasters (<100 victims), medium-sized disasters (100– 1,000 victims) and large-scale disasters (>1,000 victims). When speaking of the effects on the community, we must consider alterations to the social organisation due to damage to communications, telephone systems, public facilities and aid facilities. Depending on the extent of damages, we speak of a disaster as being simple or complex. These activities develop operational capabilities and improve effective disaster response. Di- saster plans are developed and revised to guide disaster response and increase available Fig. Planning activities include developing hazard analyses, writing mutual aid op- erational plans, training response personnel and improving public information and com- munications systems. Actions taken during the build-up of a crisis situation are designed to increase an organisation’s ability to respond effectively. Increased readiness actions include brie¿ng government of- ¿cials, reviewing plans, preparing information for release to the public, updating resource lists and testing warning and communications systems. The incidents’ resource requirements continually change to meet the needs of the incident. Recovery is both short-term activity, intended to return vital life-support systems to operation, and long-term activity, designed to return infrastructure systems to predisaster conditions. Speci¿c hazard mitigation plans are prepared following a federally declared disaster. They reÀect the current risk analysis and mitigation priorities speci¿c to the de- clared disaster. Written plans may vary widely in scope, detail, structure, purpose and elaborateness. In every case, the disaster plan is the product of the planning process, thereby becoming the principal connection between the disaster planning activity and the disaster response. The focus is upon writing down a description and analysis of needs that arise and actions that can be undertaken and resources that should be assembled to support the actions. Put another way, the planning process anticipates demands and devises strategies and tactics, linked with resources, for meeting them. Thus, plans address all aspects of the response, including personnel, equipment, contingency is- sues, policy issues and interorganisational and intergovernmental relations. Once a plan is created, its implementation revolves around the logistics and protocol needed to execute the speci¿ed series of tasks. These include both training and education of personnel regarding the threats, the response processes and procedures and the use of the equipment called for under the plan. Training is the activity that translates information de¿ned as needed by the plan into a coherent programme that can be imparted to responders. Then, simulations represent the constructed opportunities to test the protocols and equipment speci¿ed under a plan and taught in the training phase. Moreover they provide the “experience” needed to reduce errors and that cannot be gained in a real situation due to ethical and practical aspects, as the disaster involves a multitude of victims. The main feature of a simulation is that it is used to reproduce reality in a simpli¿ed way, so that learners can better understand why things happen and how. Participatory simulations are learning games in which players play an active role in the simulation of a system or process. Ingrassia ated by a set of underlying rules that enable enquiry and experimentation [23]. Learners actively participate, analyse information, make decisions and see the outcome of their actions. Advantages in training over real operational systems include: elimination of catastrophic consequences of error; reduction of physical danger; cost containment; elimination of nonsalient attributes; “replay” possibilities; com- pression or expansion of time; and iterative manipulation of variables for evolving design and data collection [25]. The use of simulations in medical education, in general, and in disaster medicine educa- tion, in particular, is well documented [26–30]. When considering simulations, we distin- guish two different kinds: virtual and live. In the former, real people use simulated equip- ment in a simulated world (or virtual environment); in the latter, real people use simulated (or dummy) equipment in the real world. Interactive simulation systems ¿t the requirement of allowing social in- teraction, which is the key element in those scenarios where users are expected to cooper- ate in order to solve a particular problem, such as in response to disasters. Live simulations are major enterprises that demand many resources, a full staff of evaluators and control- lers, a complement of actors (victims and other event-impacted personnel) and realistic simulations of the physical damage and other consequences of the event. Participants at all levels must literally execute their tasks under the disaster plan on the operational ¿eld in real time. Unfortunately, there is no strong evidence to support ¿rm conclusions about the effec- tiveness of speci¿c training methods. The authors conclude that different types of training exercises may have differ- ent roles to play in educating hospital staff in disaster response. Gradually, this attitude changed to an empha- sis on preparedness measures, such as stockpiling of relief goods, preparedness plans and a growing role of education and training. Disasters might no longer be considered as extreme events created entirely by natural forces but as unresolved problems of development. This disaster preparedness and planning approach is the only key to improving the ef¿ciency of relief and response actions and reducing the impact of such inevitable events. Kennedy K, Aghbabian R, Gans L et al (1996) Triage: techniques and applications in decision making. In: Metz B, Davidson O, Swart R, Pan J (eds) Climate change 2001: impacts, adaptation and vulnerability. World Health Organization (1991) Psychosocial consequences of disasters – pre- vention and management. Similarities to the 1988 earth- quake in Armenia: time to teach the public life-supporting ¿rst aid? Colella V (2000) Participatory simulations: Building collaborative understand- ing through immersive dynamic modelling. Kopf S, Scheele N et al (2005) Improving activity and motivation of students with innovative teaching and learning technologies. Ragazzoni L et al (2010) The effectiveness of train- ing with an emergency department simulator on medical student performance in a simulated disaster. Chemical releases arising from techno- logical incidents, natural disasters, and conÀict and terrorism are common [1]. The In- ternational Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies has estimated that be- tween 1998 and 2007, there were nearly 3,200 technological disasters with approximately 100,000 people killed and nearly 2 million people affected. Unfortunately, the threat of ma- jor events involving chemicals is predicted to increase worldwide for three main reasons. First, the chemical industry is rapidly growing, and the number of chemicals available in the market is increasing [2]. Second, chemical incidents may have an impact beyond their original location, in some cases crossing national borders. Third, there is concern regard- ing the deliberate use of chemicals for terrorist purposes [3]. Thus, emergency involving exposure to chemicals could represent one of the most common di- sasters that occur in the community setting. To minimise these negative impacts, and be- cause chemical incidents often involve acute releases and health risks with a very dynamic time course (as a result of changing conditions, e.

