By N. Vatras. Centenary College of New Jersey.
Burbage Fund Established in 1989 vide scholarship aid to medical students with by the Ernest E buy discount nimotop 30mg on line muscle relaxant anxiety. Scholarship Fund ships to pre-medical and medical students Established in 1999 anonymously by a former who 30 mg nimotop visa muscle relaxant remedies, due to fnancial need nimotop 30 mg online spasms hamstring, could not other- student discount 30mg nimotop with mastercard muscle relaxant rub, in recognition of Dr. Berman was an associate professor arship in Medical Education This fund was of medicine at Hopkins. Bermann Memorial Fellowship Burkholder to provide scholarships for quali- Established in honor of her husband by the fed medical students. Alfred Blalock Scholarship Fund This endowed scholarship was established in scholarship, established by Dr. Carver for students in Thomas Harrold, commemorates the great the School of Medicine. Chinese students service to human kind and the many contri- are to have preference insofar as there may butions of one of Johns Hopkins’ most distin- be qualifed applicants; second preference is guished surgeons, Alfred Blalock, who devel- for students of other Asian nationalities; third oped the blue baby operation designed to preference is for American students. The fund is to be used to aid deserv- Bongiovanni was a member of the faculty in ing students in the School of Medicine. The income from the fund is to provide This fund was established in 2003 by Helena fnancial aid to needy students in the School Chang Chui, M. The fund was established by given to students that are pursuing an Mas- his estate in 1998. Turner Scholarship Fund Established by cal students pursuing a degree in one of the friends and admirers of Dr. Scholarship Fund Established in 1999 by Class of 1915 Memorial Fund A fund estab- Dr. Brookhouser to provide scholar- lished through gifts and bequests from and ships to needy medical students. Grafton ing student or students at the Johns Hopkins Brown died in 1973, leaving a Trust to provide University School of Medicine. D’Agostino, Class of 1978, to honor his in 1950 by members of the School of Medi- devotion to medicine and his lifetime affli- cine Class of 1926 to provide income for a ation with the School of Medicine. Wells Davies Fund was established by Vir- Class of 1937 Philip Bard Scholarship ginia Wells Davies in November of 1981. Its Established as an endowed fund by the purpose is to provide scholarship assistance Class of 1937 in 1987 in honor of their 50th to fnancially needy students pursuing the Reunion. Doane established an Class of 1956 Memorial Fund Endowed in endowment fund in 1952 to provide tuition aid 1971 by members of the Class of 1956, the to certain students with fnancial need. Income from the by the members of the Class of 1965 in honor principal will be used to provide fnancial sup- of their 25th Reunion, the income to provide port for medical students in the School of scholarships to needy medical students. The fund is a tribute to in honor of their 25th Reunion, the income his wife, Victoria. Memorial Fund Estab- lished in 1990 by the family, friends, and col- Class of 1976 Scholarship Fund Endowed leagues of Dr. Marcia Thomas Duncan Memorial Schol- arship This scholarship, established in 1980 Class of 1978 Scholarship Fund Endowed in memory of Marcia Thomas Duncan, is by the Class of 1978 to commemorate their awarded annually to a frst year medical stu- 25th Reunion; the income will provide schol- dent. In addition to a four-year scholarship arships to needy medical students in the covering tuition and fees, the Duncan Scholar School of Medicine. Eggleston Memorial Fund An of Medicine alumni established the Class of endowed fund established in 1989 by family, 1980 Scholarship Fund in 1995 to provide friends and colleagues of Dr. The income is to provide scholarship was created by members of the Class of 1983 assistance to needy medical students in the upon their 15th Reunion to provide assis- School of Medicine. Robert Biggs Ehrman Scholarship Fund Class of 1986 Scholarship Fund Endowed Established in 1970 at the death of Mr. Engle Endowed Scholarship Fund Established previously served as his class representative. Sharon Fox Scholarship Fund in Memory Jean Epstein Memorial Fund This endow- of Henrietta B. The income from this income from which is to be used for student fund provides a scholarship to deserving aid in the School of Medicine. Ettinger Scholarship Fund lished as a bequest from the estate of Sallye Established by Mrs. Ettinger to provide schol- Lipscomb French as a memorial to her hus- arship assistance