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Hyphal development and extension occurred in less than 24 h only in glycerol treatment discount clindamycin 150mg amex virus map. In other treatments buy 150mg clindamycin antibiotics cvs, it took anywhere between 24 and 48 h cheap 150 mg clindamycin mastercard infection root canal, except in the case of gelatine and nutrient broth buy cheap clindamycin 150 mg online infection 2010, both of which took longer. Several test adjuvants were able to take sporulation levels much higher than the untreated control (F9,20 = 15. Gelatine was the least effective among all the treatments with the lowest 4 numbers of conidia (2. In terms of conidia density generated on a 20-mm-diameter mycelial mat, the treatments varied signicantly. In the second method, wherein pellets were added to the adjuvant solution (F9,20 = 46. Growth and conidiation of mycelial pellets on excised parts of the coconut palm Conidiation of adjuvant-treated mycelial pellets occurred on various parts of the coconut palm but the progress of growth and conidiation was not uniform on all (Table 3). The progress of fresh fungal growth out of the pellets was the best on the nut surface or exocarp (green portion of tender nut). An unexpected shrinkage of the mycelial pellets was observed on the short peduncle as well as on the adaxial and abaxial surfaces of the leaet. Effect of simulated sunlight on the conidiation of Hirsutella thompsonii Irradiance with simulated sunlight for 1 h resulted in reduced conidiogenesis by H. Better conidiation was observed under alternating light dark regime than under total darkness in all the treatments (F3,32 = 39. The three adjuvants shielded the pellets from adverse sunlight to certain extent and helped retain enough moisture to be able to undergo conidiogenesis successfully (F3,32 = 19. Pathogenicity of adjuvant-treated pellets Prior to eld-testing of the fungus, the adjuvant-treated pellets were tested for pathoge- nicity towards the coconut mite. Glycerol-treated pellets were the most effective in terms of the mortality caused, a 16. Field trial 2 The pre-treatment counts of live mites per mm of the nut surface just below the perianth ranged from 6. A signicant reduction in the post-treatment population of the coconut mite was observed in nut samples collected from the tagged bunch 1 (F4,55 = 19. The fungus was able to cause disease in the mite on all the sprayed palms as evidenced during the post-treatment sampling. In terms of the pre-harvest damage grades, all the fungal treatments were on a par with the chemical and superior to control in both the tagged bunch 1 (F4,55 = 18. Several adjuvants have been found to have an additive effect on the performance of the fungus against the coconut mite. The laboratory studies also indicated that not all substances with recognised nutrient or humectant qual- ities would augment the performance of H. For example, skimmed milk powder, gelatine and nutrient broth were either ineffective or only slightly better than control. Assigning the exact reason for the difference in performance of each of these test adjuvants seems impossible because of the differences in their macro- and micronutrient contents and their availability to the fungus. Later, McCoy and Couch (1982) demonstrated the utility of certain adjuvants to stimulate conidiation of H. The fungus was able to put forth new hyphae and conidiate profusely on several plant parts, more so on the nut surface, indicating the possible additive effect of the treatments under the actual eld situation (Table 3). However, the variations could be explained as the impact of the texture of the plant surface as well as the interaction of the resident microora with the fungus. Tank-mixed nutrients enable biopesticide fungi to grow and sporulate on the plant parts thus aiding continual infection of surviving mites. The fungus treated with selected adjuvants in fact caused higher mortality of the mite in the laboratory experiment (Fig. The most apparent reason for the increased mite mortality could be the ability of the adjuvants to raise the inoculum levels through enhancing the conidiation of the fungus during the incubation time. Adjuvant-treated pellets, both exposed and unexposed to simulated sunlight, produced appreciable numbers of conidia compared with control, irrespective of the two incubation conditions. The pellets exposed to simulated sunlight rapidly lost considerable moisture but could recover later during the incubation putting forth numerable sporulating hyphae and a few distorted phialides. Overall, better conidiation was observed under alternating light dark regime than under total darkness in all the treatments, which led to the application of the fungus in the early morning hours in the eld. The number of mites that come in contact with the inoculum would be more during the night, by which time conidiogenesis of the fungus would have commenced. The coconut mite usually comes out of the perianth between 02:00 and 06:00 hours (a. Glycerol, the most effective adjuvant, has excellent hygroscopic property (Burges 1998) and may have conserved moisture better in the pellets even after the sunlight treatment to enable the fungus to conidiate post exposure. Though hyphomycetous fungi are highly susceptible to