By N. Mezir. Samford University.
Isotopes used as tracers A radioactive isotope attached to an important molecule can tell where it is generic mebendazole 100 mg online hiv infection eye. Isotopes emitting g-rays are easily observed buy cheap mebendazole 100mg line hiv infection onset, but also pure b-emitters like H–3 (tritium) and C–14 can be used purchase 100mg mebendazole free shipping hiv infection rates kenya. Thus buy discount mebendazole 100 mg on-line antiviral valacyclovir side effects, Melvin Calvin used C–14 to the exploration of photosynthetic carbon dioxide reduction. The Hershey – Chase experiment A very well known experiment with radioactive tracers was the Hershey– Chase experiment from 1952. Alfred Hershey and Martha Chase used the isotopes P–32 (b-emitter with half-life 14 days) and S–35 (b-emitter with half-life 87 days). Alfred Hershey (1908 – 1997) was the principal investiga- Numerous experiments within bio- tor, whereas Martha Chase (1927 – 2003) was the lab. Isotopes in radiation therapy In radiation therapy the purpose is to irradiate cancer cells to death and let the normal cells survive. Radium (Ra–226) was used from the beginning, both for teletherapy and as im- plants in brachytherapy. Attached to compounds (monoclonal antibodies) the isotope can be transported to the the cancer cells. Isotopes for diagnostic purposes Several isotopes emitting g-rays can, and have been used for diagnostic purposes. For example, I–131 will be accumulated in the thyroid and can via a gamma camera give information about sicknesses in the thyroid. We have pointed out before that the isotope most often used for medical information is Tc–99m. Thus, after the b-particle emission the newly formed technetium isotope is in a socalled “meta- stable” state. If we could isolate this metastable isotope it would be perfect for medical use, since the isotope would only emit a g-photon with no contamination from b-particles. Decay scheme for Mo-99 Mo–99 67 h The decay of Mo–99 results in a metastable nucleus – de- noted Tc–99m. By emitting a g- photon it ends up in Tc–99 which is radioactive with a Tc–99 halfife of 213 000 years. The compound is rinsed with physi- ological saline, and the Tc-99m that has been formed follows the water – it is like “milking”. The next step is to hook on this isotope to compounds that can bring it to particular places in the body that can be studied. More than 30 compounds based on Tc-99m have been made for imaging and functional studies of the brain, myocardium, thyroid, lungs, liver, gallbladder, kidneys, skeleton, blood and tumors. Tc-99m emits γ-radiation with an energy of 140 keV, which readily escapes the body and is easily measurable. From a physicists point of view it is probably the technique developed to observe the distribution of radioactivity that is the most interesting – whereas from a medical point of view it is the diagnostic power that is the most interesting. Ben Cassen and Hal Anger The technique with the radioactive isotopes in medical diagnostics started in the 1950s when Benedict Cassen invented the rectilinear scanner and in 1958 with the g-camera (or Anger camera). Blahd A picture of Hal Anger (1920 – 2005) and Benedict Cassen (1902 – 1972) at the International Confer- ence on Peaceful Uses of Atomic Energy in Geneva, Switzerland, in 1955. It can be mentioned that the “Society of Nuclear Medicine” every second year since 1994 give out a prize in honor of Benedict Cassen (The Benedict Cassen prize) for outstanding achievements in nuclear medicine. The illustration to the right demonstrate the technique introduced by Benedict Cassen. He assembled the frst auto- mated scanning system that was com- prised of a motor driven scintillation de- tector coupled to a relay printer. After the ini- tial studies, it was an extensive use of the scanning system for thyroid imaging during the early 1950s. Cassen’s devel- opment of the rectilinear scanner was a defning event in the evolution of clinical nuclear medicine. In 1956, Kuhl and his colleagues developed a photographic attachment for the Cassen scanner that improved its sensitivity and resolution. With the development of organ-specifc radio pharmaceuticals, a commercial model of this system was widely used during the late 1950s until the early 1970s to scan the major body organs. The decline of the rectilinear photoscanner began in 1973 with the advent of computed axial tomography. As its name suggests (single photon emission), ordinary g-ray emission is the source for the information. The camera or detector rotates around the patient, and the detector will observe the tracer distribution for a variety of angles. After all these angles have been observed, it is possible to reconstruct a three dimensional view of the isotope distribution within the body. A computer is used to apply a tomo- graphic reconstruction algorithm to the multiple projections, yielding a 3-D dataset. An example with Tc–99m In the example shown (to the right), Tc-99m was added to methylene- diphosphonate, which is absorbed by the bone-forming cells (the osteo- blasts). The picture makes it possible to study diseases of the skeleton, such as bone cancer. In order to un- derstand this we refer to chapter 2 where we discussed the different ways an unstable nucleus could attain a more stable state. We mentioned that in the ordinary b-decay, a neutron was transformed into a proton and an electron, which was emitted. This is a favorable reaction since