The printing often appears stronger in males than in longer incubation is allowed to proceed the more females discount 100 mg kamagra polo fast delivery erectile dysfunction diet pills. Hand-raised cockatiel hens were more likely complete the ovarian regression would be buy 100mg kamagra polo causes of erectile dysfunction in younger males, which to lay eggs (and more of them) than parent-raised would make a hen less likely to lay another clutch quality 100mg kamagra polo erectile dysfunction treatment forums. Pairs with hand-raised male cockatiels Territory were less likely to inspect nest boxes or produce fertile eggs buy kamagra polo 100 mg on line erectile dysfunction protocol book scam. Imprinting on the wrong species is that were photo-stimulated without a breeding terri- 42 common in birds and has been reported to occur when tory. The presence of sexually active females may Rose-breasted Cockatoo chicks are foster-raised by also affect the influence of breeding territory in Major Mitchell’s Cockatoos. The male’s chicks are thought to imprint on habitat, which will reproductive condition appears to be more easily syn- later control nest site selection. Female reproductive performance ap- pears to be more affected by captivity than does that Nutrition of males. Heavy cloacal feathering, such as in Rose-breasted Cocka- Psittacine birds being fed largely seed diets should be toos and fancy pigeon breeds, may prevent copula- expected to consume low levels of vitamin A, D3 and tion resulting in infertility. Vita- laid fertile eggs three weeks after the abscess was mins A and D3 are needed for proper reproductive resolved. Medications, especially certain antibiotics, gland secretions and calcium metabolism, respec- can cause infertility or decreased or abnormal egg tively. For example, testosterone injections in either mechanically blocking the cloaca or reducing males can cause infertility, and an entire season of successful ovulation. Abdominal fat and lack of con- reproduction can be interrupted after the use of in- dition may contribute to oviduct inertia and egg-lay- jectable doxycycline therapy. Amazon parrots, Scarlet Macaws and have been due to the stress of restraint and injection; Rose-breasted Cockatoos are commonly obese and however, similar cessations of reproductive activity should be carefully monitored to prevent weight-re- have been noted following the administration of lated infertility. Subcutaneous fat deposits over the coxofemoral and flank regions are more Inbreeding subtle indications of excessive energy intake. Some mating behavior is learned and some The availability of certain food items and not simply is inherited. Inbreeding may lead to infertility or energy consumption may be one of the many stimu- decreased production due to genetically controlled lants needed to begin or strengthen reproductive physical or behavioral deficits. Aviculturists can mimic naturally occurring genes that are more frequently expressed during variations in food availability by reducing food intake inbreeding can cause decreased hatching rates. Ge- and variability in the non-breeding season and then netic selection for large body types (budgerigars and dramatically increasing the quality, quantity and va- turkeys) may cause a physical inability to breed. The success of this method is equivocal but suggests the need for General further study. Frequently, the positive environmental factors that stimulate breeding and the negative factors that pre- In White-crowned Sparrows, consumption of green vent it cannot be discerned. It was found that cinogenic in large doses, proved in one experiment to changing from a low-quality to a high-quality diet be a safe, effective temporary chemosterilant when 128 was not necessary to elicit a strong reproductive fed to free-ranging male Red-winged Blackbirds. Of the remaining four factors it could not be determined if a non-stimulatory period was neces- Physical and Medical Characteristics sary or if the presence of any or all of the four factors was necessary to induce breeding. Adequate exercise is important to reproductive suc- cess and decreases the likelihood of reproductive dis- Free-ranging populations of budgerigars were found orders, such as egg-binding. Fertility Documenting if an egg is infertile or was fertile and Canaries respond principally to photoperiods, with died in early incubation is the first step in investigat- low ambient temperatures causing a delay in egg ing egg problems. Fresh, infertile eggs have a is not a prerequisite for ovulation and egg-laying in well organized small blastodisc, which in domestic canaries but improves egg production. Additionally, any Natural Incubation misshapen, mis-sized or otherwise abnormal eggs Natural incubation is a behavior under hormonal that are discarded should not be used in calculating control that can be externally affected by many fac- fertility rates. Improper parental incubation can lead to a include these eggs, as they can be fertile, or to calcu- complete lack of egg development, arrestment of em- late a separate fertlity rate for abnormal eggs. Hy- bryo development, late embryo death or abnormal or brid eggs should also be discounted, as they may have weak chicks at hatch. Fertility rates can be calculated such as macaws tend to be rather nervous in captiv- by finding what percentage of the total number of ity and are notorious for breaking eggs. Undetermined eggs should not tures and hairline cracks can cause the death of a be included. Foster parents or artificial incu- bation can be used in pairs with incubation problems. Fertility rates can be useful for discerning problems Failures in incubation can also originate from em- within a flock or individual pair. Factors that should be of the eggs and chick-raising did not occur until the considered include age of the birds, time the pair has diet contained 15% fat and 2. Studying enclosure type, enclosure location, production of eggs pertinent egg information and performing thorough in the past, past fertility and hatchability, hybrids, diagnostic procedures can help determine the cause inbreeding, date of lay, environmental parameters of some of these incubation failures. Fertility within Information Collection an aviary should be evaluated on an individual pair The attending veterinarian should review existing and species basis within an aviary. Fertility rates of records concerning the parent’s reproductive and free-ranging birds may vary among species due to medical history and fate of any eggs or chicks. Fertility