By C. Kalan. Louisiana State University at Shreveport.
Particularly in Western societies generic 15 mg mentax mastercard antifungal talcum, where the need to forge a new independence is critical (Baumeister & Tice order 15 mg mentax fast delivery antifungal herbs and spices,  1986; Twenge buy mentax 15 mg otc fungus plague inc mega brutal, 2006) discount mentax 15 mg free shipping fungus under gel nails, this period can be stressful for many children, as it involves new emotions, the need to develop new social relationships, and an increasing sense of responsibility and independence. Although adolescence can be a time of stress for many teenagers, most of them weather the trials and tribulations successfully. For example, the majority of adolescents experiment with alcohol sometime before high school graduation. Although many will have been drunk at least once, relatively few teenagers will develop long-lasting drinking problems or permit alcohol to Attributed to Charles Stangor Saylor. Similarly, a great many teenagers break the law during adolescence, but very few young people develop criminal careers (Farrington,  1995). The use of recreational drugs can have substantial negative consequences, and the likelihood of these problems (including dependence, addiction, and even brain damage) is significantly greater for young adults who begin using drugs at an early age. Physical Changes in Adolescence Adolescence begins with the onset of puberty, a developmental period in which hormonal changes cause rapid physical alterations in the body, culminating in sexual maturity. Although the timing varies to some degree across cultures, the average age range for reaching puberty is between 9 and 14 years for girls and between 10 and 17 years for boys (Marshall & Tanner,  1986). Puberty begins when the pituitary gland begins to stimulate the production of the male sex hormone testosterone in boys and the female sex hormonesestrogen and progesterone in girls. The release of these sex hormones triggers the development of the primary sex characteristics, the sex organs concerned with reproduction (Figure 6. These changes include the enlargement of the testicles and the penis in boys and the development of the ovaries, uterus, and vagina in girls. In addition, secondary sex characteristics (features that distinguish the two sexes from each other but are not involved in reproduction) are also developing, such as an enlarged Adam‘s apple, a deeper voice, and pubic and underarm hair in boys and enlargement of the breasts, hips, and the appearance of pubic and underarm hair in girls (Figure 6. The enlargement of breasts is usually the first sign of puberty in girls and, on average, occurs between ages 10 and 12  (Marshall & Tanner, 1986). Boys typically begin to grow facial hair between ages 14 and 16, and both boys and girls experience a rapid growth spurt during this stage. The growth spurt for girls usually occurs earlier than that for boys, with some boys continuing to grow into their 20s. A major milestone in puberty for girls is menarche, the first menstrual period, typically  experienced at around 12 or 13 years of age (Anderson, Dannal, & Must, 2003). The age of menarche varies substantially and is determined by genetics, as well as by diet and lifestyle, since a certain amount of body fat is needed to attain menarche. Girls who are very slim, who engage in strenuous athletic activities, or who are malnourished may begin to menstruate later. Even after menstruation begins, girls whose level of body fat drops below the critical level may stop having their periods. The sequence of events for puberty is more predictable than the age at which they occur. Some girls may begin to grow pubic hair at age 10 but not attain menarche until age 15. In boys, facial hair may not appear until 10 years after the initial onset of puberty. The timing of puberty in both boys and girls can have significant psychological consequences. Boys who mature earlier attain some social advantages because they are taller and stronger and, Attributed to Charles Stangor Saylor. At the same time, however, early-maturing boys are at greater risk for delinquency and are more likely than their peers to engage in antisocial behaviors, including drug and alcohol use, truancy, and precocious sexual activity. Girls who mature early may find their maturity stressful, particularly if they experience teasing or sexual harassment (Mendle, Turkheimer, & Emery, 2007; Pescovitz  & Walvoord, 2007). Early-maturing girls are also more likely to have emotional problems, a lower self-image, and higher rates of depression, anxiety, and disordered eating than their peers  (Ge, Conger, & Elder, 1996). Cognitive Development in Adolescence Although the most rapid cognitive changes occur during childhood, the brain continues to develop throughout adolescence, and even into the 20s (Weinberger, Elvevåg, & Giedd,  2005). During adolescence, the brain continues to form new neural connections, but also casts  off unused neurons and connections (Blakemore, 2008). As teenagers mature, the prefrontal cortex, the area of the brain responsible for reasoning, planning, and problem solving, also  continues to develop (Goldberg, 2001). And myelin, the fatty tissue that forms around axons and neurons and helps speed transmissions between different regions of the brain, also continues  to grow (Rapoport et al. Adolescents often seem to act impulsively, rather than thoughtfully, and this may be in part because the development of the prefrontal cortex