for students in the School band, Bernard S. Scholarship ship Fund This fund is in memory of Larry Established in 2000 by a gift from Dr. Scholar- arship Fund This fund was established in ship Fund This fund was established in 1999 1998 by Stuart L. Finesilver Memorial Schol- arship Fund This fund was established in arship Fund This fund was established in 1996 by Dr. Frances Blumenthal in memory vide scholarship support to students in the of her father, an alumnus of the Class of 1924. Firor Fund An endowed schol- able candidate applying for admission to the arship established in 1989 by the estate of Johns Hopkins University School of Medi- Mrs. Abraham Genecin Memorial Fischer Family Scholarship for Medical Fund This fund was established in 1999 by Education This scholarship fund recognizes Mrs. Rita Genecin and other donors to pro- the Hopkins family legacy of Janet Fischer, vide assistance to needy medical students. Givens to provide Fonkalsrud Endowed Scholarship Fund scholarships for students in the School of This fund was established in 2002 by Eric W. The couple has a life-long Emil Goetsch Fund for Medical Students affliation with the Johns Hopkins School of The income from this endowment, estab- Medicine. Fonkalsrud served on the fac- lished in 1963, is used for scholarships for ulty in the School of Medicine’s Department medical students. Preference in award of the scholarship is 1975) leadership at the Wilmer Eye Institute. Income from this fund will be used to provide Louis Hamman Memorial Scholarship assistance to deserving medical students. This is an endowed scholarship in memory David Goldfarb Family Endowment Estab- of the late Dr. The income is avail- Established in 1986 as a bequest from the able for a scholarship for a medical student estate of Lillian Ruth Goldman to provide whose fnancial need and developmental scholarship assistance to needy and deserv- promise justify such an award. Gordon for Medical Education This fund was Memorial Fund The fund was established in established in 1999 by Dr. It is to be used for the education of medical students be awarded to female students interested in specializing in the study of arthritic diseases, surgery. Hartsock Memorial Scholar- Scholarship Fund in Memory of Leonard ship Fund This scholarship was established L. Hartsock, an endowment, with income to be allocated Class of 1920, by members of his family and to aid deserving students in the School of friends to provide aid to needy and worthy Medicine. Gross Scholar- Morrison Leroy Haviland Scholarship Fund ship Fund This fund was established in 2002 Established in 1988 by Dr. Gross were well known for their honor of their father, Morrison Leroy Havi- care and compassion for others. This income is to be used for needy Fund provides fnancially needy students the medical students. Hayes to provide Education Established in 2000 by George scholarship assistance to needy medical W. Guynn Memorial in the School of Medicine who have demon- Scholarship Fund Established in 1995 by Dr. Guynn, the income from this fund John Helfman Scholarship Fund Estab- will be used to provide scholarship assis- lished as a bequest from the estate of John tance to needy medical students. Hicks Medical Research Schol- the Myers Family of Baltimore to recognize arship Fund A fund was established in 1972 the competence and compassion with which to be used for scholarships for students who Dr. Memorial Scholar- fund provides a scholarship to a third year ship in Medical Education This endowment medical student who intends to specialize in fund was established in 2002 by Panameri- internal medicine.
If patients with severe illness do not side decision making rarely 30mg nimotop with mastercard muscle relaxer 93, if ever nimotop 30 mg visa muscle relaxant that starts with the letter z, at least in the have this capacity discount 30 mg nimotop mastercard infantile spasms 9 month old, then we depend on surrogate United States generic 30mg nimotop with visa muscle relaxant veterinary. Autonomy depends on the proper resources in an appropriate and efﬁcient manner, process of informed consent, where the risks, ben- but the primary role of the physician is as a patient eﬁts, and alternatives are explained honestly. A physician shall uphold the standards of professionalism, be honest in all professional interactions, and strive to report physicians deﬁcient in character or competence, or engaging in fraud or deception, to appropriate entities. A physician shall respect the law and also recognize a responsibility to seek changes in those requirements that are contrary to the best interests of the patient. A physician