is normally oping an accurate and consistent record-keeping sys- reduced in older birds, in younger birds and at the tem and regularly scheduling on-site visits will help beginning and end of a breeding season. Infertility in identify factors that could explain incubation failures these cases may be a natural occurrence and not an (see Chapter 2). Reproductive information from each pair including Domestic poultry have been genetically selected to numbers of eggs per clutch, number of clutches per produce high fertility rates of approximately 95%. Hatchability Immaturity, pair incompatibility, normal species differences, normal rates can be calculated for individual pairs, separate occurrence as part of clutch, sexual inexperience, lack of early clutches, different species, eggs incubated naturally, learning, aviary disturbances, lack of social interaction, excess eggs incubated artificially and eggs that had various social interaction, homosexual pairs, lack of pair-bonding, asynchro- nous breeding condition, improper imprinting, infrequent matings. The more precise the Environmental: hatchability statistic, the more diagnostic the infor- Incorrect photoperiod, incorrect nest box design or nesting mate- rials, incorrect enclosure design, lack of visual barriers, excessive mation that is provided (Figure 29. In domestic fowl, the hatchability of naturally and artificially incubated fertile eggs approaches 85 to Medical: 90%. With companion and aviary birds, this figure Obesity, age (young or old breeders), inbreeding, vent feathers, drug therapy (causing vitamin deficiency or direct, decreased may be much lower, and ranges from 8% to 100% fertility), previous hormonal therapy (testosterone injections), have been discussed. The number of lethal or chromosomal abnormalities reported in companion bird species is low when com- The fertility rates of most free-ranging companion pared to domestic species. Evaluating fertility and birds have not been determined, although in some hatchability statistics from parents and sisters of species studies have indicated that fertility can be breeding males may help identify lethal or semi-le- quite high. Breeding tests may the potential for similar fertility rates but more commonly the rates are lower, probably due to a combina- tion of environmental and dietary factors. This cyclic produc- tion is probably related to environ- mental factors and not due to disease-related infertility. Avicultur- ists should establish their own fertil- ity rates and standardize data so that comparisons can be made among similar aviaries. Hatchability Hatchability rates are determined from eggs that were known to be fer- tile. The egg on the left was from a are calculated by finding the percent- normal unassisted hatch, and the chick from this egg was strong and developed normally post-hatching. Exposure to toxic compounds, either directly – Cooling after development has begun or in the food or water, should be considered. Behav- – Suffocation due to incorrect ventilation Inbreeding ioral problems including lack of pair-bonding, incon- Chromosome abnormalities sistent parental incubation and egg trauma in the Egg-transmitted infectious diseases nest may also cause hatchability problems. Total caloric intake and food selection – Riboflavin, vitamin B12, folic acid, biotin, manganese, behavior for each individual bird should be evalu- pyridoxine, pantothenic acid, phosphorous, boron, li- ated. Nutritionally deficient hens can produce eggs, noleic acid, vitamin K, vitamin D Secondary vitamin deficiencies but the low level of nutrients may prevent the eggs – Antibiotic therapy destroying vitamin-producing flora from hatching. The age of embryonic mortality will – Diet imbalances, inadequate food intake usually depend on the degree and type of deficiency Viral diseases Bacterial infections or toxicity. Fungal infections Egg jarring or shaking in the first trimester Severe hypovitaminosis A causes a complete cessa- Incubator faults tion of egg production.

Tis rule ignores some conventions used in non-English languages to simplify rules for English-language publications generic kamagra polo 100mg otc erectile dysfunction treatment without medicine. Names in non-roman alphabets (Cyrillic discount 100 mg kamagra polo visa do erectile dysfunction pumps work, Greek purchase kamagra polo 100 mg on line impotence quad hoc, Arabic buy kamagra polo 100 mg on-line erectile dysfunction treatment ring, Hebrew, Korean) or character-based languages (Chinese, Japanese). Romanization, a form of transliteration, means using the roman (Latin) alphabet to represent the letters or characters of another alphabet. Tis rule ignores some conventions used in non-English languages to simplify rules for English-language publications. An organization such as a university, society, association, corporation, or government body may serve as an author or editor. International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry, Organic and Biomolecular Chemistry Division. American College of Surgeons, Committee on Trauma, Ad Hoc Subcommittee on Outcomes, Working Group. American Academy of Pediatrics, Committee on Pediatric Emergency Medicine; American College of Emergency Physicians, Pediatric Committee. Tis rule ignores some conventions used in non-English languages to simplify rules for English-language publications. Follow the same rules as used for author names, but end the list of names with a comma and the specifc role, that is, editor or translator. Separate the surname from the given name or initials by a comma; follow initials with a period; separate successive names by a semicolon and a space. If you abbreviate a word in one reference in a list of references, abbreviate the same word in all references. Marubini E (Istituto di Statistica Medica e Biometria, Universita degli Studi di Milano, Milan, Italy), Rebora P, Reina G. Tis rule ignores some conventions used in non-English languages to simplify rules for English-language publications. Moskva becomes Moscow Wien becomes Vienna Italia becomes Italy Espana becomes Spain Examples for Author Affiliation 18. Book with author afliation included Title for Entire Books (required) General Rules for Title • Enter the title of a book as it appears in the original document, in the original language • Capitalize only the frst word of a title, proper nouns, proper adjectives, acronyms, and initialisms • Use a colon followed by a space to separate a title from a subtitle, unless another form of punctuation (such as a question mark, period, or an