is, in general, slower than the development of the emotional parts of the brain, including the limbic system (Blakemore,  2008). Furthermore, the hormonal surge that is associated with puberty, which primarily influences emotional responses, may create strong emotions and lead to impulsive behavior. It has been hypothesized that adolescents may engage in risky behavior, such as smoking, drug use, dangerous driving, and unprotected sex in part because they have not yet fully acquired the mental ability to curb impulsive behavior or to make entirely rational judgments (Steinberg,  2007). Teenagers are likely to be highly self-conscious, often creating an imaginary audience in which they feel that everyone is constantly watching them (Goossens, Beyers, Emmen, & van Aken,  2002). Because teens think so much about themselves, they mistakenly believe that others  must be thinking about them, too (Rycek, Stuhr, McDermott, Benker, & Swartz, 1998). It is no wonder that everything a teen‘s parents do suddenly feels embarrassing to them when they are in public. Social Development in Adolescence Some of the most important changes that occur during adolescence involve the further development of the self-concept and the development of new attachments. Whereas young children are most strongly attached to their parents, the important attachments of adolescents  move increasingly away from parents and increasingly toward peers (Harris, 1998). In his approach, adolescents are asked questions regarding their exploration of and commitment to issues related to occupation, politics, religion, and sexual behavior. The responses to the questions allow the researchers to classify the adolescent into one of four identity categories (seeTable 6. The individual has not engaged in any identity experimentation and has established an identity Foreclosure status based on the choices or values of others. The individual is exploring various choices but has not yet made a clear commitment to any of Moratorium status them. Identity-achievement status The individual has attained a coherent and committed identity based on personal decisions. Studies assessing how teens pass through Marcia‘s stages show that, although most teens eventually succeed in developing a stable identity, the path to it is not always easy and there are many routes that can be taken. Some teens may simply adopt the beliefs of their parents or the first role that is offered to them, perhaps at the expense of searching for other, more promising possibilities (foreclosure status). Other teens may spend years trying on different possible identities (moratorium status) before finally choosing one. To help them work through the process of developing an identity, teenagers may well try out different identities in different social situations. They may maintain one identity at home and a different type of persona when they are with their peers. Eventually, most teenagers do integrate the different possibilities into a single self-concept and a comfortable sense of identity (identity- achievement status). For teenagers, the peer group provides valuable information about the self-concept. I’m even doing my sophomore year in China so I can get a  better view of what I want. The writer here is trying out several (perhaps conflicting) identities, and the identities any teen experiments with are defined by the group the person chooses to be a part of. The friendship groups (cliques, crowds, or gangs) that are such an important part of the adolescent experience allow the young adult to try out different identities, and these groups provide a sense of belonging and acceptance  (Rubin, Bukowski, & Parker, 2006). A big part of what the adolescent is learning is social identity, the part of the self-concept that is derived from one’s group memberships. Adolescents define their social identities according to how they are similar to and differ from others, finding meaning in the sports, religious, school, gender, and ethnic categories they belong to.
The existence of such ﬁelds is not yet direct attention to priority areas for future research experimentally proven purchase mentax 15mg free shipping lung fungus x ray. October 1998 National Center for Complementary and Alternative August 1999 Medicine established mentax 15mg low price anti fungal foods, by Congressional mandate discount 15mg mentax visa fungus gnats and cannabis, National Advisory Council on Complementary and under provisions of the Omnibus Appropriations Bill Alternative Medicine chartered generic 15 mg mentax mastercard antifungal vinegar. Straus is board certiﬁed in and research training activities, many cofunded internal medicine and infectious diseases. In pursuit of his research inter- research and research training, and research pro- ests in molecular biology, pathophysiology, and grams initiated by individual investigators. All individuals will also receive stan- Study of the Efﬁcacy of Glucosamine and dard chemotherapy and radiotherapy with survival Glucosamine/Chondroitin Sulfate in Knee as the primary outcome measure. The the activation of somatic afferents, which trigger a Gonzalez Regimen consists of intensive pancreatic naloxone-sensitive reflex suppression of central proteolytic enzyme therapy with ancillary nutri- sympathetic outflow. While the patients will be monitored for clinical domized, blinded, controlled trial is to test the efﬁ- events during the study, this will not constitute a cacy and safety of a powder preparation of shark major aim since the study is not powered