By C. Khabir. University of Kansas Medical Center. 2019.
On a few patients who exhibited low T-cell counts purchase nizoral 200 mg fast delivery fungus gnats worm bin, the T-cell population was restored to normal after finishing their treatment discount nizoral 200 mg without a prescription fungus gnats with no plants. But one thing we do all know about allergies is that now almost everyone has one – or more order nizoral 200mg with amex antifungal iodine. All of us know that our body produces white blood cells that search out r and destroy harmful bacteria or viruses in the body proven nizoral 200mg fungus gnats natural removal, but in the case of 169 most allergies, for some reason, the white blood cells attack substances that may be no threat to the body at all. Pollen is a natural, vital substance in our environment which we normally breathe in with no problem. No problem, that is, for some people – but a big one for those whose immune systems identify it as a foreign and health-threatening sub-Your Own Perfect Medicine stance; then the sneezing, sinus congestion and headaches, etc. But in reality, more and more people today are discovering that foods that are great for everyone else produce often violent, negative reactions in their bodies. No one knows the answer to that, but what scientists do know is that when the immune system does identify a substance as a threatening foreign protein in the body, it sends out specific white blood cells (T and B lymphocytes) to attack it. The "B" cells search out, identify and actually bind with the foreign protein (called an allergen or antigen), while the "T" cells rapidly divide, producing antibodies and large numbers of new T cells that will also be programmed to attack this antigen. In immunology, which is 170 the study of immune system functions, this allergic response is referred to as the antigen-antibody conflict. These auto-immune diseases are, of course, damaging to the body and in some cases can even be life-threatening. And what is more disconcerting, allergies and related disorders are becoming more and more prevalent in our industrialized societies. Researchers and doctors who deal with allergies, called immunologists, largely believe that allergies are essentially induced by unidentified weaknesses or alterations in the immune system. When the immune system is weakened or impaired, its ability to distinguish between harmless and harmful substances also becomes impaired. So your "r+The Research Evidence and Case Studies 171 white blood cells, whose work it is to search out and destroy harmful proteins in the body, may begin to attack even ordinarily beneficial or benign proteins such as those that come from normal foods. Immunologists also speculate that because our bodies are now exposed to enormous numbers of new chemical substances in our modem industrialized societies, that the immune system can become overwhelmed in its efforts to identify and deal with each new substance: "It has been estimated that in the industrialized countries, man comes in contact with 150,000 man-made substances; pesticides, plastics, chemicals, etc. Many people with simple or severe allergies get extremely discouraged 172 because they spend a fortune going from doctor to doctor without getting results. Identifying the specific antigen that a person is reacting to is a huge headache for doctors and their patients. Researchers have discovered that urine contains specific anti-allergen antibodies that are manufactured by the body itself and that when re-introduced back into the body through urine therapy, the allergic response is stopped. Your Own Perfect Medicine In extensive clinical testing with urine therapy on allergy patients, both in Europe and the U. The following reports demonstrate the seriousness with which urine therapy has recently been utilized in the field of allergy treatment and research. As medical researchers have discovered, allergic responses are caused 173 by "renegade" white blood cells that inappropriately attack substances even when they may be no threat to the body. So it is the activity of these renegade white blood cells, called antigen receptors, that needs to he corrected in order to cure the allergy. By injecting the receptors, it has been possible to induce antibody against the antigen receptors which can then limit or even abort an ongoing allergic response. Realizing that the urine of allergic individuals contains the allergy-causing white blood cells, allergy researchers, as in the next report, reasoned 174 that by giving allergic individuals their own urine internally, their bodies would develop antibodies to the renegade white blood cells contained in the urine which would then stop the allergic response. The Research Evidence and Case Studies This was an award-winning report delivered at the Oxford Medical Symposium in March, 1981, dealing with the treatment of allergies with urine therapy. Nancy Dunne was medical advisor to the Irish Allergy Treatment and Research Association, founder of the Irish Orthomolecular Medical Association and a member of several allergy research societies: "A simple technique for treating allergies — Auto-Immune Urine Therapy (A. Fife, a 175 neuropsychiatrist for 40 years had, some years previously, been forced to resign from his practice through ill health. No sophisticated equipment is needed and the method, which is uncomplicated and safe, can be learned quickly. In addition, after treatment the patient is free to eat and drink without developing symptoms. The number of treatments required to render a patient asymptomatic varies with the individual. Fife found many apparent physical illnesses co-incidentally relieved, such as multiple 176 sclerosis, colitis, hypertension, lupus erythematosus, rheumatoid arthritis, hepatitis, hyper-activity, pancreatic insufficiency, psoriasis and eczema, diabetes, herpes zoster, mononucleosis and so on. Serious adverse reactions to urine injection therapy are unknown—in over 100,000 treatments, Dr. Minor reactions are limited to occasional resurgence of familiar