exclamation point) is already present • Follow non-English titles with a translation whenever possible; place the translation in square brackets • End a title with a period unless a question mark or exclamation point already ends it or a Content Type or Type of Medium follows it (see below), then end with a space Specific Rules for Title • Titles containing a Greek letter, chemical formula, or another special character • Titles not in English • Titles in more than one language • Titles ending in punctuation other than a period • No title can be found Box 15. Diagnostika i kompleksnoe lechenie osnovnykh gastroenterologicheskikh zabolevanii: klinicheskie ocherki. Tis rule ignores some conventions used in non-English languages to simplify rules for English-language publications. Base molecular de la expresion del mensaje genetico [Molecular basis of gene expression]. Pfegekompendium: Wirkstofe, Materialien, Techniken [Care compendium: principles, materials, techniques]. Diagnostika i kompleksnoe lechenie osnovnykh gastroenterologicheskikh zabolevanii: klinicheskie ocherki [Diagnosis and complex treatment of basic gastrointestinal diseases: clinical studies]. Le genome: avancees scientifques et therapeutiques et consequences sociales = Te genome: scientifc and therapeutic developments and social consequences. When a translation of a book title is provided, place it in square brackets afer the original language or romanized title. Base molecular de la expresion del mensaje genetico [Molecular basis of gene expression]. Occasionally a publication does not appear to have any title; the book or other short document simply begins with the text. Musical pathology in the nineteenth century: Richard Wagner and degeneration [dissertation]. Base molecular de la expresion del mensaje genetico [Molecular basis of gene expression]. Book with content type added Type of Medium for Entire Books (required) General Rules for Type of Medium • Indicate the type of medium (microfche, ultrafche, microflm, microcard, etc. Women and medicine: remedy books, 1533-1865, from the Wellcome Library for the History and Understanding of Medicine, London [microflm]. Base molecular de la expresion del mensaje genetico [Molecular basis of gene expression]. Etude et traitment de la meningite tuberculeuse [Study and treatment of meningeal tuberculosis] [microflm]. Book in a microform with type of medium given Edition for Entire Books (required) General Rules for Edition • Indicate the edition/version being cited afer the title (and Content Type or Type of Medium if present) when a book is published in more than one edition or version • Abbreviate common words (see Abbreviation rules for editions below) • Capitalize only the frst word of the edition statement, proper nouns, and proper adjectives • Express numbers representing editions in arabic ordinals. Specific Rules for Edition • Abbreviation rules for editions • Non-English words for editions • First editions Box 26. Tis rule ignores some conventions used in non-English languages to simplify rules for English-language publications. Tis rule ignores some conventions used in non-English languages to simplify rules for English-language publications. Examples: ĉ or ç becomes c ⚬ Do not convert numbers or words for numbers to arabic ordinals as is the practice for English language publications. Tis rule ignores some conventions used in non-English languages to simplify rules for English-language publications. Examples: ŏ becomes o ū becomes u ⚬ Do not convert numbers or words for numbers to arabic ordinals as is the practice for English language publications. Book with an edition in a language other than English Editor and other Secondary Authors for Entire Books (optional) General Rules for Editor and other Secondary Authors • A secondary author modifes the work of the author. Tis rule ignores some conventions used in non-English languages to simplify rules for English-language publications. Tis rule ignores some conventions used in non-English languages to simplify rules for English-language publications. Chicago as the place for a publication of the American Medical Association), place the city in square brackets, such as "[Chicago]". Book with unknown place, publisher, and date of publication Publisher for Entire Books (required) General Rules for Publisher • A publisher is defned as the individual or organization issuing the book • Record the name of the publisher as it appears in the publication, using whatever capitalization and punctuation is found there • Abbreviate well-known publisher names if desired but with caution to avoid confusion. If you abbreviate a word in one reference in a list of references, abbreviate the same word in all references. Place all translated publisher names in square brackets unless the translation is given in the publication. Tokyo: Medikaru Rebyusha; Beijing (China): [Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, Population Research Institute]; Taiyuan (China): Shanxi ke xue ji she chu ban she; [Note that the concept of capitalization does not exist in Chinese. Terefore in transliterating Chinese publisher names only the frst word and proper nouns are capitalized] • If the name of a division or another part of an organization is included in the publisher information, give the names in hierarchical order from highest to lowest Valencia (Spain): Universidade de Valencia, Instituto de Historia de la Ciencia y Documentacion Lopez Pinero; • Ignore diacritics, accents, and special characters in names. Tis rule ignores some conventions used in non-English languages to simplify rules for English-language publications. Aarhus (Denmark): Aarhus-Universitetsforlag [Aarhus University Press]; • As an option, you may translate all publisher names not in English. Place all translated publisher names in square brackets unless the translation is given in the publication. Designate the agency that issued the publication as the publisher and include distributor information as a note. Add the name of the distributor, the city and state, and the accession or order number. For those publications with joint or co-publishers, use the name given frst as the publisher and include the name of the other(s) as a note if desired. Book with unknown place, publisher, and date of publication Date of Publication for Entire Books (required) General Rules for Date of Publication • Always give the year of publication • Convert roman numerals to arabic numbers. A copyright date is identifed by the symbol ©, the letter "c", or the word copyright preceding the date.

