By G. Jens. Columbia Union College.
Greenman P 1996 Principles of manual • Repetitive movements involving the upper medicine generic sulfasalazine 500 mg with visa pain management after shingles, 2nd edn cheap 500 mg sulfasalazine with mastercard pain treatment center fort collins. Williams & Wilkins buy sulfasalazine 500 mg without prescription pain medication for dog ear infection, cervical region in rotation and/or extension Baltimore should be performed with caution 2 generic sulfasalazine 500 mg fast delivery pain treatment while on suboxone. Lewit K 1999 Manipulative therapy in rehabilitation of the locomotor system, 3rd Naturopathic perspectives edn. Morris C (ed) 2006 Low back syndromes: ulation in terms of safety, particularly in the cervical integrated clinical management. Murphy D 2000 Conservative management of one or the other approach remains entirely a matter of cervical spine syndromes. Keeping in mind the dictum to ‘do no New York harm’, this approach to enhancing joint function 5. Patient is side-lying (if problem is unilateral, affected (Spencer method) side should be up). Practitioner stands in front and supports patient’s restriction head and neck with cephalad hand and forearm. The patient’s tableside hand/arm should be ﬂexed at of the side-lying patient, ﬁrmly compressing the shoulder and elbow, while the other arm is in scapula and clavicle to the thorax, while the patient’s extension and adduction, resting on the lateral ﬂexed elbow is held in the practitioner’s caudad thoracic cage. If the restriction involves an inability of C7 on T1 to be sensed, indicating the beginning of the end of fully ﬂex, side-bend and rotate, the hand supporting range of that movement. At that ‘ﬁrst sign of resistance’ barrier the patient is that the hand in contact with T1 becomes aware of instructed to push the elbow towards the feet, or forces building at that level as the barrier of free anteriorly, or to push further towards the direction of motion is reached (at C7 on T1). When the barrier has been engaged this should be strength, building up force slowly. The range of motion is repeated, and the barrier re- after 7–10 seconds the patient is instructed to slowly engaged rhythmically, with pauses at the barrier for cease the effort. Spencer treatment of shoulder ﬂexion restriction abduction, internal and external rotation, as well as 1. The patient has the same starting position as in A, circumduction movements (Chaitow 2006). The practitioner stands at chest level, half-facing The example is given by Patriquin & Jones (1997) of an cephalad. The practitioner’s non-tableside hand individual with viral pneumonia with a resistant chest grasps the patient’s forearm while the tableside hand wall in which all ribs are restricted in their range in both holds the clavicle and scapula ﬁrmly to the chest inhalation and exhalation. The practitioner stands at the head of the bed and shoulder, and by the hand/arm moving the patient’s reaches down under the patient’s back, palms arm toward the direction being assessed), the patient upwards so that the ﬂexed ﬁngertips can engage is instructed to pull the elbow towards the feet, or to an upper pair of ribs (2nd ideally, or 3rd) as close direct it posteriorly, or to push further towards the to the angles on each side of the midline as direction of ﬂexion – utilizing no more than 20% of possible. This effort is ﬁrmly resisted by the practitioner, and mobilize the costotransverse and costovertebral after 7–10 seconds the patient is instructed to slowly articulations, and to stretch both the intercostals cease the effort. The tension should be held for at least 10 practitioner moves the shoulder further into ﬂexion, to seconds and then slowly released. A degree of active patient participation in the possible, once the cephalad tension has been movement towards the new barrier may be helpful. The same procedure is repeated on the same pair introducing articulatory shoulder adduction and of ribs, until a sense is gained that no further freedom of movement can be achieved. The next pair of ribs is then engaged and the with the effort being maintained for not less than process repeated. The non-tableside hand is placed under the the patient should be asked to inhale as deeply as patient, so that the slightly ﬂexed ﬁngertips can possible. The process should be repeated until a suitable to the angle of the ribs (one side treated at a time degree of improved mobility/articulation has been when the patient is supine). If performed rapidly this creates • Mobilization of joints controlled microtrauma of the contracting • Preparation for the stretching/lengthening of muscle (breaking minute adhesions, ﬁbrosis – shortened muscles, or for reducing tone in known as an isolytic contraction), whereas if hypertonic muscles performed slowly this produces a toning of the • Introduction of controlled microtrauma in contracting