shall respect the rights of patients, colleagues, and other health professionals and shall safeguard patient conﬁ- dences and privacy within the constraints of the law. A physician shall continue to study, apply, and advance scientiﬁc knowledge; maintain a commitment to medical educa- tion; make relevant information available to patients, colleagues, and the public; obtain consultation; and use the talents of other health professionals when indicated. A physician shall, in the provision of appropriate patient care, except in emergencies, be free to choose whom to serve, with whom to associate, and the environment in which to provide medical care. A physician shall recognize a responsibility to participate in activities contributing to the improvement of the community and the betterment of public health. At the same time, we should medical decisions was found in outpatients with advocate vigorously for rational health policies cancer, the elderly, and patients with dementia. However, ethical dilemmas usually involve critically ill patients who are deeply sedated or subjective considerations, including the prefer- obviously delirious do not have decisional capac- ences of patients, their surrogates, and clinicians, ity, and their treating clinicians can determine which in turn are often inﬂuenced by their experi- incapacity. Standardized assessment tools for “evidence-based ethics” that attempts to apply these conditions may be helpful in assessing principles of evidence-based medicine to ethical delirium, which is usually underestimated in hos- dilemmas in clinical medicine. Psychiatric consultation is not Regardless of the outcome of this controversy, necessary to determine whether a patient is incom- some basic principles apply. One potentially useful petent; rather, consultations should be reserved for method includes ﬁrst framing the ethical dilemma cases in which the clinician believes that the patient in the dimensions of autonomy, beneﬁcence, non- is making an irrational decision, when there is maleﬁcence, and justice. In most situations, physicians use the prin- ciple of “substituted judgment” and proceed with Specifc Issues a course that most patients with capacity would choose. Withdrawing Physicians are required to obtain informed life support in a patient without capacity and with consent from patients before initiating treatment, no surrogate presents a special issue. This consent requires that the cases, decisions were made by physicians with no patient is capable of understanding the relevant institutional or judicial review, contrary to their information and the consequences of treatment institution’s policies. This process should be planned and requirement may be waived if an institutional communicated to the team and the family, prefer- review board determines that the research poses ably with an organized protocol including the minimal risk, deﬁned in U. Federal guidelines administration of analgesics and sedatives titrated as “the probability and magnitude of harm or to maintain the comfort of the patient. Prompt tion in clinical research, and critical care research extubation has the advantages of not prolonging is generally not conducted in some states unless the dying process, and the goals of care are clear there is a court-appointed guardian. Gradual withdrawal of “emergency research” in situations such as after support with the endotracheal tube in place reduces cardiopulmonary resuscitation. However, this approach may prolong the dying process, and some family It is widely accepted in modern societies that members may misinterpret this process as patients and their surrogates have the authority to an attempt to extubate the patient successfully. Withdrawing ventilatory support is generally among clinicians and ethicists on which method is deemed the moral and ethical equivalent of with- preferable. Rather, decisions on how to extubate holding it, but many families and physicians can- patients who are expected to die depend on the not help but think and act otherwise. In addi- port may be undertaken in most locations if there tion, some patients survive to be discharged from is an oral advance directive by the patient or with the hospital despite predictions that the with- the agreement of the clinical team and family; the drawal of support will lead to death; this would requirement for a written advance directive is be impossible in the presence of neuromuscular unusual. Unusual situations in which continuing is a consensus of both the medical team and the therapy with these agents are warranted during patient and family that this treatment is both the withdrawal of