May Aye Than; Mu Mu Sein Myint; Ohnmar Ko; Myint Myint Khine; San San Myint; Nu Nu Win; Mar Mar Nyein discount kamagra polo 100mg otc erectile dysfunction pills from canada. In order to combat the problems of diarrhoea globally buy discount kamagra polo 100mg online erectile dysfunction at age 50, World Health Organization has given a special emphasis on the use of traditional medicines in management of diarrhoea buy kamagra polo 100 mg with visa erectile dysfunction 23. It thus becomes important to evaluate commonly available natural drugs as alternative to currently used anti-diarrhoeal drugs order kamagra polo 100 mg with mastercard erectile dysfunction treatment vancouver. The aim is to evaluate in vivo and in vitro antidiarrhoeal activity of reputed Mango seed kernel. In vivo the anti- diarrhoeal activity of aqueous extracts were carried out using castor oil-induced diarrhoea model in mice with the standard loperamide. Like loperamide, a single oral dose of its extract produced significant reduction in fecal out put and onset of diarrhoea (p<0. May Aye Than; Mu Mu Sein Myint; Myint Myint Khine; Phyu Phyu Win; San San Myint; Nu Nu Win; Ohnmar Tun, Naw. In order to combat the problems of diarrhoea globally, the World Health Organization encouraged studies for the treatment of diarrhoea diseases with herbs. It thus becomes important to evaluate commonly available nature drugs as alternative to currently used antidiarrhoeal drugs. The study was carried out to evaluated acute toxicity, phytochemical, and antidiarrhoeal activity of Swertia angustifolia. Acute toxicity study showed that there was no toxic effect even with maximum permissible dose of 24g/kg. In vivo antidiarrhoeal activities of aqueous extracts (3, 6, 12g/kg single oral doses) were carried out using castor oil-induced diarrhoeal model in mice with standard loperamide. Like loperamide, all doses of extract produced significant reduction in fecal output and prolongation in onset of diarrhoea (p<0. To understand the mechanism of action, it is also evaluated castor oil-induced gastrointestinal motility (intestinal-transit) and intestinal fluid accumulation. The extract and loperamide also significantly reduced the castor oil-induced gastrointestinal motility and intestinal fluid accumulation (anti-secretory effect) (p<0. Antibacterial activity screening of aqueous extracts against 9 types of pathogenic microorganisms was carried out by employing agar disc diffusion method. These results indicated their potential usefulness in infected diarrhoea with these three organisms. In conclusion, aqueous extract of Swertia angustifolia revealed the antidiarrhoeal effect and potential utility in both infected and non-infected diarrhoea states. Zaw Myo Tint; May Aye Than; Mu Mu Sein Myint; Khin Tar Yar Myint; Win Win Maw; Myint Myint Khine; San San Myint; Aung Aung Maw. The aim of this study was to evaluate phytochemicals, acute toxicity and antidiaharrhoeal activity of 70% ethanolic extract of fruit of Phyllanthus emblica Linn. Phytochemicals test showed present of alkaloid, glycoside, reducing sugar, steroid/terpenes, flavonoid, polyphenol and tannin. In-vitro antidiarrhoeal activity was evaluated by (1) castor oil-induced diarrhoea test (onset of defecation and number of stools passed), (2) castor oil-induced enteropooling test (weight/volume of accumulated fluid) and (3) castor oil-induced small intestinal transit (passage of charcoal meal). The percent inhibition of intestinal transit was significantly increased standard group (p<0. Evaluation of bioactive organic compounds and antioxidant activity in vivo and in vitro methods of Vitis vinifera Linn. Among them, grape seeds and pomegranate seeds have been reported to provide superior antioxidant activity than vitamin C and vitamin E. The aim of this research was to evaluate the antioxidant activity from the seeds of locally cultivated Vitis vinifera Linn. In the present work, on silica gel column chromatographic separation a triterpenoid compound: ursolic acid (A, 0. These results were indicative that phenolic compounds of catechin, epicatechin and gallic acid showed good antioxidant power and riterpenoid ursolic acid has low antioxidant property than standard antioxidant vitamin E and vitamin C. Consequently, it can be inferred that catechin, epicatechin and gallic acid are very powerful antioxidants and they are more effective than vitamin C, and ursolic acid has lower anti-oxidant effect than vitamin C. According to this acute toxicity test, there is no acute toxic effects occurred in Grape seeds as well as Pomegranate seeds at maximum permissible dose of 16g/kg b. It was investigated that, Grape and Pomegranate seeds extract showed higher potency activity than isolated compounds in antioxidant activity, because it may be due to the most active compounds that are concentrated in crude extracts. Both Grape and Pomegranate seed extracts showed comparable antioxidant power in in vivo and in vitro methods. It is evident that, Grape and Pomegranate seeds extracts contain high level of antiradical phytochemical constituents and they could used as the free radical scavengers to prevent the oxidative damage of diseases. From the present result obtained, chief sources of two locally cultivated Grape and Pomegranate seeds could be safely used as anti-oxidative agents for the treatment of diseases caused by free radicals. Twelve indigenous plant extracts were tested on 5 strains of Escherichia coli, three strains of Shigellae, and one strain each of Klebsiella aeruginosa, Plesiomonas shigelloides, Proteus morganii, Pseudomonas pyocyanes, Salmonella typhi, Staphylococcus aureus and Vibrio cholerae for in vitro study. Of the 12 indigenous plant extracts tested, Ageratum conyzoides (Hkwathaipan) was active on four species of tested bacteria; Coleus aromaticus (Ziyaywetthu) on six bacteria species; Cuminum cyminum (Ziyasai) on two bacteria species; Embilica officinalis (Zibyuthee) on 11 bacteria species; Foeniculum vulgare (Samonsaba) on 1 bacteria specie; Nyctanthes arbortristis (Seikphaluywet) on six bacteria species; Piper betle (Kunywet) on 14 bacteria species; Piper nigrum (Ngayokkaungsai) on five bacteria species; Terminalia chebula (Pangathee) on 11 bacteria species; Vinca rosea (Thinbawmahnyoywet) on 5 bacteria species. Staphylococcus aureus strain was artifically infected on open wounds in experimental rats and topical application of plant extracts in paraffin was applied for in Nyctanthes arbor-tristis accelerated the rate of wound healing without formation of pus. The purpose of the investigation is to study the anti-asthmatic effect of some traditional medicinal plant extracts which are claimed for their therapeutic values in the treatment of asthma in Myanmar. The efficacy and mechanism of action of five reputed bronchodilating traditional medicinal plant extracts were studied on the in vitro guinea-pig tracheal chain model. Since this study indicated that the relaxant action found was neither mediated through antihistaminic effect nor anti 5 hydroxytrytamine effects, it may probably act through direct relaxant action on the tracheal smooth muscle. Experimental evaluation of biological and anti-mycobacterial activities of medicinal plants. Khin Chit; Win Myint; Ti Ti; Kyi Thein; Win Win Maw; Mar Mar Myint; Kyaw Myint; Aye Aye Thein; Aye Than; Myo Khin. Anti-mycobacterial activity of plant extracts were evaluated by in vitro screening. Chemical screening of the active plant extracts was also conducted by standard procedures described for the detection of organic constituents. Some of the plant extracts were found to have antimycobacterial activity even on strains resistant to isoniazid and rifampicin. This was important preliminary information for the use of natural products in the treatment of tuberculosis. Experimental screening for anti-peptic ulcer activity of some Myanmar traditional medicine formulations. Measuring gastric juice acidity in rats employing pyloric ligation confirmed that these 3 drugs did reduce gastric acidity, particularly diminishing the free acid 1/3 and shifting gastric pH from 6 to 7. Handbook of botanical and physico-chemical characterization of Myanmar traditional medicine formulation. Botanical characterization and physico-chemical standardization of the 39 traditional medicine formulations (covering all plant ingredients investigated) are presented in this book. The main aim of this research work is to evaluate scientifically on the hepatoprotective activity of Emblica officinalis Gaertn. It was found in acute toxicity study that ethanolic extract of Emblica officinalis Gaertn. The hepatoprotective effect of extract was studied on thirty albino rats of both sexes weighing 180 to 200g. The liver tissues were sent for histological examinations to look for degeneration and necrosis. The purpose of present study was to evaluate scientifically on the hepatoprotective effect of stem bark of Pterocarpus marsupium Roxb.