the neutron mass is lager than the proton mass. The opposite reaction where a proton is transformed into a neutron is how- ever, a more diffcult process. We can however, attain this goal via two different routes; 1) electron capture and 2) positron emission. For all natural isotopes, electron capture is the usual process – because the energy between the par- ent and daughter is less than 2m c2 (m is the electron mass). However, for a number of artifcially e e induced isotopes positron emission takes place. The fate of the emitted positron is; after Illustration of the annihilation being slowed down, it will meet an elec- tron, and then either annihilate directly, or 511 keV photon form a short-lived “positronium atom”. The fnal process is an annihilation where the mass of the two particles is trans- formed into g-ray photons. A very important point is that the photons fy off in opposite directions (see the illustration to the right). We observe the two photons by detectors 180 degrees apart (coincidence measurements). We know Courtesy of Arnt Inge Vistnes from this observation that the annihilation process has taken place somewhere along the line shown in the illustration. One coincidence observation yield a line whereas two or more observations in other directions give a point (or a small area) where the radioactivity has its origin. Information on how tissue and organs functions on both the molecular and cell level. It is also possible to study changes in the brain that follows Alzheimer disease and epilepsy. Positron and positronium In connection to positron emission – we have to mention the “atom” positronium. When the positron has lost its kinetic energy and meet an electron, it is a possibility that they will exist for a short mo- ment almost like an atom (see illustration). It can be mentioned that the frst theoretical work on positro- nium was carried out by Aadne Ore in 1949.
The jaw order 100 mg mebendazole free shipping antiviral drugs youtube, stomach buy cheap mebendazole 100 mg on-line hiv zero infection, and lower back also are body buy 100 mg mebendazole free shipping antiviral yonkis, particularly if you’re thinking stressful thoughts many very common areas mebendazole 100 mg low cost hiv infection demographics. Your muscles tighten and, if you some of the first parts of the body to suffer from stress. They inhibit circulation, constricting blood vessels Other Ways Emotions Affect Health so the blood doesn’t flow through your body like it should and creating muscle imbalances. Negative emotions can have other detrimental effects on Without adequate blood flow, the cells in your body our health—effects that can make back pain worse. Toxins and waste aren’t Think about an emotionally distressing episode in your cleaned out as efficiently as they should be and can build up life. You probably slept too little, depriving your body of its in certain parts of your body, creating or reactivating trigger primary healing time. These knots are often painful to the touch somehow, so that you either lost your appetite and ate too and, in some cases, can cause muscles to spasm or “lock up,” little or reverted to eating too many highly processed, low- which can pull your spinal column out of alignment— nutrient foods. You might have skipped your usual exercise pinching nerves and causing nerve-based back pain. And if you doubt the effects the mind can have on the People around you may have commented on your increased body, let me tell you about a study that was done in Finland. Too little sleep, exercise, and calm, along with too much anxiety, bad foods, and inactivity all can have profound effects on your body. Back pain, neck pain, headaches, jaw pain, and joint soreness all are just around the corner. What makes this especially difficult is that the emotional component of any painful condition often is ignored. Somehow we’re conditioned to believe that any physical manifestation of our feelings is a sign of weakness or some mental problem. On the contrary, it’s quite typical to have a mental burden impact your physical body. As a society, we accept that being diagnosed with cancer or suffering a heart attack—even having a baby—can cause emotions like depression, anger, and even guilt. What we don’t recognize as easily is that the communication works both ways—from mind to body and from body to mind. Science has proven that the brain’s messengers (neurotransmitters) communicate information in the brain and throughout the body. Since the mind itself operates on physical and chemical reactions, why wouldn’t emotions, which are communicated in physical ways inside the body, have very physical outcomes? The truth is that our thoughts and emotions, and how we handle them, all have a very large effect on our everyday health and well-being. During periods of stress, they certainly cause or exacerbate physical discomfort or injury. It’s an unfortunate thing that as children 49 The 7-Day Back Pain Cure The Mind: How Emotions Cause Physical Pain 50 All these occasions are like dominoes stacked up against we’re rarely taught how to deal with our feelings. Too little sleep, exercise, and were learning all about reading, writing, math, and science— calm, along with too much anxiety, bad foods, and inactivity unless our parents were especially gifted in teaching us—we all can have profound effects on your body. Back pain, neck learned very little about the art of mastering our own pain, headaches, jaw pain, and joint soreness