mechanical ventilator support unwanted and not likely to lead to a desired patient would include patients who are certain not to sur- outcome. When the decision to limit or withdraw vive more than a short interval after the with- treatment is reached, the clinician is still respon- drawal of support even without this treatment, or sible for treating the patient throughout the dying if the beneﬁts of waiting for the return of neuro- process and being attentive to the needs of the muscular function do not outweigh the burdens. Transcranial Doppler exami- goal of maintaining patient comfort is associated nations of cerebral blood ﬂow are safe, noninva- with a shorter time to death after extubation. The narcotic dose and the time to death, and a direct determination of a complete absence of ﬂow using relationship between the dose of benzodiazepines this examination is unreliable in the diagnosis of and the time to death after extubation. Therefore, brain death because false-positive results may a judicious use of sedation and analgesics does not occur in 10 to 15% of cases as the result of technical appear to hasten death in these patients and should factors, which are often related to poor image be part of any standard protocol. Health care eth- establishing a precise diagnosis of brain death is ics consultation: nature, goals, and competencies—a often crucial in decisions about terminating life sup- position paper from the Society for Health and Human port and organ donation. Although the criteria for Values-Society for Bioethics Consultation Task Force diagnosing brain death have evolved, the current on Standards for Bioethics Consultation. Ann Intern guidelines and the laws in most countries require a Med 2000; 133:59–69 detailed clinical assessment that includes the pres- Summary of a task force report delineating the role of eth- ence of coma and the absence of brainstem reﬂexes ics committees and consultative services, with recommenda- and apnea over the course of two successive exam- tions on policies, competencies, and processes. Ann Intern Med 2005; 142:560–582 cord injury, in which a patient may be incapable of Concise overview of issues related to medicine, law, and social breathing spontaneously) would also make clinical values that covers issues related to patient care, the practice of assessment impossible. Cerebral Two-year study that shows that physicians in critical care angiography with ﬁndings that show a cessation units are not likely to know patient preferences about end- of blood ﬂow to the brain is considered to be the of-life care, nor are they likely to change their practice even “gold standard,” and technetium nuclear imaging with intensive intervention. Do clinical and for- These two studies deal with the processes of withdrawing mal assessments of the capacity of patients in the inten- mechanical ventilatory support, indicating that the appro- sive care unit to make decisions agree? Arch Intern priate use of sedatives and narcotics is associated with mini- Med 1993; 153:2481–2485 mal patient discomfort and does not hasten the time to death Issues and methods to determine competence to make medi- after extubation. Informed consent for clinical research involv- for end-of-life care in the intensive care unit: the Eth- ing patients with chest disease in the United States. Chest 2009; 135:1061–1068 Crit Care Med 2001; 29:2332–2348 This is a thorough and thoughtful review of laws and issues These articles review ethical and practical aspects of with- surrounding performing clinical research, especially in drawing life-sustaining treatments. These sta- tistics were derived using telephone surveys and physical examinations as well as pulmonary func- tion testing of randomly selected subjects. Chronic bronchitis has been leading cause of disability-adjusted life-years in deﬁned in clinical terms: the presence of chronic men and the seventh-leading cause of disability- productive cough for at least three consecutive adjusted life-years among women. However, the rates were slightly traditional view, recent data have shown that greater among black than white patients during this this destructive process is accompanied by a net same period. It does ognized ( 60 years), have evidence of poorly not incorporate the terms chronic bronchitis reversible airﬂow obstruction on pulmonary and emphysema into the deﬁnition. This ﬁnd- feature in asthmatics and is so important to ing has raised a complexity of semantic issues its pathogenesis it has been incorporated into that have not been solved. However, increased been to combine two of the major pathologic responsiveness to constrictors such as