J Am Vet Med Assoc 179:1273-1276 buy discount kamagra polo 100mg on line erectile dysfunction treatment bodybuilding, demic coast goitre in Hokkaido buy kamagra polo 100mg amex impotence beta blockers, Ja- che Schilddrusenbefunde bei Vögeln 57 buy 100 mg kamagra polo otc erectile dysfunction pills from canada. J Am Vet Med Assoc and treatment of adrenal insuffi- lation of water and sodium intake in Wroclaw cheap kamagra polo 100mg mastercard zopiclone impotence. Addition- ally, systemic diseases (hepatic, renal, pancreatic, gastrointestinal, hematopoietic) can alter the condi- tion of the integument. These changes are frequently detected by observant owners and should be carefully evaluated by the veterinarian. In addition to re- sponding to systemic abnormalities, the feathers and 24 skin are subject to a group of organ-specific diseases. The unique structure and adaptations of the avian integument have long attracted interest. These include wattle, ricti, ear lobes, comb (chickens); dewlap, snood (turkeys); casque (cassowaries); shields (coots and gallinules); knob (goose) and various modifica- tions of the head plumage into crests and bristles. Through selective breeding the comb of the red jun- glefowl has been modified into dozens of unique shapes, sizes and colors. These unfeathered append- ages are particularly susceptible to traumatic inju- John E. The only common elements are skin, beak, nails and feathers, which vary in pigmentation, shape, texture, function, location and number, depending on evolutionary adaptations. The germinative layer is thin (two to four cells thick) in the feathered areas of the body and may be much thicker and interdigitate with the dermis in unfeathered areas of the legs and feet. The dermis is divided into superficial and deep lay- ers, with the former containing loosely arranged lay- ers of collagen in interwoven bundles and the latter containing fat, feather follicles, smooth muscles that control movement of the feathers and large blood vessels and nerves that supply the dermis and epi- dermis. The avian body including the integument, bones, ten- interpad spaces are shaded and the digital pads are unshaded. Metatarsal pads (m), interdigital web (i), nail (n) and metatarsal spur (arrow) (modified from Lucas and Stettenheim32). The skin overlying the head, extremities and ster- num is firmly attached to underlying skeletal struc- glands varies widely among species. The ar- eas with the most subcutaneous tissues include the The feathers serve a protective function and the dorsal cervical, midline, axillary and groin regions. The skin is indigenous to areas with inclement weather are cov- capable of dissipating some heat through evapora- ered with feathers or contain projections (spikes) to tive cooling but the lack of sweat glands makes birds facilitate movement in ice and snow. The func- tional capacity of the evaporative cooling mechanism During the breeding season, many avian species will may be adversely affected by an essential fatty acid develop a thickening and increased vascularization deficiency. Depending on the species, one or both genders Some birds maintain feather quality through dust- may develop this brood patch, which should not be ing, sunning or bathing. Other species, most notably Birds lack sweat glands and most of the skin over the cockatoos, have specialized feathers (powder down) body is thin, dry and inelastic. The feet and, to vary- that produce a fine keratin debris that is involved in ing degrees among species, the legs are covered with maintaining feather condition. The skin is glandless except for the mal keratin debris should not be confused with a uropygial (preen) gland, glands of the ear canal and pathologic condition. The uropygial gland is involved in portion of the keratin shaft from a developing feather maintaining feather condition in those species that should not be confused with dandruff. Cere The wax-like cere is composed of keratinized skin at the base of the upper beak. Many Anseriformes lack a cere and their nostrils are located in the tip of the soft beak (see Figure 46. The cere is affected by a number of conditions, and its appearance can change with the health of the bird. In raptors, the cere may change from bright yellow to pale yellow based on the quantity of carotenoids in the diet. The discolored hy- In this case, a traumatic beak wound in a Great-billed Parrot has perkeratotic material can be moistened and gently been repaired with cyanoacrylic resin (arrows) (courtesy of Louise peeled away or removed by scraping or rasping. Hyperkeratosis and flaking of the skin around the cere may be pronounced in malnourished birds. Some The beak is modified to rip (raptors), tear or crush hypertrophy is normal in reproductively active hens. The beak of some gallinaceous birds is Beak serrated and resembles teeth in both form and func- tion. The buccal surface of the upper beak of some The beak (rostrum) consists of the bones of the upper Psittaciformes has a number of rasp-like ridges (Fig- (maxilla) and lower (mandible) jaws and their horny ure 24. The beak (or bill) function- nuts, filing down fruits and maintaining a sharp edge ally replaces the lips and teeth of mammals and 28 on the lower beak. The bone underlying the rhamphotheca is The skin and beak of birds are sensitive to heat, cold covered by periosteum. The dermis of the beak a goose will elicit an increase in blood pressure, heart does not appear to be divided into layers as it is in the rate and respiratory rate and initiate a tear flow skin, but rather is a single layer of dense connective (pain response). The rhamphotheca Birds that use the beak to search, catch or select food can be viewed as the stratum corneum of the beak, have a well developed “bill tip organ” that can be and the dermis is well vascularized and connected to recognized as papillae that originate in the dermis the periosteum of the underlying bone. Trauma or and end in crater-like structures at the distal tip of necrosis of the dermis will frequently result in a the beak. The upper beak in Psittaciformes can be The beak, nails and spurs grow