muscle and a simultaneous (slight) cases of ﬁbrosis inhibition of its antagonist(s), followed by a • Toning inhibited/weakened muscles reduction in sensitivity to stretching (Liebenson • As part of an integrated sequence for 2006). For example, Klein et al muscle energy technique – described later in this (2002) examined the effect of a 10-week ﬂexibility chapter) (Ruddy 1962). If lengthening shortened soft tissues is the objec- contraction (there is usually at least 10 seconds tive, myofascial release and other stretching methods of refractory muscle tone release during which offer alternatives. The practitioner must be careful to use enough, but not too much, effort, and to • Aneurysm ease off at the same time as the patient. For obvious reasons the disease characterized by exercise intolerance, shorthand term ‘pulsed muscle energy technique’ is myalgia and stiffness) now applied to Ruddy’s method (Chaitow 2001). Occasionally some muscle stiffness The application of this ‘conditioning’ approach and soreness after treatment. If the area being involves contractions which are ‘short, rapid and treated is not localised well or if too much contractive rhythmic, gradually increasing the amplitude and force is used pain may be increased. Sometimes the degree of resistance, thus conditioning the proprio- patient is in too much pain to contract a muscle or ceptive system by rapid movements’ (Ruddy 1962). Chaitow L 2006 Muscle energy techniques, 3rd its rhythmic pulsing (see below) or isotonic concentric edn. Churchill Livingstone, Edinburgh modes, to assist in facilitating rehabilitation of injured 2. Williams & Wilkins, naturopathic care since it is capable of being used to Baltimore remove obstacles to optimal adaptation, as well as 3. DiGiovanna E, Schiowitz S (eds) 1991 An encouraging enhanced functionality and self- osteopathic approach to diagnosis and regulating processes. Mitchell F Jr, Moran P, Pruzzo N 1979 An Ruddy (1962) developed a method of rapid pulsating evaluation of osteopathic muscle energy contractions against resistance which he termed ‘rapid procedures. Pruzzo, Valley Park, Missouri Chapter 7 • Modalities, Methods and Techniques 233 Box 7. The restriction barrier should be engaged and, following a 5- to 7-second isometric contraction involving no more than 20% of available strength, an attempt should be made to passively move to a new barrier, without force or stretching. Unlike the period required to hold soft tissues at stretch (see next exercise), in order to achieve increased extensibility, no such feature is part of the protocol for treating joints. Once a new barrier is reached, having taken out available slack without force after the isometric contraction, a subsequent contraction is called for and the process is repeated. A variety of directions of resisted effort may prove useful (or, put differently, a range of different muscles should be contracted isometrically) when attempting to achieve release and mobilization of a restricted joint, including Figure 7. Reproduced with permission from Chaitow (2006) the joint, such as the sacroiliac, sternoclavicular and acromioclavicular joints. Patient-directed isometric efforts towards the restriction is introduced at this ‘bind’ barrier (if acute) or a little barrier, as well as away from it, and using a combination short of it (if chronic). Note: These reﬁnements as to of forces, often of a ‘spiral’ nature, may be experimented position in relation to the barrier are not universally with if a joint does not release using the most obvious agreed and are based on the teaching of Janda directions of contraction. Level 4 is the same as the previous description the stretching/lengthening of shortened, contracted but the patient actively moves the tissues or ﬁbrosed soft tissues, or for reducing tone in hyper- through the fullest possible range of motion, tonic muscles. Because of its contiguous nature, and digital pressure to the involved tissue in a direction its virtually universal presence in association with proximal to distal while the patient actively moves the every muscle, vessel and organ, the potential inﬂu- muscle through its range of motion in both eccentric ences of fascia are profound if shortening, adhesions, and concentric contraction phases. John Barnes (1996) writes: ‘Studies suggest that It can be seen from the descriptions offered that fascia, an embryological tissue, reorganizes along the there are different models of myofascial release, some lines of tension imposed on the body, adding support to taking tissue to the elastic barrier and waiting for a misalignment and contracting to protect tissues from release mechanism to operate and others in which further trauma. Barriers of resistance are engaged load (pressure) are required when treating fascia and these are forced to retreat but by virtue of the because of its collagenous structure. In this way the