allergic symptoms or slight temporary malaise. Shortly after my own experience, I mod d the technique to treat a 5- year-old hyperactive asthmatic male. His face and scalp exuded yellow fluid, his eyelids drooped permanently and his nails blackened and fell off Patches of secondary infection from scratching produced frequent bouts of fever and adenitis (an inflammatory condition of a lymph node or gland). He could not use his hands which were semi-closed crusted claws and his whole appearance was revolting. When kept in one position for any length of time he stiffened and was unable to walk. Specialists, hospitalizations and even forms of alternative medicine failed to give any relief. He was on regular antihistamines and sedatives and had many courses of antibiotics. I instructed his mother to collect his midstream urine at the height of exacerbation of symptoms and, using an eye dropper, 177 place 3 drops of urine under his tongue four times daily. The first time she used it he was having a screaming fit which usually lasted half-an- hour — within one minute this subsided and he relaxed totally. By the fourth day, there was noticeable discharge of viscous matter from the eczematous surface with the development of red spots everywhere. His mother became alarmed at the copious discharge but was persuaded to persist, while at the same time tapering off all medication. By the sixth day the red spots changed to white, clear patches of skin were appearing, his eyelids no longer drooped and he was sleeping 4 hoursp The Research Evidence and Case Studies nightly at a stretch. His hair darkened, healthy nails began developing and adults remarked on how placid he had become with his peers. Auto-Immune Urine Therapy has much to offer compared to other alter- 178 _ gy treatments. It is safe as [weakening] of the allergens] by the body eliminates the risk of anaphylactic shock. Drugs and chemicals — possible causes of side effects in sensitive patients — are not needed. This report is an extremely comprehensive and thoroughly detailed investigation into historical and current uses of urine therapy in treating allergies: "The application, ingestion and injection of urine has been in existence for at least 4,000 years. Researchers noted that urine injections not only provided a large measure of relief from allergic symptoms, but also seemed to boost the immune system: "There seems to be an enhanced response or stimulation of the immune system, mostly of the T-cell population [with the use of urine therapy]. While under treatment, patients reported an absence of viral diseases (flu, colds, etc. Your Own Perfect Medicine Young children, especially, seem resistant to colds (while under treatment), while their sisters and brothers (not receiving urine therapy) 179 suffer from the usual repeated viral infections. Asthmatic patients with repeated sino-pulmonary infections report a remarkable decrease or absence of such repeated infections. Wilson and Lewis, drawing on previous allergy research, and after their own extensive experimentation with the use of urine therapy in animals as a natural treatment for allergies, undertook the following research study on humans to determine the efficacy and correct dosage of urine in treating allergies. Buccal therapy is the oral administration of a medicine in which the substance is placed or held between the cheek and teeth or gurus.
The selection process focuses on materials to fulfill the teaching cheap 200 mg nizoral fast delivery xenopus fungus, learning and research requirements of the Health Campus discount 200mg nizoral free shipping saprophytic fungus definition. Technical processing of library materials includes the cataloguing and classification of library materials : 1 generic nizoral 200 mg on line garlic antifungal yeast infection. The Laboratory has 17 packages of learning programmes and 5 packages of multimedia programmes nizoral 200 mg visa fungus gnats morgellons. It is also equipped with 85 computers which consist of 12 Apple Macintosh’s and 71 Acer Veriton. The undergraduate learning activity follows an organ-based system that complements topics covered in an Integrated Problem Based Learning Sessions. The focus of the teaching at the center is to bridge the acquisitions of the real clinical and procedural experience. This is done in a controlled environment to introduce and familiarize the student on skills before practicing on the real patients. The supervisor holds a B 41 grade post, 1 -B32, 3-B27 and the rest hold the B17 grade. The services provided by the Graphics Unit are computer- aided designs and graphic works including designing posters, booklets, brochures, artwork, certificates and backdrops. Besides design services, the Unit also offers advisory services pertaining to graphic designs. Besides these responsibilities, the Facilities Unit also administers the reservation of lecture theatres. Currently both hostels are made up of eight blocks of building to cater for almost 2268 students. Desasiswa Murni 5 & 6 The new hostel for undergraduate students in Health Campus was known as Desasiswa Murni 5 and Desasiswa Murni 6. The apartment style hostel with pantry, living room and two bathrooms was built to cater for 500 students. Desasiswa Murni 5 & 6 has three types of room which is 3 room apartment, 2 room apartment and single room. The entire apartments in the block are provided with 1 sofa set for a living room and standard furniture for all rooms. International House The international house is mainly for postgraduate foreign student, type of room consist of single without air-conditional and double room with air-conditional. It is the first step for the students to sit for the examination at the end of each semester. Signing up for the right courses each semester will help to facilitate the graduation of each student from the first semester till the final semester. Further inquiries regarding course registration activities for the first degree and diploma can be made at any time at the office of the Student Data & Records Section. The