metha- processes and describe such patients using the choline and histamine (but not indirect bron- term asthmatic bronchitis, but this deﬁnition choconstrictors such as cold air and bradykinin) does not have widespread acceptance. It is nisms of disease are still poorly understood, the likely that such patients have more than one reasons why only certain individuals with a posi- pathologic process with several pathways of tive exposure history become affected are not inﬂammation. Epidemiologic evidence sug- Such events appear to predict later ﬁndings of gests that they are not at increased risk for chronic, fixed obstructive lung disease. Nonsmokers without of other genetically determined abnormal protec- respiratory disease can expect to lose 25 to tive mechanisms against protease, oxidant, and 30 mL/yr of lung function after age 35. This family of meta- A prospective multicenter longitudinal study bolic enzymes may play an important part in cel- of the effects of smoking cessation in patients iden- lular defense by detoxifying various substances in tiﬁed with mild-to-moderate airﬂow obstruction tobacco smoke. These acute respiratory illnesses or Changes in the Airways of Smokers exacerbations are usually caused by viral or bacte- rial infections and are heralded by an increase in Early structural changes have been described symptoms. The innate respiratory defense system the large and small ( 2 mm) airways and in the includes an epithelial cell barrier and mucociliary lung parenchyma (Fig 2). When they are overwhelmed, are also changes in the pulmonary circulation, the foreign particles may penetrate the airway, and heart, and the respiratory muscles. Inflammatory cells migrate into the smooth muscle with extension of the muscularis epithelial layer, including polymorphonuclear layer into distal vessels that do not ordinarily con- cells, eosinophils, macrophages, natural killer tain smooth muscle. Antigens that are deposited on the epithelium are transported within the airway by antigen-presenting cells, the specialized epi- thelial M cells, and the dendritic cells.
Withdrawal akathisia develops days to weeks after stopping or reducing the dose of an antipsychotic drug buy 30 mg nimotop mastercard spasms of the esophagus. However discount nimotop 30 mg visa muscle relaxant for headache, akathisia following removal of a drug that suppresses akathisia does not fit this definition order nimotop 30mg overnight delivery spasms right side. Also order 30 mg nimotop mastercard spasms headache, pain or burning in the oral or genital reasons has been included in this category. Pseudoakathisia is an unfortunate term that may mean tardive dyskinesia of the lower limbs or that there is no subjective sensation of restlessness. Hemiakathisia (affects one half of body) and monoakathisia (one limb involved) are curiosities. Although reported in relation to drug therapy, they should lead one to consider a physical cause. Secondary akathisia may be due to Parkinson’s disease, cerebral trauma, damage to the lenticular nucleus or subthalamic nucleus, or encephalitis lethargica. Whilst forward flexion of the spine is typical, some cases may 3738 stand stiff and upright whilst others may even bend backwards. Extrapyramidal rigidity can be lead-pipe (persistent resistance to passive movement) or cogwheel (succession of resistances). Above and below that point these two activities come closer together so that Parkinsonism becomes less at lower and higher doses. This accounts for the well-known clinical phenomenon of an increase in Parkinsonism as the dose of neuroleptic is reduced! Whilst most cases are reversible, some may represent unmasking of idiopathic Parkinson’s disease. The first modern description may have been that of Matthias Schönecker in 1957 (of Essen-Brobeck) and the term ‘tardive dyskinesia’ was proposed by Arild Faurbye (1907-1983) of St Hans Psychiatric Hospital Roskilde (Denmark) and co-workers in 1964. Patients with affective disorders who are given neuroleptics (disputably, depressed patients may be at greater risk than schizophrenic patients – Yassa ea, 1992; Larkin & Gervin, 1998 – but not all studies agree: Twamley ea, 2003, p. In patients of 55 years or older with bipolar affective disorder, the ones with involuntary movements were not distinguished from those without them by past or current exposure to antipsychotic drugs, anticholinergics, or carbamazepine, but they had poorer cognitive function, had fewer major depressive episodes, and had received briefer exposure to lithium. It is more 3741 3742 common with age , anticholinergic drug given in addition , possibly female sex, 3743 depot