to ade- cartilage for the treatment of patients with breast quately assess this. Anderson Cooperative Effects of Meditation on Mechanisms of Research Base)—This is a multisite, randomized, Coronary Heart Disease (C. All needling parameters will be con- reduce cardiac events in patients with coronary heart sistent with clinical practice. The control groups will participate in a cardi- also study varying dwell times after insertion and dif- ology education program. They will corre- arterial vasomotor dysfunction (brachial artery reac- late the force required to withdraw the needle with tivity) and the secondary outcome is autonomic ner- the depth of its insertion into muscle and subcuta- vous system imbalances (heart rate variability). The ﬁrst pilot Autoregulation (Mohan Viswanathan, PhD, phase will develop and validate two sham proce- Children’s Research Institute)—The present project dures to test the efﬁcacy of acupuncture. The acupuncture compared to the sham model devel- study will focus on functional studies and signal oped in the Phase I study. Both in vitro ture points and control points in 80 normal human models of liver cell injury and rat models of liver volunteers. This Efﬁcacy of Acupuncture in the Treatment of three-arm, double-blind clinical efﬁcacy study will Fibromyalgia (Dedra A. The active treatment group will using a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, will be receive true acupuncture. These patients will receive needle insertion at (John Allen, PhD, University of Arizona)—This nonchannel, nonpoint locations, or a true placebo. The study is unique in measures of overall health and pain, to determine that treatment effects will be assessed from the per- the optimal duration of treatment and examine the spectives of both western psychiatry and Chinese concordance of allopathic and acupuncture-based medicine. The primary conducted to examine the individual and synergistic goal is to assess the prophylactic effects of omega-3 effects of needle placement and stimulation on the fatty acids in a cohort of bipolar patients with a rel- efﬁcacy of acupuncture as a therapeutic modality in atively high risk of recurrence. The design allows determination of Oxidative Cell Injury in First Episode Psy- dose-effect for the analgesic effect of acupuncture. The clinical design, a placebo-con- manual that standardizes the administration of true trolled, double crossover trial, will also allow for and sham acupuncture that can be used at any assessment of any adverse events associated with study site performing a randomized clinical trial melatonin related to its safety and tolerance. It is (Panax ginseng, Cynanchum wilfordii, Scrophularia hypothesized that patients offered their choice of buergeriana). The Center is state affects the infant’s health, the trial will also studying: assess the effect of treatment on infant well-being. Additional studies are clinical trial); and the biological activities and addressing mechanisms of action, identiﬁcation of mechanism of action of a Chinese herbal formula active compounds, and characterization of metabo- (whole formula and individual component lism, bioavailability and pharmacokinetics of active herbs)on breast cancer cells in vitro and in vivo, species contained in these botanicals. The Center as well as possible risks and/or beneﬁts for also provides information about botanicals to the women with breast cancer. Olaf College ﬂavonoids; and An Ethnographic Study of Institutional • Assessing the inhibitory effects of soy Review Boards—This Mentored Research Scien- isoﬂavones compared to genistein on prostate tist Development Award in Research Ethics cancer growth. The proposed study aims Mentored Patient-Oriented Research Career at (1)identifying active antihyperglycemic phytos- Development—Dr. Haskell, PhD, Stanford sive information of interest to healthcare con- University School of Medicine, Cofunded with the sumers and practitioners, and to researchers. The goal of this ment (such as child health, vaccines, and rehabilita- activity is to identify practices worthy of scientiﬁc tion and related therapies). Integration of Cancer Center Behavioral and Relaxation Approaches Into the Treat- Chairman,Clinical ment of Chronic Pain and Insomnia, a technology Advisory Board assessment conference held in October 1995,was Health, L. Luke’s Chief, Magnetic Resonance Imaging Medical Center Diagnostic Radiology Department Chicago, Illinois 60612 Warren G. The public-at-large and the broad Ofﬁce of Cancer Complementary research community also were afforded the oppor- and Alternative Medicine tunity to help shape the ﬁnal report. Evidence of disease and injury has been dis- The Greek physician Hippocrates advocates natural covered in bodies and organs from as early as remedies and a holistic approach to medical treat- 4000 B. Primitive medicine among peoples including Native Americans, Inuit (Eskimo), and Siberian The Greek physician Asclepiades practices nature tribes emerged through the appointment of healing in Rome. Indians, Mesopotamians, and other peoples prac- ticed herbalism and holistic medicine. Using nat- ural methods including massage, nutrition, 12th century meditation, exercise, and herbal and other thera- The abbess, musician, artist, and healer Hildegard pies, healers focused on balancing a main life force, von Bingen, Germany, writes Physica (The Book of or vital energy, present in the human body to Simples), which describes more than 300 medicinal restore or maintain health. Hildegard believes disease