damage by solar radiation (Goettel and Inglis 1997; Inglis et al. The general incidence of the coconut mite at the eld trial site had not come down during the experiment period of nine months as observed in control palms that still scored 4. In the 36 palms that constituted the three fungal treatments, the combined mean post-treatment mite population was a staggering 86. This population collapse was aided by the adjuvants presumably by their humectant, nutrient and adhesive qualities (Burges 1998). By absorbing water in the moist night and slowly losing it in the dry daytime, these nutrients might have acted as water-availability buffers for H. This effect was anticipated to happen in the eld on the basis of the laboratory study (Fig. Also, the unique microclimatic condi- tions within the coconut crown might have supported the survival, development and initiation of disease by the fungus. While the temperature within the crown tends to be below the ground level temperature, the relative humidity tends to be higher inside the crown (Sreerama Kumar, unpublished observations). Fragmentation of mycelium through the use of polyethylene glycol in the production medium has been achieved (Sreerama Kumar et al. Multilocation trials are going on in six states and the nal results will be examined closely to arrive at a decision on the recommendation of mycelial application of H. Acknowledgements The Project Director, Project Directorate of Biological Control, kindly provided the research facilities. Entomophaga 20:229 240 Moore D, Alexander L (1987) Aspects of migration and colonization of the coconut palm by the coconut mite, Eriophyes guerreronis (Keifer) (Acari: Eriophyidae). Misc Publ Entomol Soc Am 10(3):19 76 Sreerama Kumar P (2002) Development of a biopesticide for the coconut mite in India. In: Proceedings of the British crop protection conference- pests and diseases, vol 1 & 2. Indian Coconut J 31(5):11 17 Sreerama Kumar P, Singh L, Tabassum H (2005) Potential use of polyethylene glycol in the mass pro- duction of nonsynnematous and synnematous strains of Hirsutella thompsonii Fisher in submerged culture. Ann Appl Biol 101:13 18 A tale of three acaropathogenic fungi in Israel: Hirsutella, Meira and Acaromyces U. Sztejnberg Originally published in the journal Experimental and Applied Acarology, Volume 46, Nos 1 4, 183 194. Hirsutella thompsonii Fisher was introduced twice, killed 80 90% of the exposed mites, but due to its requirements for near-saturation humidities was deemed unsuitable for local outdoors conditions. Mortality was not due to parasitization; extracts from the media in which the fungi had developed caused considerable mite death, suggesting that it was a result of fungal toxins.

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As research in aging biology advances and novel molecular targets are identied cheap 150 mg clindamycin free shipping bacteria on tongue, trials using agents that modify these targets should be conducted for the testing of interventions to prevent diabetes and other diseases of aging in the elderly buy 150mg clindamycin with amex ear infection 1 year old. A better understanding of the molecu- lar basis for the age-induced metabolic alterations will help design strategies to Diabetes and Aging 369 preserve metabolic homeostasis and prevent these diseases that affect millions of people around the world discount 150mg clindamycin fast delivery antibiotics before tooth extraction. Barzilai N discount 150mg clindamycin mastercard antibiotics for acne nhs, Ferrucci L (2012) Insulin resistance and aging: a cause or a protective response? Boden G, Chen X (1995) Effects of fat on glucose uptake and utilization in patients with non- insulin-dependent diabetes. Craft S (2009) The role of metabolic disorders in Alzheimer s disease and vascular dementia: two roads converged. From the triumvirate to the ominous octet: a new para- digm for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Klaus S, Keijer J (2004) Gene expression proling of adipose tissue: Individual, depot- dependent, and sex-dependent variabilities. Tartar M, Barke A, Antebi A (2003) The endocrine regulation of aging by insulin-like sig- nals. Starting at about age 50, the weight and volume of the kidney shrinks by about one third [1]. The glomerulus is a network of capillaries that is located at the beginning of the nephron that lters J. The kidney on the right shows classic signs of structural and morphological changes associated with renal aging, decreased kidney function, and poor renal transplant outcome. The cells in the interstitial space have thickened extracellular membranes indicative of brosis (interstitial brosis). The tubules are smaller, have thickened walls and have atrophied (tubular atrophy). Genetic and molecular biomarkers for physiological aging could be used to distinguish kidney donors based on physiological age. This could rescue renal organs such as the one on the left from exclusion, possibly making them eligible for renal transplant. The net effect would be to expand the pool of renal donors available for patients with end stage renal disease blood to form urine. The number of glomeruli declines by one third to one half in old age through obsolescence or glomerulosclerosis. The tubules associated with the sclerosed glomeruli