neuroleptics , and perhaps early Parkinsonism. African Americans), confounding may have occurred due to assignment of ethnicity in a multiracial society, and other factors such as medication choice and dosage, tobacco, 3746 alcohol , diet, and genes must all be taken into account. Withdrawal-emergent dyskinesia may either resolve over some weeks or may not resolve, the latter presumably representing cases that were latent or simply suppressed by D2 blockade. Withdrawal-emergent dyskinesia may follow a change from a typical to an atypical antipsychotic. Adolescents with schizotypal disorder were found to have an excess of movement disorder that progressed with time and that correlated with prodromal psychotic symptoms. The left lentiform nucleus was 11% larger in dyskinetic patients v controls, and the right lateral ventricle-hemisphere ratio was 33% larger in patients without dyskinesia v controls. As controls age the volume of caudate and lentiform nuclei shrink, a pattern not seen in the patients. The authors suggested that dyskinetic patients have striatal pathology, whereas cortical atrophy is more pronounced in non-dyskinetic cases. The limbs, especially the extremities, may be the sites of rudimentary isolated choreiform movements. Marsalek, 2000) 3748 Myokymia or ‘live flesh’ is also the name for a familial innocuous orbicularis oculi (or other muscle) twitch. The term is also used to refer to rare sinuous, wavy or fine lower facial movements due to lesions of the brainstem. The prevalence increased with age and was independent of the length of time on antipsychotic drugs and of the average daily dose over this period. Prolonged neuroleptic treatment of young rats is associated with late-onset orofacial movement; however, such movements occur spontaneously in untreated old rats. Structural brain changes consequent to ageing and disease processes may be associated with the emergence of orofacial dyskinesia, even in the absence of exposure to antipsychotic drugs. May improve when antipsychotic drugs are withdrawn but anticholinergic drugs are unhelpful. Tardive Tourette’s disorder (tardive tourettism) – has emerged during neuroleptic therapy. Rabbit syndrome may occur in 4% of such patients who are not receiving concomitant anticholinergic drugs. Expect a 50% reduction in dyskinetic movement in most patients by 18 months after stopping antipsychotic drugs. Unlike adults, dyskinesias have been reported within months of starting neuroleptics in younger patients. Treatment of withdrawal dyskinesia or dystonia may include re-starting the drug followed by a slow taper. In chronic schizophrenic patients, both oro-facial and trunk and limb dyskinesia are associated with negative symptoms, but only oro-facial dyskinesia showed a significant increase in prevalence with increasing age; patients with negative symptoms tend to develop oro-facial dyskinesia at an earlier age. Three cases of valproate-induced dyskinesia reported in association with significant learning difficulties. Early brain damage, poor frontal lobe function, and craniofacial dysmorphogenesis have been reported as possible risk factors by various authors. Assessed dyskinesia in 4 groups of elderly Indians (normals, relatives of schizophrenics, never-medicated schizophrenics, and medicated schizophrenics): prevalence of dyskinesia similar in never-medicated and medicated patients (c 40%) and was significantly higher than in the other 2 groups (15%). Being neuroleptic-naïve and schizophrenic carried a higher risk for movement disorder than having another diagnosis and being neuroleptic-naïve. Spontaneous dyskinesia, Parkinsonism, and neurological soft signs appear to represent neuromotor components of schizophrenia. Never-treated schizophrenics in Morocco more commonly exhibit abnormal involuntary movements than do treated cases. Spontaneous dyskinesia found in 12% of spectrum subjects, especially in schizotypals (24%). Indian study finds that dyskinesia (but not Parkinsonism) is more common in never-treated siblings of schizophrenics who have the (corresponding) movement disorder. Patient sits on firm armless chair, hands on knees, legs slightly apart, feet flat on floor – now and throughout examination observe entire body. Patient taps thumb against each finger for 15 seconds with each hand – observe face and legs. Movements that occur only on activation merit 1 point less than spontaneous movements. Neither is there agreement thay atypical drugs are necessarily better than haloperidol in terms of cognitive improvement. Actions on serotonergic systems may underlie improved 3762 profiles among atypical agents , such as improvement in negative