stems from 245 246 The Encyclopedia of Complementary and Alternative Medicine imbalances in the body and called health viriditas, The Swiss physician Barbara von Roll (1502–71) meaning the “green life force of the ﬂesh. The period known as “the age of the Scientiﬁc Rev- olution,” in which Aristotle, Galen, and Paracelsus 1322 are still inﬂuential, but under the attack that marks The itinerant healer Jacoba Felice de Almania is the beginning of the idea of separation of mind and convicted in Paris of practicing medicine, including body, and that disease exists only on a physical laying on of hands and examining urine, without a level. And Antony van Pre-Columbian cultures in Mesoamerica combine Leeuwenhoek (1632–1723) uses a microscope to magic, religion, and science in a medical system. With each stride in anatomical and physiolog- disease is imbalance of favorable and unfavorable ical science, holistic approaches to medical practice forces. Mayan culture, for example, hemenes, or priests, are members of a respected organized medical society, 1737 and hechiceros are individuals designated to perform The New York physician and obstetrician Elizabeth bleeding, treating wounds, lancing abscesses, and Blackwell writes the Curious Herbal. The practice of like” theory, used in immunization and vaccination medicine during the Middle Ages draws upon therapies. John herbalists such as Bessie Paine and Margaret Kellogg, who establishes the Battle Creek Sani- Provost are persecuted for witchcraft. The German-Swiss physician and alchemist Paracelsus (1493-1541) favors holistic treat- Chinese immigrants introduce the practice of ment of patients. Wundartzney (Great Surgery Book), which includes what was to become known later as Vincenz Priessnitz (1799–1851) becomes known as homeopathy. Franz Anton Mesmer (1733–1815), a graduate physician of Vienna, demonstrates his theory 1874 of animal magnetism and unwittingly introduces A. He operated the of medical practice based on the theory that dis- Magnetic Institute in Paris but lost favor in France. Sir William Osler, an inﬂuential Canadian physi- cian who also practices in the United States and 1861 Great Britain, writes The Principles and Practice of The French chemist and microbiologist Louis Pas- Medicine, which includes the recommendation that teur develops the germ theory of disease, heralding physicians embrace social concern, compassion, the birth of modern medicine based on the concept optimism, generosity, and other desirable qualities of infectious disease. Sechenov, known as the founder of Rus- hands-on manipulation of the neuroskeleton, and sian physiology, writes Reﬂexes of the Brain, on the the concept of the body’s “innate intelligence” to physiological basis of psychic processes. The hippie movement encourages recreational use of drugs, but also of vegetarianism and organically 1926 grown foods, transcendental meditation, Eastern The South African statesman, biologist, and philosophies geared toward peace and inner bal- philosopher Jan Christian Smuts coins the term ance, and “back-to-basics” treatment modalities holism, in the belief that whole organisms, rather such as massage and aromatherapy. The English physician Edward Bach develops Bach’s Flower Essences for treating emotional 1974 problems that may lead to disease. The Canadian Ministry of Health and Welfare reports evidence indicating a link between lifestyle and envi- 1940s ronment and the presence of health or disease. The American psychiatrist Helen Flanders Dunbar researches psychosomatic medicine and estab- 1975 lishes the “personality profile (or personality con- The Nobel Prize–winning scientist Linus Pauling stellation). Phillips theory of stress, known as the “general adaptation identiﬁes principles of holism, including that the syndrome,” which involves the stimulation of the whole is more than the sum of its parts, the whole hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis when exposed determines the nature of its parts, and the parts to stress (the ﬁght-or-ﬂight response). Norman Vincent Peale writes The Power of Posi- report acknowledging the relationship between tive Thinking. Norman Shealy founds the American Holis- justment Rating Scale, based on the concept that tic Medical Association.
Reversible inhibitors tend to bind to an enzyme (E) by electrostatic bonds cheap mentax 15 mg line antifungal herbs, hydrogen bonds and van der Waals’ forces discount mentax 15 mg without prescription fungi definition kingdom, and so tend to form an equilibrium system with the enzyme buy mentax 15 mg without a prescription fungal wart. A few reversible inhibitors bind by weak covalent bonds effective mentax 15mg fungus zygomycosis, but this is the exception rather than the rule. However, in both revers- ible and irreversible inhibition the inhibitor does not need to bind to the active site in order to prevent enzyme action. The inhibitory effects of reversible inhibitors are normally time dependent because the removal of unbound inhibitor from the vicinity of its site of action by natural processes will disturb this equilibrium to the left. As a result, more enzyme becomes available, which causes a decrease in the inhibition of the process catalysed by the enzyme. Consequently, reversible enzyme inhibitors will only be effective for a specific period of time. Most reversible inhibitors may be further classified as being either competi- tive, non-competitive or uncompetitive. Incompetitive inhibition the inhibitor usually binds by a reversible process