cease to function and the ltration capacity of each kidney declines. As the tubules atrophy, the tubular epithelium shrinks, the tubules contract and the basement membranes of the tubules thicken. Interstitial brosis increases with age, and refers to an increase in connective tissue in the space between the tubules. With age, the walls of arterioles become thick, caused by a deposition of hyaline. Hyaline is composed of plasma protein (for example C3 and IgM) that has leaked across the endothelium and accumulated in the wall of the arterioles. On average, the glomerular ltration rate begins to decline at age 40, although the rate of decline is different in different individuals [1 3]. The loss of renal function due to advanc- ing age may become clinically signicant over a normal human life span. In the elderly, glomerular ltration rate often reaches levels low enough to indicate chronic kidney disease. By age 70, 35 % of people have moderate chronic kidney disease (stage 3) according to the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey [4]. Patients with end stage renal disease require dialysis in order to survive as the blood no longer receives adequate Renal Aging and Transplantation 379 renal ltration, but simply going on dialysis doubles the 5-year risk for mortality. Renal transplantation is preferable to dialysis for end stage renal disease because the donated kidney can function at a relatively normal level and restore glomerular ltration rate. Both quality of life and survival are greatly improved by transplanta- tion compared to dialysis [6]. The decline in glomerular ltration rate is likely caused by structural changes to the glomerulus, the interstitium and the arterioles [3, 7]. Understanding the genetic and molecular mechanisms that contribute to kidney aging will advance our basic understanding of the aging process in humans. Furthermore, aging research on the kidney could have important clinical applica- tions. In the long run, a better understanding of renal aging could lead to strategies or treatments to delay the aging process. This could delay or prevent chronic kidney disease and reduce the number of people suffering from end stage renal disease. In the short run, one promising opportunity is to use knowledge of aging to develop biomarkers in order to measure physiological age, as opposed to chrono- logical age. For instance, from a cohort of elderly, it would be desirable to be able to identify those that have physiologically young kidneys. The kidney on the left retains a youthful morphological appearance, equivalent to the appearance of kidneys from middle-aged donors, suggesting that this kidney is physiologically young. Furthermore, donor age is the major criterion for success of a kidney in renal transplantation [8, 9], which means that individuals with kidneys that are physiologically young are likely to be better renal transplantation donors than individuals with kidneys that are physiologically old irrespective of their chronological age. Instead of categorically discarding all of the organs from donors above a certain age, it may be possible to select a subset of organs that are physiologically young and suitable for transplantation (Fig. Renal transplant outcome declines gradually with age, and the difference between youthful and elderly kidney donors is relative but not absolute. With elderly renal donors, the fraction of renal transplants that are successful (as measured by graft survival after 1 and 5 years) is lower than the fraction of successful transplants from youthful donors. Exclusion criteria based on chronological age alone become increasingly strong as the donor ages (gradient arrow). Aging biomarkers could be used to provide information about the physiological age of the tissue, which might permit certain prospective donors (dots shown in red) by expanding the criteria to include physiological in addition to chronological age. This strategy would expand the pool of kidney organs suitable for transplantation, and thereby 380 J. With increasing age of the donor, there is a steady decline in the percent of renal transplants that survive 1 and 5 years after transplantation. Nevertheless, there are many renal transplants from elderly donors that last for a suitable length of time. In principle, aging biomarkers could be used to identify kidneys that are physiologically young, and perhaps could be used to rescue organs that are currently discarded due to old age. The gradient arrow indicates how donor age becomes a stronger criterion for exclusion with increasing chronological age. The red triangles indicate kidney donors that may still be suitable for renal transplantation, even though their chronological age may have exceeded an exclusion criteria cut- off that is currently used. The black dots indicate individual donor kidneys allow patients with end stage renal disease to receive a transplant and end their time on dialysis treatment. The survival rates for kidneys in recipients following renal transplantation are 80 % after 1 year and about 60 % after 5 years [6, 10, 11]. Renal transplantation can pos- sibly extend the lives of patients by 10 15 years compared to dialysis [6 ]. However, there are many more patients with end stage renal disease than there are renal transplantation donors.