continuously and are viewed as a probe that is used to move items over the worn down by digging, eating or chewing hard objects bill tip organ in the lower beak. The beak is used as a tool, weapon and obtain food by pecking (Columbiformes and Passeri- as a tactile exploratory organ for food discrimination, formes) do not appear to have this organ. The bill tip plumage care, nest-building and feeding of the organ should be presumed to be extremely sensitive, young. Note that the lateral plates migrate in a curvilinear fashion toward the cutting edge of the rhinotheca. The hard outer horn is produced by the epidermis and grows toward the rim (cutting sur- face). A softer keratin that surrounds the papillae of the bill tip organ originates from the keratinized epidermis (Figure 24. Any companion bird that requires repeated beak trimming should receive a thorough diagnostic evaluation to detect the underlying management, nutritional or systemic abnormality that is causing excessive beak growth or improper beak wear. To improve the sensory capacity of the bill tip organ, the lower beak should be included in routine groom- ing activities if the beak is overgrown. In combination, lipids from the keratinocytes and uropygial gland The recently hatched neonates of most bird species secretions are believed to waterproof the feathers, have a small pointed eminence on the dorsal surface inhibit the growth of bacteria and fungi and main- of the upper beak (egg tooth) that is used during the tain proper moisture content and pliability of the hatching process to penetrate the shell (see Color 30). It can be theorized that the severe and The egg tooth regresses in Galliformes, Psittacifor- generalized feather pathology associated with sys- mes and Passeriformes during the first week of life. Patagia Abnormalities of the beak are caused by: Skin may be reflected into flat, membrane-like struc- Malformation (often due to nutritional disorders) tures (patagia) in areas where the wings, legs, neck Primary viral infection and tail join the body. A cer- lorikeets) may be associated with malnutrition or vical patagium is located anterior to the shoulder in systemic disease. This is a transitory structure that is in some neonatal psittacines (see Chapters 30 and formed when the leg is in certain positions. A discussion of the diseases of the beak is pro- called a web to differentiate it from a patagiam, vided in Chapter 19. Some of the patagia are common sites of chronic ulcerative dermatitis lesions (modified from Lucas and Stettenheim32). The opening to the gland is 3) ventral region of neck 19) vent frequently surrounded by a tuft of feathers (open arrow). Additional secretions from the skin and the 8) left ulnar region 24) left posterior shank region uropygial gland are believed to suppress the growth 9) left wrist region 25) left lateral shank region 10) left region of metacarpus, 26) left anterior shank region of microorganisms.

Presence from transplanted animals showed the presence of viable islet of insulin or C-peptide is not sufcient enough to regulate architecture having immunopositivity for C-peptide order kamagra polo 100mg online impotence and high blood pressure, insulin order kamagra polo 100 mg with mastercard erectile dysfunction causes yahoo, glucose purchase kamagra polo 100 mg with visa erectile dysfunction new treatments, but presence of glucagon and somatostatin is also glucagon cheap 100mg kamagra polo with mastercard erectile dysfunction natural treatment reviews, and somatostatin along with basal expression of needed to maintain the homeostasis. Furthermore, a fasting blood glucose becomes a better strategy than that of cells alone [42]. Taken together, these results suggest that these induced diferentiation of glucagon and somatostatin positive cells to cells have a similar function to normal physiological islets providemoreorlessacompleteisletphenotypewithmature both in vitro and in vivo. Terefore, in conclusion, we state that swertisin is a Some groups have reported that stem cell diferentiation novel molecule which can serve as an efcient diferentiating into islet cells follows embryonic ontology and their gene agent generating islet-like cell types, with enormous yield and expression of diferentiated clusters should be similar to that mature functional status. Ngn-3 is known to and readily available diferentiating agents still remains a bethekeymasterregulatorofendocrinecellfate;initiation challenge unless we attempt to explore more medicinal herbal of islet diferentiation signaling occurs by early induction of products with potential stem cell conversion for miraculous Ngn-3 protein [45]. Te present study showed early induction therapeutic activities like islet neogenesis. Dadheech conceived and designed the lowering efect of aqueous extract of Enicostemma littorale Blume in diabetes: a possible mechanism of action,” Journal of experiments; S. Umezawa, “Conophylline: a novel diferen- tiation inducer for pancreatic cells,” International Journal of performed other experiments; N. Anandwardhan Hardikar, “Evaluation of efect of aqueous extract of Enicostemma littorale blume in streptozotocin-induced type 1 diabetic rats,” Indian National Center for Cell Science, Ganeshkhind, Pune, Maha- Journal of Experimental Biology,vol. Goyal, “Efcacy of Enicostemma littorale in Type 2 diabetic patients,” Phytotherapy Research,vol. Eisenbarth, “Type 1 diabetes: new per- “Enicostemma littorale: a new therapeutic target for islet neoge- spectives on disease pathogenesis and treatment,” Te Lancet, nesis,” International Journal of Integrative Biology,vol. Tojo, “Bone marrow stromal cells molecular imaging,” Journal of Nuclear Medicine,vol. Gurib-Fakim, “Medicinal plants: traditions of yesterday and endocrine progenitor cells in mice,” Journal of Clinical Investi- drugs of tomorrow,” Molecular Aspects of Medicine,vol. Bajema, “Islet transplantation in type 1 diabetes,” British Medical 1392–1401, 2006. Idrus,“In vitro generation of functional insulin- creas development: from embryonic pathways to programming producing cells from lipoaspirated human adipose tissue- renewable