to the same active site of the enzyme as the substrate. Since the substrate and inhibitor compete for the same active site it follows that they will probably be structurally similar (Figure 7. In pure non-competitive inhibition, the binding of the inhibitor to the enzyme does not influence the binding of the substrate to the enzyme. However, this situation is uncommon, and the binding of the inhibitor usually causes conformational changes in the structure of the enzyme, which in turn affects the binding of the substrate to the enzyme. The fact that the inhibitor does not bind to the active site of the enzyme means that the structure of the substrate cannot be used as the basis of designing new drugs that act in this manner to inhibit enzyme action. The formation of this complex prevents the substrate reacting to form its normal product(s). Inhibitors bound by strong non-covalent bonds will slowly dissociate, releasing the enzyme to carry out its normal function. However, whatever the type of binding, the enzyme will resume its normal function once the organism has synthesized a sufficient number of additional enzyme molecules to overcome the effect of the inhibitor. Active site directed inhibitors are compounds that bind at or near to the active site of the enzyme. These inhibitors usually form strong covalent bonds with either the functional groups that are found at the active site or close to that site. Since these groups are usually nucleophiles, the incorporation of electrophilic groups in the structure of a substrate can be used to develop new inhibitors (Table 7. Most of the active site directed irreversible inhibitors in clinical use were not developed from a substrate. They were obtained or developed by other routes and only later was their mode of action discovered. Experimental evidence suggests that aspirin acts by acetylating serine hydroxy groups at the enzyme’s active site, probably by a transesterification mechanism. The inhibitor binds to the active site, where it is modified by the enzyme to produce a reactive group, which reacts irreversibly to form a stable inhibitor–enzyme complex. This subse- quent reaction may or may not involve functional groups at the active site. This means that suicide inhibitors are likely to be specific in their action, since they can only be activated by a particular enzyme. This specificity means that drugs designed as suicide inhibitors could exhibit a lower degree of tox- icity. A wide variety of structures have been found to act as sources of the electro- philic groups of suicide inhibitors (Figure 7. These structures will only give rise to an electrophilic group if the compound containing the structure can act as a substrate for the enzyme. They often take the form of a,b unsaturated carbonyl compounds and imines formed by the reverse of a Michael addition at the active site of the enzyme. Consequently, it has been proposed that stable compounds with structures similar to those of these transition state structures could bind to the active site of an enzyme and act as inhibitors for that enzyme. The structures of transition states may be deduced using classical chemistry and mechanistic theory. The resultant transition state structure and/or pictures may be used as the starting point for the design of a transition state inhibitor. The first step in the biosynthesis of pyrimidines is the condensation of aspartic acid with carbamoyl phosphate to form N-carbamoyl aspartic acid, the reaction being catalysed by aspartate transcarbamoylase (Figure 7. It has been proposed that the transition state for this conversion involves the simultaneous loss of phosphate with the attack of the nucleophilic amino group of the aspartic acid on the carbonyl group of the carbamoyl phosphate (Figure 7. Drugs that bind to a receptor and give a similar response to that of the endogenous ligand are known as agonists, whereas drugs that bind to a receptor but do not cause a response are termed antagonists. Viruses, bacteria and toxins may also bind to the receptor sites of specific tissues. At this point, further increases in agonist concentration have no further effect on the response. Agonists often have structures that are similar to that of the endogenous ligand (Figure 7. However, it is emphasized that many agonists have structures that are not directly similar to those of their endogenous ligands. A common approach to designing new drugs that act on a receptor is to synthe- size and investigate the activity of a series of compounds with similar structures to that of either compounds that are known to bind to the receptor, the endogenous ligand or the pharmacophore of the endogenous ligand (Table 7. It is basedontheassumption that a new agonist is more likely to be effective if its structure contains the same binding groups and bears some resemblance to the endogenous ligand. The binding groups are not the only consideration when designing a drug to act at a receptor; the drug must also be of the correct size and shape to bind to and activate the receptor. Once again, the initial approach is to use the structure of the endogenous ligand or other active compounds as models. If sufficient data is available to construct a computer model of the receptor, the docking procedure (see section 5. Information concerning the best shape for a new agonist may also be obtained from a study of the conformations and configurations of a number of active analogues of the endogenous ligand. Key: The A plots are the dose–response curves for the agonist in the