By H. Topork. State University of New York Institute of Technology at Canton.
Unfortunately cheap nifedipine 20 mg on-line arteria ileocolica, efcacy in preventing the target ously purchase animals or exhibit cattle discount 20mg nifedipine otc blood pressure medication olmetec. Thus there are vaccines primary immunization requires two doses of vaccine available for respiratory pathogens such as P cheap nifedipine 30 mg line blood pressure chart for children. Thus current recommendations are to be- new immunization products with greater safety generic nifedipine 20 mg without a prescription heart attack video, ef- gin the primary series at about 3 months of age with cacy, and efciency. Dictyocaulus viviparus is the usually develop 14 to 16 days following exposure to lungworm of cattle and causes parasitic pneumonia and contaminated pastures. This parasite has deep, as well as an increased respiratory rate, character- a direct life cycle, so infection merely requires manage- izes the syndrome. Milk production decreases acutely in ment factors that allow a buildup of the parasite in the affected cattle. Fecal examina- environment and ingestion of the infective larvae by tions are usually negative for Dictyocaulus because the naive cattle. In primary infections, the diagnosis is Eggs produced by female adults hatch either in the tra- aided by history, physical examination ndings, labora- chea or before being passed in the feces. The progression tory or postmortem conrmation, and knowledge of to the infective third stage larvae requires only 5 days, the life cycle of the parasite. Ingested larvae traverse the nicant clinical signs especially if found in a majority intestinal wall to reside in mesenteric lymph nodes, of the cattle within a group. As with any parasitic disease, moult to the fourth stage, and within 1 week migrate to some affected animals ( weak sisters ) will display more the lungs through lymphatics or blood vessels. The nal blatant signs than others, but most within the group will fth stage is reached after the larvae arrive in the bronchi- be affected. The prepatent period is approximately 4 weeks be- been placed on pasture recently or conned by group cause this period is required for the larvae to mature to housing (heifers) to pens having a base consisting of egg-laying adults. Signs of primary infection include varying degrees of Baermann s technique performed on fresh manure dyspnea, a characteristic deep and moist cough, and is indicated for specic diagnosis but is of limited moist rales or crackles heard over the entire lung eld. Therefore Coughing is more severe than with most other bovine Baermann s technique and tracheal washes should be pneumonias. If larvae are found us- the anterior ventral lung elds are an important sign ing Baermann s technique, the diagnosis is conrmed that differentiates lungworm from bacterial pneumo- as a patent infection. Severely affected calves or cows will show heave - wash samples may identify parasites, rule out other like breathing with visible expiratory and inspiratory causes of pneumonia, and allow cytologic conrma- effort. In some cases, emphysema is present when heavy tion of eosinophilic inammation typical of parasitic airway exudate results in extreme mechanical respira- bronchitis/pneumonia. Fever also may be present simply from exertion in- Necropsy ndings in fatal infections vary with the stage volved in breathing during warm weather or in poorly of infection. Usually several animals in a group or examination of bronchial exudate may be necessary to the entire herd will show signs. Affected cattle will con- identify larvae, whereas in later prepatent infections, the tinue to eat unless severe dyspnea or coughing interferes larvae are obvious if the airways are properly opened and with their ability to ingest feed. Eosinophilic bronchitis may be conrmed by vere dyspnea, frequent coughing, marked expiratory ef- histopathology. Secondary anterior veterinarians should be aware of the reinfection or acute ventral bacterial bronchopneumonia may be present, and larval migration syndrome that occurs in adult cattle with interstitial emphysema is observed in occasional severe endemic D. Levamisole has been very effective in our clinic but is no longer approved for use in dairy cattle, so fenbendazole would now be the rst choice of treatment. Affected cattle should not be allowed back on infected pastures, and conned cattle should be re- moved from infected manure packs until the pens can be cleaned completely of manure and bedding. Secondary bacterial pneumonia may mask the Wright-Giemsa stain of tracheal wash from a cow presence of lungworms in calves or heifers. Such animals representative of a herd problem of chronic cough and frequently appear to improve temporarily while on anti- decreased production. Antibiotic therapy in these instances may of eosinophils on this 40 slide is highly suggestive of cause resolution of fever and improved attitude but will lungworm infection. Only when further diagnostics are pursued in live patients or necrop- sies are performed in fatal cases will the true diagnosis be obtained and effective treatment instituted. Although the reinfection syndrome appears to be an immune-mediated disorder, affected cattle appear to respond rapidly to levamisole injections according to Breeze. Without treatment, continued coughing and production losses persist in the affected animals for weeks. Because infective larvae have been