sources of beta cells,” F1000 Biology Reports,vol. Murtaugh, “Pancreas and beta-cell development: from the actual to the possible,” Development,vol. Wobus, “Activin a-induced diferentiation of embryonic stem cells into endoderm and pancreatic progenitors-the infuence of difer- entiation factors and culture conditions,” Stem Cell Reviews and Reports,vol. Easom, “ -granule transport and exocytosis,” Seminars in Cell and Developmental Biology,vol. Dhananjaya Naidu, and Siew Hua Gan 1 Department of Biotechnology, Sri Venkateswara University, Tirupati 517502, Andhra Pradesh, India 2 Human Genome Centre, School of Medical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 16150 Kubang Kerian, Malaysia 3 Department of Biochemistry, Sri Venkateswara Medical College, Tirupati 517502, Andhra Pradesh, India 4Department of Zoology, Yogi Vemana University, Kadapa 516003, Andhra Pradesh, India Correspondence should be addressed to Pasupuleti Visweswara Rao; visuthebiotech@gmail. Tis is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Te present study was conducted to evaluate the therapeutic efcacy of Rhinacanthus nasutus (R. Tis plant is commonly known as plantmaterialsfromallovertheworldhavebeenusedfor Nagamalli in Telugu, Doddapatika in Kannada, Kaligai and the treatment of diabetes mellitus. Medicinal plants are a Anichi in Tamil, Yuthikaparni in Sanskrit, Jupani in Hindi, good source of compounds with hypoglycemic efects and and Gajakarni in Marathi [6]. Some of the medicinal In addition, the root of this plant has been reported to plants such as Panax ginseng and Piper longum possess be used in traditional medicine to counter the efects of signifcant antihyperglycemic and antihyperlipidemic actions snake venom [7]. Diferentpartsofthisplanthavealso which have been reported to have the potential to alleviate beentraditionallyusedforthetreatmentofvariousdiseases 2 Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine such as diabetes, eczema, pulmonary tuberculosis, herpes, Group I. Normal rats (controls: animals receiving hypertension, hepatitis, and several types of skin diseases. Te dose of 200 mg/kg was selected based on our previous study [13]wherewefoundthat200mg/kgdosegavesimilar 2. Tere are some previous studies where were collected from Tirumala Hills, Tirupati, and Chittoor it has been reported that the plant extract has no toxic efect district of Andhra Pradesh, in the period of July–October when used in animals at higher doses also 500 mg/kg dose 2009. Te free access to tap water and pellet show per the guidelines of powdered plant material was macerated and shaken in the Institute Animal Ethics committee. Te hexane, ethyl acetate, methanol, and water for the diferent concentrate was then placed on aluminum foil before freeze phytochemical constituents present in the plant extract based drying. Te residual extract was dissolved in sterile water on the previous method described by Harborne [14]. Glibenclamide (Sugatrol, glacial acetic acid, and two drops of ferric chloride solution Hyderabad,India)waspurchasedfromalocaldrugstore. Te presence of a reddish brown ring between between 150 and 180 g were obtained from Sri Venkateswara thetwolayersconfrmedthepresenceofglycosides. Tey were individually housed in clean, sterile polypropylene cages under standard conditions 2. Te test for favonoids (lead acetate (12 h light/dark cycles) with free access to standard chow test) was conducted based on the method published by Peach (Hindustan Lever Ltd. For one week prior to the start of the experiments, (10%) were added to the alcoholic solution of the extract and the animals were acclimatized in the laboratory. Te presence of phenols (ferric chloride and the Institutional Animal Ethics Committee Guide- test) was confrmed using the method published by Trease lines (Resolution no. Te rats were di- group, indicating that the extract contained phenolic sub- videdintofvegroupsofsixanimalseach: stances, which are antioxidants. All animals were sacrifced 7 ∗ by cervical dislocation at the end of the experiment on day 6 ∘ 5 30. Te tissues were ∗∗ ∗∗∗ washed with ice-cold saline and were immediately immersed 4 ∘ 3 in liquid nitrogen and stored at −80 C for further biochemical analysis. Bars with the same superscripts do not difer signifcantly at mitochondrial enzymes including succinate dehydrogenase < 0. Several compounds were confrmed to be present in the various types of extract (Table 1). Flavonoids, tannins, activity among animals in the diabetic group, a change that and carbohydrates were present in the aqueous extract. In earlier reports, Singh treated diabetic rats was similar to the augmentation of the et al. In diabetic animals, the extreme accumulation of 4 Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine Table 1: Phytochemical analysis of various extracts of R. Bars with the same superscripts do not difer signifcantly at present in this plant extract in our study. Previous reports also suggest that other herbs impaired in diabetic animals and humans [30]. In contrast, diabetic rats treated with ner parallel to that induced by glibenclamide. Kasetti nasutus to diabetic rats may help reduce diabetes-associated Ramesh Babu and Dr. University, for providing him with the necessary extract-treated diabetic rats may be due to the antioxidants facilities to complete the work. Further studies to identify the exact composition of the extract will be useful in the future. Appa Rao, “Antihyperglycemic and antioxidant efects has been widely used to induce type 1 diabetes in experimen- of Talinum portulacifolium leaf extracts in streptozotocin dia- tal animal models. Te considerable destruction of cells betic rats: a dose-dependent study,” Pharmacognosy Magazine, vol. Tis destruction hypolipidemic efects of favonoid rich extract from Eugenia jambolana seeds on streptozotocin induced diabetic rats,” Food of cells accounts for the marked decrease in the amount of and Chemical Toxicology,vol. Basu, Indian Medicinal Plants with activity, with efects comparable to those of ganciclovir and Illustration, vol.

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