absence of the antgonist X. The X 1–X3 plots are the dose–response curves for the agonist A in the presence of three different concentrations of the antagonist X same receptor as an agonist but do not cause a response (Figure 7. As the concentration of the competitive antagonist increases, the response due to agonist decreases. However, increasing the concentration of the agonist will reverse this decrease (Figure 7. It is believed that non-competitive antag- onists bind irreversibly by strong bonds, such as covalent bonds, to allosteric sites on the receptor. This changes the conformation of the receptor site, which prevents the binding of the agonist to the receptor. In addition, increasing the concentration of the agonist does not restore the response of the receptor (Figure 7. The ideal starting point for the design of a new antagonist would be the structure of the receptor. However, it is often difficult to identify the receptor and also obtain the required structural and stereochemical information. Conse- quently, although it is not the ideal starting point, many developments start with the structure and stereochemistry of either the endogenous ligand or any other known agonists and antagonists for the receptor.
Psychoanalytical Theory: The psychoanalytic approach deﬁnes a paraphiliac as one who has failed the normal developmental process toward heterosexual adjustment (Sadock & Sadock buy mentax 15 mg lowest price antifungal oral medication, 2007) discount mentax 15 mg fast delivery fungus gnats in my house. This occurs when the indi- vidual fails to resolve the Oedipal crisis and identiﬁes with the parent of the opposite gender purchase mentax 15 mg with amex fungus gnats larvae picture. This creates in- tense anxiety buy mentax 15 mg without a prescription antifungal soap walgreens, which leads the individual to seek sexual gratiﬁcation in ways that provide a “safe substitution” for the parent (Becker & Johnson, 2008). Sexual arousal from being humiliated, beaten, bound, or otherwise made to suffer (through fantasy, self-inﬂiction, or by a sexual partner). Sexual arousal by inﬂicting psychological or physical suffering on another individual (either consenting or nonconsenting). Sexual arousal from observing unsuspecting people either naked or engaged in sexual activity. Masturbation often accompanies the activities described when they are performed solitarily. Male Orgasmic Disorder (Retarded Ejaculation): With this disorder, the man is unable to ejaculate, even though he has a ﬁrm erection and has had more than adequate stimulation. The severity of the problem may range from only occasional problems ejaculating to a history of never having experienced an orgasm. Vaginismus: Vaginismus is characterized by an involun- tary constriction of the outer third of the vagina, which prevents penile insertion and intercourse. Sexual and Gender Identity Disorders ● 205 Predisposing Factors to Sexual Dysfunctions 1. Sexual Desire Disorders: In men, these disorders have been linked to low levels of serum testosterone and to elevated levels of serum prolactin. Evidence also exists that suggests a relationship between serum testosterone and increased female libido. Various medications, such as antihypertensives, antipsychotics, antidepressants, anxio- lytics, and anticonvulsants, as well as chronic use of drugs such as alcohol and cocaine, have also been implicated in sexual desire disorders. Sexual Arousal Disorders: These may occur in response to decreased estrogen levels in postmenopausal women. Medications such as antihistamines and cholinergic blockers may produce similar results. Erectile dysfunc- tions in men may be attributed to arteriosclerosis, dia- betes, temporal lobe epilepsy, multiple sclerosis, some medications (antihypertensives, antidepressants, tran- quilizers), spinal cord injury, pelvic surgery, and chronic use of alcohol. Orgasmic Disorders: In women these may be attributed to some medical conditions (hypothyroidism, diabetes, and depression) and certain medications (antihyperten- sives, antidepressants). Medical conditions that may in- terfere with male orgasm include genitourinary surgery (e. Various medications have also been implicated, including antihypertensives, antidepressants, and antipsychotics. Sexual Pain Disorders: In women these can be caused by disorders of the vaginal entrance, irritation or damage to the clitoris, vaginal or pelvic infections, endometrio- sis, tumors, or cysts. Painful intercourse in men may be attributed to penile infections, phimosis, urinary tract infections, or prostate problems. Sexual Desire Disorders: Phillips (2000) has identiﬁed a number of individual and relationship factors that may contribute to hypoactive sexual desire disorder. Individual causes include religious orthodoxy; sexual identity con- ﬂicts; past sexual abuse; ﬁnancial, family, or job problems; depression; and aging-related concerns (e. Among the relationship causes are interpersonal conﬂicts; current physical, verbal, or sexual abuse; extramarital affairs; and desire or practices differ- ent from partner. Sexual Arousal Disorders: In the female these may be attributed to doubts, fears, guilt, anxiety, shame, con- ﬂict, embarrassment, tension, disgust, resentment, grief, anger toward the partner, and puritanical or moralistic upbringing. A history of sexual abuse may also be an im- portant etiologic factor (Leiblum, 1999). The etiology of male erectile disorder may be related to chronic stress, anxiety, or depression. Early developmental factors