all are just emotions. If we were angry and blew up, most likely we were sent to What makes this especially difficult is that the emotional our rooms, or if we were in school, to the principal’s office. On the contrary, it’s quite typical to have a mental instruction along the way may have avoided the aches and burden impact your physical body. As a society, we accept that being diagnosed with cancer or But for many of us, we never learned the art of expressing suffering a heart attack—even having a baby—can cause ourselves without hurting others, or how journaling, emotions like depression, anger, and even guilt. Science has proven that the brain’s Some of us may not even realize when a powerful emotion messengers (neurotransmitters) communicate information in has taken hold of us. Since the mind itself or turning to self-destructive habits like alcohol or drug use. The truth is that our thoughts and emotions, and how we Psychology has shown us that, by far, the most dangerous handle them, all have a very large effect on our everyday way to handle emotions is to deny or repress them. During periods of stress, they certainly don’t learn to express them (in healthy ways), they stay in our cause or exacerbate physical discomfort or injury. Learning to properly express and deal with our emotions is one of the best things we can do for our overall health, and How we handle our emotions determines how they will especially for back pain. It’s an unfortunate thing that as children 51 The 7-Day Back Pain Cure Destructive Emotions Level 1: Everyday Stress When we consider the effects emotions can have on our systems, we can imagine four different levels of severity. Level one is the everyday stress we’re all subjected to, especially with today’s fast-paced lifestyle. The morning commute, the demands of the job, watching over our children, managing our relationships, and dealing with daily crises like no milk, flat tires, forgotten lunches, scraped knees, visiting relatives, broken sinks, unpaid bills, and sick cats. Most of us handle these types of stressors fairly well, but there’s no doubt that unless we are consciously aware of the tension they can cause, they still can affect our bodies negatively. Many people will “hold” tension in the shoulders by clenching the muscles, forgetting to “let go” of the stress. When these muscles are locked up for long periods of time, blood flow slows down and the unlocking mechanism doesn’t work. If we don’t take the time to unwind, burn off stress through exercise, or relax when the day is over, we may carry that tension to bed, where it will disrupt sleep and interrupt the healing process the body normally conducts at night. Little stresses can pile up until the body reaches a tipping point and triggers pain or is unable to keep you from getting rid of it. Level 2: Stressful Occurrences In addition to the stress in our everyday lives, we can sometimes experience events that aren’t necessarily out of the ordinary but that ratchet up stress levels nonetheless. A promotion or demotion Level 1: Everyday Stress at work can create weeks of anxiety as we adapt to the new position. If one of our children is struggling in school, we may When we consider the effects emotions can have on our spend hours worrying, contacting teachers, and trying to set systems, we can imagine four different levels of severity. The morning commute, the don’t have the money for it, can elevate our stress levels. Again, how we deal with there’s no doubt that unless we are consciously aware of the them is more important than the events themselves. If we feel tension they can cause, they still can affect our bodies confident that we can handle them and take gradual steps to negatively. Many people will “hold” tension in the shoulders do so, we’ll feel much better than if we feel victimized (“Why by clenching the muscles, forgetting to “let go” of the stress. When these muscles are locked up for long periods of Like level 1 stressors, level 2 stressors can constrict blood time, blood flow slows down and the unlocking mechanism flow (so it moves “too slow” through the body), creating doesn’t work. The resulting trigger point or knot can be the trigger points or knots and, ultimately, back pain. If we don’t take the time to unwind, burn difference is that level 2 stressors can accelerate the process so off stress through exercise, or relax when the day is over, we that back pain results much more quickly and/or becomes may carry that tension to bed, where it will disrupt sleep and more severe. Level 3: Major Life Events Little stresses can pile up until the body reaches a tipping point and triggers pain or is unable to keep you from getting Many of us have heard about the “top five” stressors in life. Job change In addition to the stress in our everyday lives, we can sometimes experience events that aren’t necessarily out of the 3. Personal injury 53 The 7-Day Back Pain Cure Experiencing any of these events puts a heavy load on your system. This is when you must call on all your resources for help: family and friends, support groups, counselors, doctors, massage therapists, personal trainers, and more. No matter how you look at it, these events are going to affect you both physically and emotionally. The key is to put in place all the support you can so that you can recover as quickly as possible. Maintaining a healthy diet, exercising regularly, and talking or journaling about your feelings all can help you cope.