shown to sur- vive winter conditions, pastures should not be grazed in the early spring. High- lighting this fact, clinical lungworm infections in the The reinfection syndrome is characterized by clinical northeastern United States are observed primarily dur- signs of severe coughing in the majority of cattle follow- ing wet summers. Tracheal additional anthelmintic treatment are indicated during wash samples will reveal eosinophilic inammation. Auscultation of the lungs may reect interstitial changes of pulmo- nary edema and emphysema. Therefore initial increased bronchovesicular sounds may be replaced by decreased sounds as further interstitial pathology and emphysema ensue. The clinical course lasts 10 to 14 days in most cases and occasionally may be fatal. One experimental infection suggested that initial ex- posure to ascarid larvae resulted in very mild signs, whereas reexposure resulted in pronounced signs. This may imply an immune-mediated cause or component to the severe interstitial pneumonia. A tracheal wash sample may Multiple hepatic abscesses that were an incidental nd- demonstrate an eosinophilic inammatory pattern. Abscesses, al- nitive diagnosis requires identication of the parasite though multiple, were small and located well away from or histopathology to study the larvae and associated the hilus. Treatment is nonspecic and supportive in the hope that the normal life cycle of the parasite will eliminate the larvae. Caudal Vena Caval Thrombosis This disease occurs sporadically in heifers and adult cattle Etiology and Signs. This may be the result of calves being results in a variety of clinical respiratory syndromes in fed less intensive diets than heifers or lactating animals. Septic thromboemboli originating from an ab- In caudal vena caval thrombosis, erosion of a liver ab- scess at the hilus of the liver shower the caudal vena scess into the vena cava with formation of a septic venous cava, right heart, and pulmonary arterial circulation. Those cattle that have inap- may result in massive thromboemboli to the right heart parent seeding of the pulmonary arteries or survive an and pulmonary artery thrombosis, pulmonary infarc- acute respiratory distress episode caused by thrombo- tion, exotoxemia or endotoxemia, and anoxia. Sudden emboli may eventually develop dyspnea, hemoptysis, death may result, and this syndrome represents one of and anemia. Epistaxis is the most common clinical sign the more common causes of acute death in adult dairy observed in those cows with hemoptysis. This sudden death may represent a hypersensitiv- The pathogenesis of caudal vena caval thrombosis ity reaction following a previous clinically inapparent starts in the forestomach or abomasum and involves thromboembolic episode; however, sudden rupture of a inammatory or ulcerative mucosal lesions that allow large hilar abscess into the caudal vena cava or embolic bacterial seeding of the portal circulation with subse- movement of an existing large septic thrombus may quent formation of liver abscesses. Therefore rumenitis, cause enough direct pulmonary infarction to cause ruminal acidosis, abomasal ulcers, and similar disorders death without the need for a previous sensitizing epi- predispose to the condition. The location is much more important than the Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome number of abscesses, however, because only those at the This syndrome appears in one animal within a group or hilus of the liver or adjacent to the post cava represent herd. Auscultation of the thorax generally reveals reduced airway sounds resulting from pulmonary edema, pulmonary infarction, and bullous emphysema brought on by exertional respiratory efforts. Rales may be ausculted in some instances, but in general, the lungs are quieter than expected given the obviously labored respirations. The key to diagnosis is the fact that only one animal is affected with severe lower airway disease, and to the owner s knowledge, this cow has had no unique stress or previous problems. Septic thromboemboli create pulmonary abscesses at their endpoint in pulmonary arteries, and aneurysms develop proximal to each of the suddenness of death precludes physical examina- these abscesses within the affected pulmonary arteries.
Demodectic mite infestation of lice and the reportable manges sarcoptic and psoroptic generic nifedipine 30mg without a prescription blood pressure medication pregnancy. As with other ectoparasites nifedipine 20mg sale blood pressure jumping around, many insec- the dam during the rst few days of life buy 20 mg nifedipine fast delivery blood pressure chart pregnancy low. Because most cattle with mites burrow in the upper skin layers generic 20mg nifedipine with amex blood pressure medication isn't working, feed on uids and demodectic mites are asymptomatic, those with symp- debris, and females reproduce to worsen the condition. Palpable nodules and papules over the neck, direct contact with infested cattle or contact with inani- withers, shoulder, and ank regions characterize the in- mate objects that have been used for rubbing by infested festation. Demodex ghanensis has been found primarily sarcoptic mites from cattle (Sarcoptes scabiei var. The diagnosis can be conrmed by deep Transient, supercial sarcoptic mite infestations may skin scrapings or expressing exudate harboring mites occur in humans working with cattle affected with sar- from lesions for microscopic examination and conr- coptic