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When you have bloody urine and sharp pain in the bladder or kidneys 150mg clindamycin sale antibiotic immunity, it is very likely kidney stones clindamycin 150mg discount antibiotics stomach. They form in the kidneys and generic clindamycin 150 mg otc antibiotics in livestock, during passage down the ureters cheap clindamycin 150mg with visa antibiotics for acne while pregnant, may lodge in them or in the bladder. The stones are primarily composed of calcium oxalate; but urates, phosphates, and cystine may also be present. Oddly enough, a key factor in the production of kidney stones is a calcium and/or magnesium deficiency. The sugar increases in the pancreas and excretes additional insulin, which in turn causes the kidneys to discharge more calcium in the urine. If not enough calcium is in the diet, the parathyroids will signal the body to extract calcium from the bones in order to keep the blood calcium level at normal levels. A Swedish research group found that taking both daily stopped stone formation in 90% of their patients. In response to lowered blood calcium levels, the parathyroids trigger the body to draw it out of the bones. Partial causes of kidney stone formation can include dehydration (not drinking enough water), infections, prolonged periods of rest in bed, and only rarely taking vitamin D and calcium. Eat less meat to get your calcium/phosphorous ratio in order (meat is full of phosphorous). Thousands of tiny cells in the kidneys filter fluids out of the blood in order to purify it. Overuse of aspirin and other pain killers weaken the kidneys; beer can cause their failure. Anti-hypertensive drugs are used to reduce blood circulation, and therefore injure the kidneys. Kidney infection can also be caused by bacterial infection in the bladder (cystitis, which see) which has traveled up the ureters to the kidneys. Maintain active cutaneous circulation; Fomentation to loins for 30 minutes every 3-4 hours; Heating Compress over lower back during the interval between. This would include warm clothing; avoidance of chill; frequent Neutral Baths; very gentle tonic measures; copious water drinking; perfect digestion and bowel action; an aseptic dietary; out-of- door life; avoidance of exposure to cold and excesses of every description, especially sexual and dietetic excesses. Pain may be intense and sudden in the lower back, just above the waist, and running down the groin. It is usually accompanied by hypertension and edema, which is retention of water in the tissues. The result is that salt and various wastes are stored by the blood in tissues throughout the body. Gradually the blood itself becomes contaminated with these waste produces, and uremia (uremic poisoning) is the result. Consuming alcohol, tea, coffee, and spices are excellent ways to ruin your kidneys. Wrap him up well, put him in bed, and give him more pleurisy tea or sage tea to encourage perspiration. Fomentations over the lower back and the entire length of the spine will help alleviate pain. You may not always be appreciated, but God understands, and your work will be rewarded. Irritable bladder: When inflammation is not present, give a Very Hot Sitz Bath for 5 minutes, followed by Neutral Sitz Bath for 10-20 minutes. Hot pack to pelvis, Heating Compress over perineum and genitals, Revulsive Sitz, and Hot Colonic (p. This is a hand-held hosing of water to the dorsal (upper and central) part of the spine. The stream should be allowed to play rapidly up and down, extending 3-4 inches on either side of the spine. Give a Cold Spinal Douche for motor insufficiency of the bladder, resulting in urinary incontinence or retention (p. This spray should be hot, and then very brief cold, and will help alleviate urinary retention, due to spasm in the neck of the bladder (p. Children with this condition may experience a painful burning sensation when urinating. The cause is generally bacteria which have ascended up from the urinary opening, but, less frequently, from infected urine sent down from the kidneys. Ways to avoid cross infection between the two are given in the concluding paragraph of this article. Frequency, urgency, and burning urine are obvious symptoms of cystitis, but a home test can be also be done: Purchase "Dipstick" at a pharmacy and follow directions. A positive nitrate test will reveal the presence of a large quantity of white blood cells, indicating infection in the urinary tract. Women who frequently have bladder infections often have enlarged bladders from having tried to retain their urine. In order to maintain good urinary tract health, it is important to drink water and urinate frequently. In older men, the cause of the bladder problem might be kidney stones (which see). Cyclamate (an artificial sweetener found in synthetic sugar) causes bladder tumors. When you have this problem, citrus juice is not as good, since it tends to make the urine more