No fatal case of poisoning is recorded buy mebendazole 100mg visa antiviral blog, to our knowledge best 100mg mebendazole antiviral names, and only when given in extreme doses are any of the above undesirable influences observed generic mebendazole 100 mg on-line hiv infected person symptoms. The physiological effects are manifested by its action upon the blood purchase mebendazole 100mg mastercard cities with highest hiv infection rates, and upon the mucous surfaces. The natural secretions are at first augmented, the temperature is then lowered, the pulse is slowed, and the capillary circulation restored. It exerts a peculiar affinity over local debilitated inflammatory conditions, attended with blood dyscrasias. It has its greatest field in adynamic fevers, reducing the pulse and temperature and subduing delirium. In a short time diaphoresis is observed, and the continuation of the remedy stimulates the kidneys to increased action. All of the glandular organs seem to feel the stimulating influence, and their functional activity is increased. The stomach is improved in its function, the bowels operate better, and absorption, assimilation, and general nutrition are materially improved. It encourages secretion and excretion, preventing further auto-intoxication, and quickly correcting the influence in the system of any that has occurred. It stimulates retrograde metabolism, or tissue waste, more markedly than any other single remedy known. It influences the entire lymphatic system, and the condition of the blood suggests that the patient has been taking stimulants. Its influence upon the capillary circulation is not comparable with that of any other known remedy, for while it is a stimulant to the circulation in these vessels, it also seems to endow them with a certain amount of recuperative power or formative force by which it is constituted, not only a general stimulant and tonic to the circulation, but also peculiarly so, to local inflammations of a debilitating character, as when administering liver and iron remedies in abundance. Sallow, pallid and dingy conditions of the skin of the face quickly disappear, and the rosy hue of health is apparent. The agent certainly has a marked effect upon the Ellingwood’s American Materia Medica, Therapeutics and Pharmacognosy - Page 182 nervous system, but its specific influence upon the central organs has not yet been determined. Applied to open wounds and to painful swellings, while the alcohol may at first induce a burning sensation, this is quickly followed by entire relief from pain in many cases. So marked is this influence that it could well be used for an antiseptic local anesthetic. I am convinced that success in certain cases depends upon the fact that the patient must have at times, a sufficiently large quantity of this remedy in order to produce full antitoxic effects on the virulent infections. I would therefore emphasize the statement which I have previously made that it is perfectly safe to give echinacea in massive doses—from two drams to half an ounce every two or three hours—for a time at least, when the system is overwhelmed with these toxins. This applies to tetanus, anthrax, actinomycosis, pyemia, diphtheria hydrophobia, and meningitis. Specific Symptomatology—It is the remedy for blood poisoning, if there is one in the Materia, Medica. Its field covers acute auto-infection, slow progressive blood taint, faults of the blood from imperfect elimination of all possible character, and from the development of disease germs within the blood. It acts equally well, whether the profound influence be exerted upon the nervous system, as in puerperal sepsis, and uremia, or whether there is prostration and exhaustion, as in pernicious malarial and septic fevers, or whether its influence is shown by anemia, glandular ulceration or skin disease. It is especially indicated where there is a tendency to gangrenous states and sloughing of the soft tissues, throat dark and full, tongue full, with dirty, dark-brown or black coat, in all cases where there are sepsis and zymosis. It undoubtedly exercises a direct sedative influence over all of the fever processes in typhoid, cerebro-spinal meningitis, malarial fevers, asthenic diphtheria, etc. Ellingwood’s American Materia Medica, Therapeutics and Pharmacognosy - Page 183 I think this sedative influence is largely exercised through its power to destroy the germs of the infection, thus removing the cause. Therapy—Echinacea, is par excellence a corrector of any deprivation of the body