mange. This is biting, licking, and excessive rubbing on inanimate ob- fortunate because control of clinical demodectic mange jects. Self-induced lacerations and skin abrasions are always is difcult at best and would be more so in dairy common because cattle occasionally will rub on sharp cattle, given the limited insecticides approved for lact- objects or persist in rubbing until abrasions occur. Individual cattle with overt dermatologic Francis Fox was consulted and diagnosed sarcoptic mange disease caused by Demodex sp. Untreated ani- mals may become debilitated, and death as a result of secondary diseases and overall debility is possible. Clinical signs and deep skin scrapings that identify mites, eggs, and fecal debris are required for diagnosis. Sarcoptic mites are notorious as being dif- cult to nd, but multiple deep scrapes and persistence usually allow positive diagnosis. No withdrawals are required when this product is used on dairy cattle, but treatment may need to be repeated at 10- to 14-day intervals. Doramectin (Dectomax Pour-On, Pzer Animal Health) is approved and effective but cannot be used in female dairy cattle more than 20 months old. Another reportable disease of dairy cattle, are apparent on the shoulder region and thorax. Psoroptic mites Diagnosis live on the skin surface, feed on serum and lymph uids, Clinical signs coupled with skin biopsies provide the and require 2 to 3 weeks for a complete life cycle from best means of establishing a denitive diagnosis. Psoroptic mites live off the host sections of adult worms may be observed in hair follicles better than sarcoptic mites and may survive 1 month or when biopsies are examined histologically. Similar to sarcoptic Treatment mange, psoroptic mange may be spread by both direct Approved treatments for stephanolariasis are not avail- and indirect means that is, contaminated common able for lactating cattle. Intensive overwhelming pruritus accompany- times should be observed for any products used for this ing generalized skin lesions with papules, crusts, abra- purpose. Although skin lesions may appear anywhere, the withers and tail head Fly-Strike from Maggots (Calliphorine and then later the back and sides are typical locations. Therefore weight loss and production loss are Many species of blowies are capable of causing y- profound. Available treatments are as for sarcoptic rial, and necrotic wounds attract adult ies. Moxidectin pour-on is approved, effective, and has liphorids predominate in other regions of the world. Doramectin pour-on is ap- Females lay eggs in wounds such as those caused by proved and effective but cannot be used on female dairy dehorning, castration, or trauma. Recumbent calves with diarrhea are at risk for y- Stephanolariasis strike around the diarrhea-soaked anus, perineum, and Etiology tail. Adults live in the dermis, and microlariae are In warm weather, blowy eggs hatch to maggots in ingested by the horn y, H. If both warmth and moisture are present, velop into infective larvae during a 2- to 3-week time eggs may hatch in less than 12 hours. The maggots per- period spent in the y and then are injected into the sist, and the odor of the wound attracts more blowies. Toxemia secondary to myiasis seems to occur more commonly in young calves but also may develop in adult Signs cattle. Although many animals infested with maggots Dermatitis on the ventral midline consists initially of have primary diseases, maggots seem to contribute to serum exudate, crusts, and papules. The usual ology for this toxemia or depressant effect of maggots site is between the brisket and umbilicus, but extensive on the host is not understood. Lesions hominivorax, currently has been eradicated from the United occasionally are observed on the udder. Pruritus causes States but is a constant threat to Texas with subsequent affected cows to attempt to scratch their belly while risk of spread into the rest of the United States again. Cows may rise to their knees and screw worms penetrate and feed on living esh in wounds. The wound may be lavaged with warm water and pine oil (1 oz pine oil/32 oz water), or an insecticide may be sprayed on to destroy the maggots. Wounds in nonlactating animals and calves should be treated with topical insecticide sprays or ointments. These products also should be used prophylactically to protect fresh wounds at risk for y-strike. Lactating cattle require careful selection of insecti- cides such that only approved products are used. Wound ointments containing y repellents or insecticides should be used routinely during the y season. Fly smears are true screw worm infestation should be ruled out by labo- applied in a circle around the wound rather than to ratory identication of the maggot species. Signs Signs are grossly obvious to the eyes and nose of the ex- Miscellaneous Parasitic Causes aminer. A sickening necrotic odor accompanies the of Dermatologic Disease disturbing sign of maggots moving within the wound. Secondary bacterial infections of the wounds may con- Other parasites are occasional causes of skin lesions in tribute to the odor and probably contribute to attraction cattle in the United States and abroad (Table 7-4). Sometimes it is difcult to assess the degree of illness associated with the primary problem of the ani- Miscellaneous Physical, mal versus the degree of illness associated with the mag- Chemical, and Nutritional gots. Neonatal calves are at greatest risk of death because Causes of