that promote feelings of inadequacy and a sense of being un- loving or unlovable may also result in impotence. Orgasmic Disorders: A number of factors have been im- plicated in the etiology of female orgasm disorders. They include fear of becoming pregnant, hostility toward men, negative cultural conditioning, childhood exposure to rigid religious orthodoxy, and traumatic sexual experi- ences during childhood or adolescence. Orgasm disorders in men may be related to a rigid, puritanical background where sex was perceived as sinful and the genitals as dirty; or interpersonal difﬁculties, such as ambivalence about commitment, fear of pregnancy, or unexpressed hostility, may be implicated. Sexual Pain Disorders: Vaginismus may occur after hav- ing experienced painful intercourse for any organic rea- son, after which involuntary constriction of the vagina occurs in anticipation and fear of recurring pain. Other psychosocial factors that have been implicated in the etiology of vaginismus include negative childhood con- ditioning of sex as dirty, sinful, and shameful; early child- hood sexual trauma; homosexual orientation; traumatic experience with an early pelvic examination; pregnancy phobia; sexually transmitted disease phobia; or cancer phobia (Phillips, 2000; King, 2005; Leiblum, 1999; Sadock & Sadock, 2007). Failure to attain or maintain penile erection until comple- tion of sexual activity. Inability to achieve orgasm (in men, to ejaculate) following a period of sexual excitement judged adequate in intensity and duration to produce such a response. Ejaculation occurs with minimal sexual stimulation or before, on, or shortly after penetration and before the indi- vidual wishes it. Common Nursing Diagnoses and Interventions for Paraphilias and Sexual Dysfunctions (Interventions are applicable to various health-care settings, such as inpatient and partial hospitalization, community outpatient clinic, home health, and private practice. Client will identify stressors that may contribute to loss of sexual function within 1 week or 2. Client will discuss pathophysiology of disease process that contributes to sexual dysfunction within 1 week. Client will verbalize willingness to seek professional assis- tance from a sex therapist in order to learn alternative ways of achieving sexual satisfaction with partner by (time is indi- vidually determined). Long-term Goal Client will resume sexual activity at level satisfactory to self and partner by (time is individually determined). Assess client’s sexual history and previous level of satisfac- tion in sexual relationship. This establishes a database from which to work and provides a foundation for goal setting. Help client determine time dimension associated with the onset of the problem and discuss what was happening in his or her life situation at that time. Depression and fatigue decrease desire and enthusiasm for participation in sexual activity. Evaluation of drug and individual response is important to ascertain whether drug may be contributing to the problem. Encourage client to discuss disease process that may be con- tributing to sexual dysfunction. Ensure that client is aware that alternative methods of achieving sexual satisfaction exist and can be learned through sex counseling if he or she and partner desire to do so. Client may be unaware that satis- factory changes can be made in his or her sex life. Encourage client to ask questions regarding sexuality and sexual functioning that may be troubling him or her. In- creasing knowledge and correcting misconceptions can decrease feelings of powerlessness and anxiety and facilitate problem resolution. Complex problems are likely to require assistance from an in- dividual who is specially trained to treat problems related to sexuality. Support from a trusted nurse can provide the impetus for them to pursue the help they need. Client is able to correlate physical or psychosocial factors that interfere with sexual functioning.
And do they seem to mostly affect your thoughts order mentax 15 mg free shipping antifungal bacteria, feelings purchase mentax 15 mg with visa antifungal cream boots, behaviors effective mentax 15 mg fungus shroud armor, or relationships? Worksheet 1-8 My Reﬂections Choosing Your Challenge The next four parts of this workbook cover the areas of thoughts buy mentax 15mg online fungus on scalp, feelings, behaviors, and relationships. One obvious way of deciding which area to begin in is to choose the one that causes you the most problems. Wherever you choose to start, you should know that all these areas interact with each other. For example, if you have anxious thoughts about being judged, you’re likely to avoid (behavior) the spot- light. Furthermore, you may be overly sensitive to criticism from others (relationships). Part I: Analyzing Angst and Preparing a Plan 16 Nevertheless, we ﬁnd that many people like to start out by tackling the problem area that best ﬁts their personal styles. In other words, some folks are doers and others are thinkers; still others are feelers, and some are relaters. Use the Personal Style Questionnaire in Worksheet 1-9 to pinpoint and understand your preferred style. Many people ﬁnd they can overcome minor to moderate emotional problems by working with books like this one. Nevertheless, some difﬁculties require professional help, perhaps because your anxiety or depression is especially serious or because your problems are simply too complex to be addressed by self-help methods. Work through The Serious Symptom Checklist in