physiological tive way of lengthening (‘releasing’) fascia rapidly responses of creep and hysteresis are produced, (Hammer 1999). This is a non-violent, direct approach that has little potential for causing damage. When active or passive movements are combined Methodology with the basic methodology, caution is required, Myofascial release is a hands-on soft tissue technique depending on the status of the patient and the tissues, that facilitates a stretch into the restricted fascia. For example, enthesitis sustained pressure is applied into the tissue barrier; could occur if localized repetitive stretching combined after 90 to 120 seconds the tissue will undergo with compression were applied close to an attachment histological length changes allowing the ﬁrst release to (Simons et al 1999). The practitioner’s contact (which could involve thumb, ﬁnger, knuckle Alternatives or elbow) moves longitudinally along muscle Since myofascial release is utilized to lengthen short- ﬁbers, distal to proximal, with the patient ened soft tissues, all other methods that have this passive.
The disadvantage is that if the patient’s respiratory rate is high order sulfasalazine 500mg with visa pain and spine treatment center nj, the minute ventilation can be significantly high 500mg sulfasalazine mastercard midwest pain treatment center wausau, resulting in respiratory alkalosis effective 500mg sulfasalazine pain treatment for lupus. However the additional breaths will not have the same tidal volume as the set tidal volume cheap 500mg sulfasalazine fast delivery lateral knee pain treatment, and will be spontaneous breaths. The tidal volume of these breaths will depend on the respiratory effort, and the amount of pressure support applied. Ventilation 110 Handbook of Critical Care Medicine For example, if the patient has a spontaneous rate of 20, and the set rate is 14 with tidal volume of 500ml, the patient will receive 14 breaths with a tidal volume of 500mL. The remaining 6 breaths will have a tidal volume depending on the patient’s respiratory effort, airway resistance, and the pressure support. The higher the pressure support, the larger the tidal volume of these breaths (because in effect these breaths are similar to pressure control ventilation). If respiratory alkalosis develops, the respiratory drive will fall, and the patient will breathe less frequently. Because there is a mandatory set rate, the required minimum minute ventilation is ensured. Spontaneous ventilation with pressure support In this form of ventilation, there is no set rate or tidal volume. The inspired tidal volume depends on the respiratory effort, airway resistance, and the pressure support. Usually however, the machine has a minimum limit, and if the patient does not breathe adequately the alarm will sound, and the machine will take over and ventilate the patient. This mode is an effective weaning mode – if the pressure support is sufficiently low, and the patient’s respiratory parameters and blood gases are adequate, he is probably ready for extubation. A pressure support of approximately 8mmHg is just sufficient to take away the dead space effect of the endotracheal tube. Choice of ventilator modes and settings These depend on the requirements of the patient. Neuromuscular blockade is usually required, although if the patient has little spontaneous respiration this could be done without. How to determine the initial settings in a patient who has just been ventilated The usual set rate will be between 10 and 14 breaths per minute. The tidal volume is usually between 6 and 12 ml/kg body weight, preferably closer to 6ml/kg. Start with a high FiO2, and then reduce it to maintain a pulse oxygen saturation of over 95%. The ratio between the inspiratory time and expiratory time must also be set; this is known as the I:E ratio and is generally between 1:2 and 1:1. Note that these values are just rough guides, and will depend on the individual patient, and underlying condition. This can be done by the following Ventilation 112 Handbook of Critical Care Medicine o Suctioning out bronchial secretions which are blocking the airways and causing collapse of distal alveoli. Increasing the minute ventilation is not a useful manoeuvre to improve oxygenation. This can be done by reducing the set rate or reducing the tidal volume and the pressure support. Biphasic ventilation Biphasic ventilation is another mode of ventilation where the machine controls only pressure, which moves up and down within a lower and upper baseline. If the patient is breathing spontaneously, the spontaneous breaths are freely superimposed on the moving pressure baseline. De-escalation of ventilation, and weaning the patient off the ventilator De-escalation or reduction of ventilator support should be commenced as soon as the patient’s respiratory parameters show signs of improvement. However, in patients with severe lung