Dermatologic Disease the primary diseases (e. Clipping the hair is very toxicoses and deciencies are listed in Tables 7-5 and important for wounds on haired tissue because this 7-6. The medial laminae are more elastic, espe- cially cranially, than the lateral laminae and are paired. Premature Development Caudally, the medial laminae are more collagenous Premature symmetric development of the udder in calves and originate from the subpelvic tendon. When the more common etiology support that is essential for udder conformation and of ingesting feed containing estrogenic substances has for solid attachment to the ventral body wall. The exter- occurred, multiple heifers within a group are typically nal pudendal artery constitutes the major blood supply affected, and successful resolution of the mammary de- to the udder; the artery courses through the inguinal velopment requires removal of the contributing feed canal along with the pudendal vein and lymph vessels material. Idiopathic symmetric udder development in to supply the craniolateral portion of the mammary individual heifers is occasionally encountered when no gland. Caudally, the internal pudendal artery branches obvious endocrinologic or intoxicant cause can be eluci- into the ventral perineal artery at the level of the ischi- dated. Asymmetric gland enlargement in group-reared atic arch and courses caudally to the vulva, along the heifers should always raise suspicion of mastitis second- perineum to the base of the rear quarters. Located supercially along the ven- tral abdomen, it courses cranially to the milk well Breakdown of either the lateral or the medial udder sup- where it enters the abdomen to join the internal tho- ports can occur. Medial laminae breakdown causes the racic vein, draining rst into the subclavian vein, and medial longitudinal groove between the left and right nally into the cranial vena cava. Lymph drainage halves of the udder to disappear and causes the teats to moves dorsally and caudally to the supercial inguinal project laterally. Loss of lateral support laminae causes (mammary, supramammary) lymph nodes, which can the halves of the udder to project ventrally to the level be palpated by following the rear quarter dorsally until of the hocks or lower.
Other extensive studies both in vivo and in vitro have shown its ability to prevent 20 mg nifedipine amex heart attack jack ps baby, reduce or increase the adverse effects of chemotherapy buy nifedipine 30mg fast delivery prehypertension 135. The combination of vitamin C and vitamin K already given in the chemotherapy increases the survival and the effects of various chemotherapeutic agents in a tumor-ascitic-murine model discount nifedipine 30 mg with amex pulse pressure 63. Epidemiologic studies have revealed an inverse relation between the consumption of vi tamin A nifedipine 30 mg without a prescription pre hypertension low pulse, -carotene, E and C and the incidence of several human cancers. There are a decrease in the risk and incidence of cancer in populations with high content of vitamins in plasma. The carcinogenesis is related with the cell differentiation, progression, metabo lism and synthesis of collagen. The basic mechanism for the carcinogenesis is the cell dif ferentiation because the cancer develops when a lost in this differentiation exists. And here is where the mentioned vitamins have a wide influence over de cell growth and its differentiation. Vitamin C is a strong antioxidant that acts synergistically with vitamin E in the purification of free radicals which are carcinogenic. Lupulescu reported that vitamin C (up to 200 ug/mL) did not cause any morphological change in mouse melanoma, neuroblastoma, and mouse and rat gliomas but is lethal for neuroblastoma cells. Cytotoxic effects are dependent cell also because they are stronger in human melanoma cells compared to mouse melanoma. The cytotoxic activity may also be mediated by the presence of cupric ions (Cu ) in malignant melanoma cells that react with vitamin C to2+ form free radicals in solution. Vitamin C also invests into cells, transforming them chem ically to a normal phenotype fine. Studies of cell surface and ultrastructure suggest that cancer cells after administration of vi tamin C had cytolysis, cell membrane damage, mitochondrial changes, nuclear and nucleo lar reduction and an increase in the formation of phagolysosomes. Changes in cell surface as cytolysis showed predominantly increased synthesis of collagen and disruption of the cell membrane with increased phagocytic activity and apoptotic. The quantitative estimation of cellular organelles shown that vitamin C affects the intracel lular distribution of the organelles, event that plays an important role in the citodifferentia tion of the carcinogenic cell and this is the shared effect that not only vitamin C has, but also vitamin A and E. Changes in the Golgi complex and apoptotic activity and autophagic addi tion to changes in cell surface and in some cases even the reversal of transformed cells to their normal cell types are needed in the possible reduction in incidence of various cancers. It have been mentioned that many of this metabolic effects are mediated by the transcription and translation at genomic level. This inhibition is accompanied by ultrastructural changes mentioned which decreases the cancer progression. Mechanism of action: Have been proposed many mechanisms of the vitamin C activity in the prevention and treatment