alkaline, encouraging bacterial growth. See "Nephritis" (kidney infection) for much more information on the proper care and healing of the urinary tract. The bladder and kidneys are closely associated; whatever helps one helps the other. The next day, add 2 cloves crushed garlic or garlic juice to the water of one of the two baths. When sexual intercourse is not done with clean hands or too frequently, germs are more likely to enter the urethra. Wipe from front to back following bowel movements, urinate before and after intercourse, and wear cotton underclothing (it lets air through and absorbs moisture better). Dress to keep the extremities warm; cold extremities weaken the trunk organs, including the urinary tract. Hot Pack to pelvis, Heating Compress over perineum and genitals, Revulsive Sitz, Hot Colonic. When the skin indents, forming little pits, when the skin of the feet or ankles is pressed by a finger, the situation is worsening. Once congestive heart disease, kidney disease, or liver disease are ruled out, more subtle causes can be dealt with more easily. Fluid can be retained in the belly cavity because the protein content of the blood is so low that fluid cannot be kept in the blood vessels. But if a protein deficiency is the problem, then nutrition is needed, not cleansing. Then the secretions pool in the back of the nose, thicken, and then begin dripping into the bronchial tubes or into the voice box. Place a half teaspoon of salt in about 8 ounces of warm water (the experts recommend only a third of a teaspoon, if you have high blood pressure). Then hold your head back, so you are looking up and gently squeeze on the aspirator as you carefully suck it into your nostrils. You may, by careful effort, be the means of bringing back the lost sheep into the fold of Jesus. There is difficulty in breathing; hoarseness; tightness in the lungs; a harsh, barking cough; and even a feeling of suffocation. The special symptom of croup is a harsh, wheezing noise as air is breathed in through the narrowed windpipe and past the inflamed vocal cords, often accompanied by fits of coughing.

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The mechanisms by which Plasmodium species switch expression between antigenic variants are not fully understood clindamycin 150mg otc bacteria pseudomonas aeruginosa. The third section focuses on parasites that store antigenic variants within each genome order clindamycin 150mg visa virus malware removal. Some parasite genomes have dozens or hundreds of variants but express only one archival copy at a time discount 150 mg clindamycin amex antibiotic 8 months baby. Stud- ies of the spirochete Borrelia hermsii and the protozoan Trypanosoma brucei provide evidence of recombination between archival copies generic 150 mg clindamycin bacteria en el estomago. Segregation brings together in one individual dierent chromosomes from distinct lineages. I fo- cus in this section on errors in nucleotide replication that change the antigenic properties of the encoded molecule. The lim- ited data suggest relatively high mutation rates on the order of 104 105 perbase per replication (Holland 1992; Con 1996; Preston and Dougherty 1996; Drake et al. This value holds over genomes that vary in total size by four orders of magnitude; consequently the per base mutation rates also vary over four orders of magnitude. It would be interesting to know if pathogens under very intense selec- tion by host immunity have higher baseline mutation rates than related microbes under less intense immune pressure. G is the total number of bases in the genome, b is the mutation rate per base per replication, and g is the mutation rate per genome per replication. High genome-wide mutation rates arise in bacteria by spontaneous mutator mutations, in which the mutator alleles raise the error rate during replication (Drake et al. Some mutations will be nearly neutral; others will cause extremely high mutation rates and will never increase in frequency. However, mutators can be strongly favored when the competitive conditions and the selective environment provide opportunities for the mutators to generate more benecial mutations than the nonmutators (Chao and Cox 1983; Mao et al. In this case, mutators increase because they are linked with a higher frequency of benecial mutations. Although mutators are typically rare in freshly grown laboratory cul- tures, hospital isolates of E. Extensive serial passage in the laboratory can also lead to high frequencies of mutators (Sniegowski et al. Thus, it appears that rapid change of hosts orcultureconditions can increase thefrequency of mutators 1,000-fold relative to stable environmental conditions. It would be interesting to compare naturally occurring frequencies of mutators in stable and rapidly changing selec- tive environments. This response causes higher mutation rates even in the undamaged parts of thegenome. Radman (1999) argues that this stress-induced mutagen- esis