disease, de-escalation should be performed very slowly and carefully. If the patient tolerates a level of reduced support, further de-escalation should be attempted. Weaning can be considered if several basic criteria are satisfied, namely: x Improvement in the patient’s primary lung disease or underlying condition. Weaning is considered if the patient is on the lowest possible ventilator support. Consider the following when attempting to wean: x The patient is breathing spontaneously and comfortably with adequate spontaneous tidal volumes and respiratory rate. Usually, this is best done in the mornings, when the full complement of staff is around. Ventilation 114 Handbook of Critical Care Medicine Some people prefer a trial of T-Piece prior to extubation. This is not essential however, if the patient is on spontaneous mode with minimal pressure support, there is no evidence that a T-Piece trial gives better weaning results. What is a T-Piece trial and what does a T-Piece do A T-Piece is a tube shaped like a T. An oxygen supply is connected to one end of the T, and this drives the expired air out. The need for this oxygen flow is to ensure that expired air is expelled, or else the dead space would be too large. After extubation Generally, a repeat arterial blood gas is done about 30 minutes after extubation. Sometimes however, the patient may be unable to breathe on his own and may require reintubation. Tracheostomy is advantageous in that it makes suctioning easier, reduces the risk of nosocomial infection, and avoids the possibility of tracheal stenosis and tracheomalacia due to prolonged intubation. Less severe and recurrent embolism can result in episodic breathlessness and cough with desaturation. A fourth heart sound and loud P2 may be present, and evidence of right heart failure may manifest. Pulmonary embolism 116 Handbook of Critical Care Medicine Diagnosis Since the signs and symptoms are non-specific, a high index of suspicion must be maintained until the condition is excluded. Pulmonary embolism 117 Handbook of Critical Care Medicine Treatment Resuscitate the patient first. A fluid challenge should be given carefully, as volume overload may result in right heart failure. Investigations for a thrombotic tendency cannot be correctly interpreted soon after a thrombotic event, and should be delayed. Patients at high risk should be given prophylactic anticoagulation, usually subcutaneous low molecular weight heparin. Pulmonary embolism 118 Handbook of Critical Care Medicine Hypertensive problems in critical care Severe hypertension can develop in people with chronic hypertension. Severe hypertension can result in life threatening complications, and early and careful therapy is important. Acute elevation in blood pressure may be the primary presenting feature in a critically ill patient, or may complicate patients with other critical illness. There is no clear cut off point for severe hypertension, as severe hypertension is generally defined according to comorbid conditions and complications. The rate of rise of blood pressure, and the prior level of blood pressure are also important. In general, most patients with hypertensive emergencies have a diastolic blood pressure greater than 120mmHg. Patients can develop hypertensive emergencies with lower diastolic blood pressures. Patients with previously normal blood pressures are more likely to develop end-organ damage and hence hypertensive emergency if their blood pressures rise acutely. This happens in conditions like acute glomerulonephritis, pre-eclampsia/eclampsia, and cocaine or amphetamine induced hypertension.
Practice Guideline for the treatment of patients with Alzheimer’s Disease and Other Dementias cheap sulfasalazine 500mg overnight delivery pocono pain treatment center, 2nd edn cheap 500 mg sulfasalazine with amex pain treatment who. Anosognosia cheap sulfasalazine 500 mg overnight delivery regional pain treatment center whittier, denial of illness (a form of hemi-inattention; a left hemiparesis is not acknowledged due to a non-dominant parietal lobe lesion3199; this causes management problems because the patient does not see why he needs assistance) The term disconnection syndrome3200 suggests an interruption of communication between brain regions in sensory inattention and neglect following a stroke purchase 500 mg sulfasalazine overnight delivery pain treatment centers of america carl covey. Auditory agnosia, inability to recognise sounds, everything from a telephone ringing to speech – all is simply noise (usually bitemporal lesions). Agraphognosia (agraphaesthesia), inability to recognise numbers or letters written on skin. Alternating sequences: draw a short sequence of alternating squares and triangles and ask patient with frontal lobe pathology to copy the sequence and then continue the pattern; the patient will repeat shapes instead of alternating them. Aphasia Aphasia: Broca’s area3207 is just below the motor area for the right hand and face. Wernicke’s area3208 is in the posterior part of the dominant superior temporal gyrus. The two areas (in most people in the left hemisphere) are joined by the arcuate fasciculus that passes through the angular gyrus. Dysphasia (the complete form being aphasia) is an organic impairment of language and communication. Receptive (sensory, fluent, jargon) aphasia - patient hears but cannot understand (lesion in Wernicke’s area3209; speech is fluid and spontaneous but incoherent and nonsensical) and is unaware of the problem; motor function is normal Expressive (motor, non-fluent) aphasia (lesion in Broca’s area) - patient understands others but cannot express himself normally: speech is halting, laborious, inaccurate, inarticulate, telegraphic, sparse, or even absent - in the lesser, dysphasic form the appropriate words cannot be found despite knowing what it is one wants to say; right hemiplegia common Global (total) aphasia - combination of (a) and (b) - speech is non-fluent and the patient shows by his emotional reaction that he is unaware that there is a problem; may be mute; variable right hemiplegia Conduction aphasia - similar to sensory/fluent aphasia but with understanding and awareness of deficits, the latter leading to frustration; there is selective impairment of repetition Nominal dysphasia (anomia, amnestic aphasia) - inability to find words or name objects that patient should know (e. The acute onset of abnormal speech in a middle-aged person is almost always diagnostic of a fluent aphasia. The negation of hemi-neglect by the application of transcranial magnetic stimulation to the intact hemisphere(Oliveri ea, 1999) suggests that it is interhemispheric imbalance rather than damage to the other hemisphere that leads to hemi-neglect. Also known for idea of loosened continuity of nerve fibres in psychosis (‘sejunction’ theory). The patient may be mislabelled as ‘psychotic’ or ‘confused’, especially when there is a rapid outpouring of abnormal speech. Nominal dysphasia, unlike primary motor aphasia, may be commoner in diffuse rather than focal brain dysfunction (e. Alzheimer’s disease), and it is often accompanied by acalculia (inability to do simple arithmetical calculations; tested for by ‘serial 7s’ – this, or dyscalculia (dysarithmetria), a lesser form, may be acquired or developmental). A temporary inability to remember a proper noun or name, a universal experience, is called lethologica. A lesion of the angular gyrus leads to loss of ability to read and write (speech, both in terms of production and understanding, is normal), the two kinds of visually mediated language. Alexia3210 is loss of ability to grasp the meaning of written or printed words or sentences. Dyslexia includes word blindness and a tendency to reverse read or written letters and words. Latent inhibition refers to the situation wherein a person becomes used to ignoring a stimulus because of its irrelevance, but when its once again becomes relevant the subject finds it difficult to learn its significance3211. Krabbendam and Jolles (2002) define attention as a multifactorial construct that includes the capacity to remain alert, orient to new stimuli, to filter what is relevant, and to rapidly discriminate stimuli; sustained attention allows one to be ready to respond to small environmental changes; and sustained attention allows one to focus on the relevant, ignoring the irrelevant. The Stroop Colour-Word Test (reading words, naming colours, and an interference condition of names printed in conflicting colours, e. The related concept of alertness has been divided into phasic (a warning stimulus raises the level of attention), divided (ability to attend to more than one stimulus simultaneously and to react to whatever is relevant), and sustained or vigilant (maintaining attention on a task over a long period of time). Whilst focal brain damage may selectively impair one of these subtypes, mixed patterns of different degrees of severity are common. Consciousness A state of mind which refers to the nature of a person’s mental experience at a given moment in time; to be conscious is to be aware of oneself and ones environment; consciousness may be clouded, that is incomplete or diminished; preoccupation may narrow consciousness so that elements foreign to the preoccupation are excluded from consideration; the lay use of consciousness refers to an awareness, e. From a biological viewpoint, consciousness is a product of tegmental nuclei of the brainstem reticular activating system; diffuse projections go to the forebrain and diencephalon. Torpor: A state of abnormal drowsiness – patient is sleepy, everything is slowed down3213, perception is diminished in range, concentration requires great effort, and, unlike in functional stupor, amnesia often occurs following resolution of torpor. Dysarthria