Worksheet 1-10 to ﬁnd out if you should seriously consider seeking treatment from a mental health professional. Checking off any one item from the list means that you should strongly consider a profes- sional consultation. If you’re really not sure if you need help, see a mental health professional for an assessment. Worksheet 1-10 The Serious Symptom Checklist ❏ I have thoughts about killing myself. If you checked one or more of the statements above and you’re beginning to think that per- haps you need help, where should you go? Many people start with their family physicians, which is a pretty good idea because your doctor can also determine if your problems have a physical cause. If physical problems have been ruled out or treated and you still need help, you can: Part I: Analyzing Angst and Preparing a Plan 18 Check with your state’s psychology, counseling, social work, or psychiatric association. Contact your local university department of psychology, social work, counseling, or psychiatry for a referral. Either before or during your ﬁrst session, talk to the mental health professional and ask if you’ll receive a scientiﬁcally validated treatment for anxiety or depression. Unfortunately, some practitioners lack necessary training in therapies that have shown effectiveness in sci- entiﬁc studies. Chapter 2 Discovering the Beginnings In This Chapter Burrowing through biology Studying your history Reviewing what’s happening now Finding fault (or not) f you’re reading this book, you probably feel a little anxious or depressed. It’s valuable to understand the origins of your feelings, whether its biology and genetics, personal history, or stress. This chapter helps you gain insight into the source of your problem and connect the dots, because knowing the origins of your emotions allows you to discard the baggage of guilt and self-blame. In this chapter, we review the major causes of depression and anxiety: biology, personal his- tory, and stress. Many of our clients come to us believing that they’re to blame for having succumbed to emotional distress. When they discover the factors that contributed to the origins of their problems, they usually feel less guilty, and getting rid of that guilt frees up energy that can be used for making important changes. If you have access to family members, ask if they’d be willing to talk with you about your family’s history. Ask them if any relatives, from either side of the family, suffered from any symptoms of anxiety or depression. There’s no exact number of relatives required for determining if genetics are responsible for your symptoms. However, the more family members with similar problems, the more likely you’ve inherited a tendency for depression or anxiety. Part I: Analyzing Angst and Preparing a Plan 20 Members of my family with anxiety or depression (brothers, sisters, cousins, parents, uncles, aunts, and grandparents): ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ In addition to genetics, depression and anxiety can have biological underpinnings in the drugs you take (legal or illegal) or as the result of physical illness. Drugs — whether over- the-counter, prescription, or illegal — have many side effects. Sometimes solving your problem is as simple as checking your medicine cabinet for possible culprits. Check with your pharmacist or primary care physician to see if your medication may be causing part of your problem. In addition, alcohol is widely known to contribute to depression or anxiety when it’s abused. Some people ﬁnd that even moderate amounts of alcohol exacerbate their problems with mood. Alcohol also interacts with a wide variety of prescribed and over-the-counter drugs to produce harmful and even deadly results. Finally, illegal drugs such as marijuana, cocaine, heroin, methamphetamine, ecstasy, and so on are taken to alter moods. In the short run, they accomplish that goal; but in the long run, they almost inevitably worsen mood problems. Not only can the ill- ness itself cause mood problems, but worry and grief about illness can contribute to your distress. If you’ve been diagnosed with a medical condition, check with your doctor to see if your depression or anxiety is related to that condition. Laying Out a Lifeline The sadness and angst you feel today often sprout from seeds planted in your past. There- fore, exploring your personal history provides clues about the origins of your problems. The exercise in this section, called the Emotional Origins form, takes a little time. The Emotional Origins exercise makes you revisit your childhood by asking questions about your parents and your childhood experiences. Some of the memories involved may evoke powerful emotions; if you become overwhelmed, you may wish to stop the exercise and consult a mental health professional for guidance and support. So, the following example shows you how Tyler ﬁlled out his Emotional Origins form. Tyler suffers from many physical signs of depression such as lack of energy and increased appetite. His physician refers him to a psychologist who suggests he ﬁll out an Emotional Origins form (see Worksheet 2-1) to examine his childhood experiences. Chapter 2: Discovering the Beginnings 21 Worksheet 2-1 Tyler’s Emotional Origins Questions About Mother (or other caregiver) 1. She was a perfectionist who talked about the “right way” or the “wrong way” to do things. Sometimes, she’d encourage me to do things, and other times, she’d rip me to shreds. In retrospect, the things she did always seemed to be more about her than about me.