is an adaptation to generate variability in the face of challenging environments. In any case, it is interesting to consider whether some microbes facultatively induce in- creased genome-wide mutation when challenged by host immunity. Various mechanisms can increase the mutation rate over short runs of nucleotides (Fussenegger 1997; Ripley 1999). For example, Streptococcus pyogenes coats its surface with a vari- able M protein, of which eighty antigenically distinct variants are known (Lanceeld 1962; Fischetti 1991). The amino acid sequence of the M6 serotype revealed repeats in three regions of the protein (Hollingshead et al. Region 1 has ve repeats of 42 bp, each repeat con- taining two nearly identical 21 bp repeats; region 2 has ve 75 bp re- peats; and region 3 has two repeats of about 81 bp. In regions 1 and 2, the two outermost repeats vary slightly in sequence from the three identical repeats in the interior. Sequence analysis of variant M proteins suggests that mutations oc- cur by generating both gains and losses of the duplications. Some of the repeats vary slightly in base composition, so recombinations can alter sequence composition as well as total length. Fussenegger (1997) reviews several other cases of bacterial cell-wall proteins that have repeated sequences, most of which occur in multiples of 3 bp. Repeats are often associated with binding domains for other proteins or polysaccharides (Wren 1991), so perhaps the ability to gen- erate variable-length domains provides an advantage in attachment to host tissues or in escape from host immunity. Other mutational mechanisms besides repeats may increase local mu- tation rates(Ripley 1999). Apart from the well-known case of repeats and replication slippage, no evidence at present associates antigenic sites with higher replication errors. One could, for example, focus on associations between mutation rate and nucleotide sequence. Comparison would be particularly inter- esting between epitopes that evolve rapidly and conserved regions of antigenic molecules that evolve slowly. Such comparison may help to identify aspects of nucleotide composition that promote higher error rates in replication. Three types of switch mechanisms commonly occur: replication errors that turn expression on or o, gene conversion into xed expression sites, and invertible promoters that change the direction of transcription. Inserted or deletedrepeats within the coding sequence cause frameshift mutations that prevent translation and production of a full protein. For example, the eleven opacity genes of Neisseria meningitidis inuence binding to host cells and tissue tropism. The limited repertoire of eleven genes and the crude on-o switching suggest that variable expression hasmore to do with altering cell tropism than with escape from host immunity (Fussenegger 1997). On-o switches can also be created by short repeats in transcriptional control regions. Bordetella pertussis controls expression of two distinct mbriae by transcriptional switching (Willems et al. Sequencesofabout 15 C nucleotides in the transcriptional promoters of each of the two genes inuence expression. The actual length of the poly-C sequence varies, probably by slipped-strand mispairing during replication. Thus, by the stochas- tic process of replication errors, the individual loci are turned on and o. Again, this sort of switching may have more to do with tissue tropism than with escape from immune recognition. For example, there may be a single active expression site at which transcription occurs. Occa- sionally, one of the variant loci copies itself to the expression site by gene conversion a type of intragenomic recombination that converts the target without altering the donor sequence. The genome preserves the archival library without change, but alters the expressed allele. The spirochete Borrelia hermsii has approximately thirty alternative loci that encode an abundant surface lipoprotein (Barbour 1993). The expression site is changed by gene con- version to one of the variant archival copies at a rate of about 104 103 percell division (Stoenner et al. A small number of antigenic variants dominate the initial parasitemia of this blood-borne pathogen. Those switches provide new variants that cause a second parasitemia, which is eventually recognized by the host and cleared. The protozoan Trypanosoma brucei has hundreds of alternative loci that encode the dominant surface glycoprotein (Barry 1997; Pays and Nolan 1998). Switches in expression occur at a rate of up to 102 per cell divi- sion (Turner 1997). The switch mechanism is similar to that in Borrelia hermsii gene conversion of archival copies into a transcriptionally ac- tive expression site. Thus, this parasite can also change expression by switchingbetween transcription sites. Thepromoter triggers transcrip- tion in only one direction, thus expressing only one of the two variants.

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