Speech disorder caused by mechanical problems with anatomical structures necessary for articulation of speech. Cerebellar speech involves fluctuations in rate, volume and tone, giving the false impression of intoxication. Motor dyspraxia (lesion of dominant premotor frontal cortex or anterior corpus callosum, or diffuse cortical disease) – ask patient to mime simple tasks such as brushing teeth or copy unusual hand postures demonstrated by examiner. Constructional dyspraxia (especially lesions of non-dominant hemisphere) – inability to construct shapes, by drawing or other means, either on request or when asked to copy a particular design such as a three-dimensional cube, a clock face, or a bicycle; ask patient to light a match (a complex task) to test for ideomotor/ideational dyspraxia (Q. Buccofacial apraxia: patient unable to execute the normal facial, lip, and tongue movements, and the problem is not simply due to paresis; severe cases may be almost mute (aphaemia). The latter may be less influenced by prior experience, a phenomenon that might have some relevance for the genesis of hallucinations. Ecstasy: rare; extreme well being usually kept private, without overactivity; may feel in communion with God; found in epilepsy, mania, and schizophrenia. Elation: increased mood that is infectious to others, as in many cases of mania: ‘infectious jollity’. Hypergraphia Uncontrolled excess writing that is correct from a linguistic viewpoint but is nevertheless semantically loose. Logoclonia Spastic repetition of terminal syllable: ‘I’m going to the circus, cus, cus, cus. Memory There are 3 functions of memory that are routinely tested by psychiatrists: immediate (primary), recent (secondary), and remote (tertiary). Palilalia Repetitions of ones own words, as distinct from echolalia, the repetition of the words of other people and coprolalia, the uttering of obscenities. However, palilalia is often used to mean repetition of the last uttered word or phrase uttered by others. A patient may never get dressed because he keeps opening buttons each time he closes them! Pleiotropy A single cause can lead to a wide range of behaviours; a gene can manifest different phenotypes, as in Marfan’s syndrome. Reduplicative paramnesia A (variously defined) delusional belief that one is somewhere other than where one objectively is or, whilst incorrectly describing their true locality, patients hold that a familiar place has many copies in different localities; the actual place where the person is may be novel to that person; described by Pick in 1903; often associated with neurological deficit, e. Subtypes of reduplicative paramnesia: (a) Place reduplication – 2 identical places exist to which the patient gives the same name, but the places are situated at a distance from one another (b) Chimeric assimilation – 2 places become one, as when a patient believes that home and hospital are one (c) Extravagant spatial localisation – belief that one is in another place, often one that one knows well Wada test Inject sodium amytal directly into each carotid artery: when dominant hemisphere is perfused the patient becomes briefly aphasic. Lewy bodies: laminated intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies in melanin-containing neurones of substantia nigra; derived from neuronal cytoskeleton; are often seen in surviving substantia nigra cells in Parkinson’s disease; also found in pigmented cells of locus coeruleus, dorsal vagal nucleus and reticular formation; with development of concept of Lewy body dementia, it became clear that these eosinophilic intraneuronal inclusion bodies have a core of phosphorylated and non-phosphorylated neurofilament protein, microtubule protein, the protein ubiquitin and tau protein and can be found in cerebral cortex3214. Antibodies to ubiquitin and alpha- synuclein can be used in postmortem tissue as a method of detecting Lewy bodies. The first genetic cause of Parkinson’s disease was reported in 1997: a mis-sense mutation altering fifty-third amino acid of the alpha-synuclein protein (A53T). Genetic triplication3215 is associated with onset of Parkinson’s disease and dementia with Lewy bodies in the mid-thirties. Triplication is far more likely to be associated with dementia than is duplication. Such abnormal phosphorylation of tau causes neurofilaments to become cross linked and hence form insoluble complexes. Heavily phosphorylated tau does not bind to microtubules, leading the latter to collapse. Many affected neurones die and disappear in the latter stages of Alzheimer’s disease, leaving ghost tangles3217. Pick bodies: rounded, perinuclear condensations of straight (contrasting with helical Alzheimer) filaments found in cortical neurones; contain cytoskeletal elements that bind polyclonal antibodies against neurotubles and a monoclonal antibody against neurofilaments.
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