fluids. Those which manifest themselves in a disturbed balance of the fluids, resulting in alterations of the tissues such as are exhibited in boils, carbuncles. These same conditions result from the introduction of the venom of serpents and poisonous insects of every character, also from the introduction of disease germs from pus and other putrid and infectious sources. As an intestinal antiseptic the agent is bound to take first rank with all physicians when once known. Experiments with it to determine its immediate influence upon the fevers caused by continued absorption of septic material, such as typhoid fever, puerperal fever, and the fever of the afterstages of diphtheria, show that its influence upon the pernicious germs begins at once. In several cases reported, where special sedatives were not given, the temperature has declined from, one-half to two degrees within a few hours after its use was begun, and has not increased until the agent was discontinued. It has then slowly increased toward the previous high point until the remedy was again taken, when a decline was soon apparent. It does not produce abrupt drops in the temperature, as often follows the curetting of a septic womb, or as the removal of a quantity of septic material often causes, but it effects an almost immediate stop in germ development, and a steady restoration from its pernicious influence. In the treatment of typhoid fever in the Cook County Hospital, Chicago, it was used in the Eclectic wards for about two years or more, and twenty- one days was the extreme extent of the fever, and the mortality was the lowest known. In many cases taken early, the fever was limited to fourteen days without delirium. In private practice the reports of many physicians are much more enthusiastic, claiming that when given in the initial stage the fever has disappeared in seven days, and that fourteen days is the extreme limit. It seems to act as a nerve stimulant upon the vital forces depressed by the poison. This fact was especially true in a case where extreme septic absorption after a badly conducted abortion caused acute nephritis and suppression of the urine. Twenty drops of the fluid extract of echinacea were given every two hours continuously. Extreme heat was applied over the kidneys, and a single dose of an antispasmodic was given, the echinacea alone being continued. The fever dropped in two days, the mind cleared, the urinary secretion was restored, and the patient made a rapid and uninterrupted recovery. It is a most important remedy in uremic poisoning, and will supersede all other single remedies. The exudates contract and disappear, the local evidences of septic absorption are gone, the fever declines, the vital forces increase, depression, mental and physical, disappears, and the improvement is continual. In ulcerated sore throat of any character, in ulcerated sore mouth, in stomatitis materni, in post-nasal or catarrhal ulcerations it is prompt and effectual. In local inflammation of any portion of the intestinal tract, it has given excellent satisfaction. It quickly overcomes local blood stasis, prevents or cures ulceration, and retards pus formation by determining resolution. One writer treated several cases of unmistakable diagnosis, and sastisfactory cure resulted. The writer treated one marked case of appendicitis where pus formation and future operation seemed inevitable. The improvement was apparent after the agent had been taken in a few hours, and recovery was complete in twelve days from attack. Ellingwood’s American Materia Medica, Therapeutics and Pharmacognosy - Page 185 Its use in cholera infantum has been satisfactory, especially if nervous phenomena are present. The frequent discharges gradually cease, the patient is soothed and the nerve force increases as the fever abates. Webster, of San Francisco, in 1892, suggested the use of echinacea in spinal meningitis. It should be especially valuable if any blood dyscrasia lies at the bottom of the difficulty. As a sedative in cerebro-spinal meningitis, Webster is disposed to believe that it specifically influences the vascular area concerned in the nutrition of the cerebro-spinal meninges. Since the above was first written the use of echinacea for cerebro-spinal meningitis has been established among those who have been experimenting with the remedy in this disease. There is no doubt whatever that its influence in destroying the virus is specific, and effectual if given in sufficient doses.
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