of cancer: 1. Inhibition of the hyaluronidase, keeping the substances around the tumor intact avoid ing metastasis. Correction of a likely ascorbate deficiency, seen in patients with cancer 472 Oxidative Stress and Chronic Degenerative Diseases - A Role for Antioxidants 6. Patients with cancer tend to immune-undertake, showing low levels of ascorbate in their lymphocytes. The survival of immune system is important both for inhibit the carcino gen cell growth phase and to prevent its proliferation. The supplementation with ascor bate increases the number and the effectiveness of the lymphocytes and upgrades the phagocythosis The characteristics of the neoplastic cell and its behavior (invasiveness, selective nutrition and possibly accelerated growth) are caused by microenvironmental depolymerization. This destabilization of the matrix is favored by constant exposure to lysosomal glycosidases con tinually released by the neoplastic cell. The synthesis of collagen is a major factor for the encapsulation of tumors or metastases de creased via the development of a nearly impermeable barrier. A loss of ascorbate significantly reduces the hydroxylation of proline and hydroxyproline and hydroxylysine to lysine respectively, affecting the cross linking of collagen. This disrupts the structure of collagen triple helix, which increases its catabolism s. These values can be normalized with extra supplements of 20-40 mg/d or corresponding to its maximum synthetic rate. The decrease in plasma ascorbic acid in diabetes plays an important role in the abnormali ties of collagen and proteoglycans. These are the 2 major constituents of the extracellular matrix and its abnormalities are associated with the pathogenesis and complications of dia betes. Ascorbic acid enhances the collagen and proteoglycans in fibroblast culture media. Insulin removes the inhibitory effect of glucose on the production of collagen, but the mechanism is not yet known. Thus high con centrations of glucose in diabetes damage the action of ascorbic acid at the cellular level. And in many cases is "asymptomatic" or people who have it doing not give importance. However there have been great efforts to use its measurement in the detection of primary or secondary essential hypertension for decades. Virtually the observed declines in blood pressure and its control in recent years due to better control among individuals diagnosed as hypertensive. Obesity, dietary sodium and alcohol consumption are strongly associat ed with low or high blood pressure values. A high intake of polyunsaturated fatty acids and magnesium are associated with for in stance with low pressure. It has also shown an inverse association between plasma vita min C and blood pressure. These subjects have a similar difference in diastolic pressure ranging from 78 to 73 mm Hg, a difference of 6%. These results were consistent in several studies regardless of quintiles being compared. Such relationships have also been identified in Chinese-American population; both men and women aged 60-96 years without antihypertensive treatment. This study revealed a statisti cally significant difference between the values of systolic and diastolic pressure in upper and lower quintiles of 14% (21 mm Hg) and 9% (8mmHg) respectively. It appears that vita 474 Oxidative Stress and Chronic Degenerative Diseases - A Role for Antioxidants min C has a lowering effect on systolic rather than diastolic pressure. Supplementation with vitamin C (1g/day) does not influence the diastolic pressure. Subjects with low vitamin C levels in serum have a high risk of developing stroke compared with those with high values in plasma of the vitamin. Hypertensive subjects, usually overweight, and low levels of se rum vitamin C have the same risk. The increase in the consumption of vitamin C during periods of fat restriction occurs on the one hand a reduction in blood pressure. Thus dietary antioxidants en hance the production of prostacyclin for the purification of free radicals and peroxides that inhibit prostacyclin synthase. Vitamin C and blood pressure then are related, because it has a lowering effect on blood pressure especially when fat intake is low. Ascorbic acid and cardiovascular disease Vitamin C acts as a regulator of the catabolism of cholesterol into bile acids in the guinea pig and is an important factor in the regulation of lipid in several animal species (rabbit, horse, and rat). Correlation studies in humans have shown an inverse relationship between vitamin C in take and mortality from cardiovascular disease. Experimental and observational studies in humans have been inconsistent but indicate that individuals with high cholesterol consumption, greater than or equal to 5. This effect is explained by the promotion or in hibition of degradation of prostacyclin and its implications for thrombosis and atherogene sis, in addition to its protective effect on lipid peroxidation. In patients with high cardiovascular risk, supplementation with antioxidant vitamins shows no reduction in over all mortality or incidence of any vascular disease, cancer or other adverse events. Recent findings indicate a relationship between the nutritional status of vitamin C (as meas ured by the concentration of ascorbate in serum), biological markers of infection and haemo static factors and support the hypothesis that vitamin C may protect against cardiovascular events through effects on the haemostatic factors in response to infection.