symptoms, although whether these drugs tackle primary or secondary negativity (e. Alternatively, atypicals block D2 receptors for relatively brief periods as with clozapine or (in the case of aripiprazole) act as partial agonists at D2 receptors. One study suggested that risperidone plus a mood stabiliser was more efficacious than a mood stabiliser alone, and as efficacious as haloperidol plus a mood stabiliser for rapid control of mania. Clozapine aside, the clinician would do well to choose an antipsychotic drug on the basis of its pharmacological and side-effect profile rather than whether it belongs to the novel/atypical/second generation or is an old/typical/first generation compound. Geddes ea (2000) conclude that when the dose of typical drugs is controlled for they are as 3765 efficacious and as tolerable as the atypical antipsychotics. Chakos ea (2001) concluded that clozapine was more effective than typical drugs, but probably not by a robust margin, and the evidence, they found, was inconclusive for other new agents. Mortimer(2002) stated that the most powerful predictor’ of ‘atypicality’ is fast dissociation of the drug from D2 receptors: as measured by the Koff, clozapine and quetiapine have the fastest dissociation.
Depressed patients show a rise in blood glucose and plasma insulin levels after each treatment; insulin but not glucose response attenuates over the treatment course; and greater attenuation of insulin response at the fifth (final) treatment may predict relapse cheap 30 mg nimotop overnight delivery spasms of the bladder. Sackeim ea (1996) reported that the induction of prefrontal slow-wave activity correlated with symptomatic improvement in major depression discount nimotop 30 mg on line spasms poster. Animal studies have shown brain damage due to electroshock but the method used was different from that used in psychiatry generic 30mg nimotop fast delivery spasms with cerebral palsy. Plotkin ea (1985) have demonstrated that poor subjective memory is significantly related to depressive symptoms in elderly patients nimotop 30mg amex spasms cerebral palsy. Improvement in depression paralleled improvement in memory regardless of whether they received tricyclics or group psychotherapy. People who recover from severe depression have impaired cognitive function irrespective of treatment. The relationship between subjective reports and objective findings are weak, although methods of testing memory may not be optimal. See Dunlop and Nemeroff (2007) for review of review of reduced dopaminergic neurotransmission in major depression. Use of brief pulse stimulation (instead of sine wave) can reduce memory impairment. Some patients have continuing memory problems that appear to be explained by continuing mood symptoms or substance/alcohol abuse. Single case study (> 400 treatments): cognitive effects no greater than with acute treatment and seem to be non-progressive. Bifrontal electrode placement is as efficacious as bitemporal electrode placement in the treatment of major depression and it causes less cognitive impairment. Bitemporal electrode placement may be more efficacious than bifrontal placement, but it may cause modestly greater cognitive impairment. Tardive seizures may relate to use of lithium, paroxetine, thioridazine, theophylline, ciprofloxacin, and beta-lactam antibiotics (including piperacillin and cefotiam) although other factors may contribute, e. Bitemporal (150% seizure threshold), bifrontal (150% seizure threshold) and right unilateral (600% seizure threshold) electrode placements are effective in treating depression when electrical dose is appropriate; bitemporal gives faster antidepressant response; there is little cognitive difference between the two bilateral placements. The flow of current in the brain is parallel with but in the opposite direction to the current in the coil. Tissues, including bone, resist the flow of electrical current but not the passage of magnetic fields. Such fields meet cerebral neurones with resting potentials and the flow of electrical current is induced. Because the skull is highly resistant to electrical current a high dose of electricity causes only a small passage of current in the brain and may cause heat and pain en route. However, magnetic fields are unimpeded by the skull and changes to electric current in the brain. Reid ea (1998) expressed concern that depression may reappear soon after stopping treatment and wondered if maintenance therapy might be needed. Contraindications (Milev & Mileva, 2010) include pregnancy (lack of data), ferromagnetic material (e. Cortical function is increased and decreased by anodal and cathodal stimulation respectively. Changes in cortical excitability continue post-current for a period of time that is related to current duration. The latter sends information via ascending projections to forebrain (via parabrachial nucleus and locus coeruleus – these connect with many areas involved in mood modulation). Neurologists noted that their patients felt better independent of improvement in seizures. Potential adverse effects include intracerebral haemorrhage, peri-operative confusion, both related to surgery. During stimulation there may be problems with speech or eye movement, paraesthesia, and muscular contractions. If an animal was awakened before each episode of paradoxical sleep it began to show increased activity in all areas. A faster response to clomipramine was found if the patient was deprived of sleep for one night before starting the drug. One of the major problems with attempts to treat mood disorders with sleep manipulation is the transient effect of any of the approaches employed to date. Psychosurgery/Neurosurgery Reports of improvement in mental state date back to at least medieval times. Ferrier, in his 1875 Croonien Lecture, reported that the removal of a large part of a monkey’s frontal lobes led to tameness and docility with no sensorimotor deficits. In 1935 Fulton and Jacobsen reported that frontal lobectomy had a tranquillising effect in primates suffering from behavioural disorders due to an ‘experimental neurosis’. In 1936 Moniz started to study ways in which 3452 A small stimulus generator is placed beneath the clavicle and a lead from this is wrapped around the left vagus in the neck (the right nerve is avoided because it gives parasympathetic branches to the heart). Freeman3456 and Watts, a neurologist and neurosurgeon respectively, and others were responsible for refinements in technique. Modern stereotactic psychosurgery, such as Yttrium seed implantation, has two main aims: relief of severe, continuous or recurrent mental anguish due to psychiatric illness, and reduction of abnormal aggressiveness (as with amygdalectomy). The main indication in the past for psychosurgery was for intractable schizophrenia, but these people did least well, although schizoaffective disorder may be improved. The best results were achieved in depression with associated anxiety or in obsessional states. The commonest procedure performed in Britain3457 was stereotactic subcaudate tractotomy,(Poynton ea, 1995) and was the only such intervention performed at the Geoffrey Knight Unit in London by the mid-1990s, with a total of 1,300 operations performed since 1961 (Freeman  cites 501 operations between 1979 and 1995). Less commonly performed is limbic leucotomy and bilateral lesions in the cingulum bundle. In bipolar cases, episodes of mania may be better controlled than episodes of depression. Antisocial personality traits, drug and alcohol abuse, and absence of informed consent are contraindications. Significant changes in symptoms may occur over a six-month period following surgery, and such changes may have some predictive value. Poynton ea (1995) found no lasting effect of stereotactic subcaudate tractotomy on neuropsychological function during their prospective follow up of 23 patients, despite some initial minor decrement in cognitive abilities. Follow up of capsulotomy (for refractory anxiety) patients by Rück ea (2003) in Sweden revealed a significant amount of apathy and impaired executive function. Psychosurgery has been outlawed in a number of European countries and in 1996 Norway offered compensation to patients who had undergone such surgery in the past. Before considering a patient for psychosurgery he must have been suffering for a long time and all other appropriate treatments should have been given an adequate trial. Modern drug and behavioural treatments have drastically reduced the need for surgery. The use of psychosurgery is strictly regulated under British legislation and under the Irish Mental Health Act, 2001: psychosurgery requires written consent from the patient and authorisation from a Tribunal. Following the use of insulin to calm patients experiencing abstinence symptoms from opiates Sakel discovered that schizophrenics also benefited. Following an overnight fast an injection of insulin was used in the morning to cause coma. Insulin coma therapy was shown not to be any better than barbiturate narcosis (Ackner ea, 1957) but it did not immediately go out of fashion. Code of Practice Governing the Use of Electro-Convulsive Therapy for Voluntary Patients. Open trial on the efficacy of right unilateral electroconvulsive therapy with titration and high charge.