registration is done directly through the Campus Online portal (https://campusonline. Only students whose academic status is active are allowed to register for courses in the E-Daftar. E-Daftar registration for Semester 2 usually starts 1-2 days after the Semester 1 ‘Provisional’ examination results are released until a day before Semester 2 begins (normally in February). Registration of co-curriculum courses is still placed under the administration of the Director of the Centre for Co-Curriculum Programme at the Main Campus or the Coordinator of the Co-Curriculum Programme at the Engineering Campus and the Coordinator of the Co-Curriculum Programme at the Health Campus. Co-Curriculum courses will be included in the students’ course registration account prior to the E-Daftar activity, if their pre-registration application is successful. E-Daftar System can be accessed through the Campus Online portal (https://campusonline. Students need to click at the E-Daftar menu to access and register for the relevant courses. Students are advised to print the course registration confirmation slip upon completion of the registration process or after updating the course registration list (add/drop) within the E-Daftar period. Guidelines to register/gain access to the E-Daftar portal are available at the Campus Online portal’s main page. Students must refer to the schedule at the notice board of their respective Schools. After Week Six, all registration, including adding and dropping of courses will be administered by the Examination & Graduation Section Office (Academic Management Division, Registry). The semester in which the student is on leave is not considered for the residency period. The contact details are as follows:- General Office : 04-6535242/ 5243/5248 for Main Malay Language Programme Chairperson : 04-6533974 Campus English Language Programme Chairperson : 04-6533406 students Foreign Language Programme Chairperson : 04-6533396 Engineering Campus Programme Chairperson : 04-5995407 : 04-5996385 Health Campus Programme Chairperson : 09-7671252 b) Registration for co-curriculum courses through E-Daftar is not allowed. Co-curriculum courses will be included in the students’ course registration account prior to the E-Daftar activity, if their pre-registration application is successful. Students who are interested must complete the course registration form which can be printed from the Campus Online Portal or obtained directly from the School. Approval from the lecturers of the courses to be audited and the Dean/Deputy Dean (Academic) (signed and stamped) in the course registration form is required. Registration of ‘Audit’ courses (Y code) is not included in the calculation of the total registered workload units. General information on this matter is as follows: i) Late course registration and addition are only allowed in the first to the third week with the approval of the Dean. For this purpose, students must meet the requirements set by the University as follows:- (i) Dropping Course Form must be completed by the student and signed by the lecturer of the course involved and the Dean/Deputy Dean of their respective Schools and submitted to the general office of the School/Centre which is responsible for offering the courses involved. Lecturers have the right not to certify the course that the student wishes to drop if the student is not serious, such as poor attendance record at lectures, tutorials and practical, as well as poor performance in course work. Students are advised to always check all the information displayed on this website. Normally, confirmation from 79 Academic Advisors will be made known to every student during the first semester in the first year of their studies. Academic Advisors will advice the students under their responsibility on academic-related matters. Among the important advice for the student is the registration planning for certain courses in each semester during the study period. Before registering the course, students are advised to consult and discuss with their Academic Advisor to determine the courses to be registered in a semester. Final year students are advised to consult their respective academic advisors before registering via E-Daftar to ensure they fulfil the graduation requirements. The unit is determined by the scope of its syllabus and the workload for the students. In general, a unit is defined as follows:- Type of Course Definition of Unit Theory 1 unit is equivalent to 1 contact hour per week for 13 – 14 weeks in one semester. To graduate, students must accumulate the total number of credits stipulated for the programme concerned. Students are required to settle all due fees and fulfil the standing requirements for lectures/tutorials/practical and other requirements before being allowed to sit for the examination of courses they have registered for. Course evaluation will be based on the two components of coursework and final examinations. Coursework evaluation includes tests, essays, projects, assignments and participation in tutorials. Students will also be barred from sitting for the final examination if they have not settled the academic fees.
Wyss Institute (2012) Harvard’s Wyss Institute Develops Novel Nano therapeutic treatment of retinal and optic nerve diseases nizoral 200mg without a prescription fungus gnats control hydrogen peroxide. Curr Opin Pharmacol 13: 134- that Delivers Clot-Busting Drugs Directly to Obstructed Blood Vessels nizoral 200 mg lowest price antifungal in spanish. This material may be reproduced in whole or in part for educational discount nizoral 200mg fast delivery saprophytic fungus definition, personal or public non-commercial purposes only buy 200mg nizoral xylitol fungus. As described Guide were identifed by a panel of experts—physicians who by Puddester in the Introduction, physician health used to be work with other physicians who have health concerns. Today, the page spread that introduces readers to the topic, provides a feld has expanded in scope and depth. As which there is a world shortage of health professionals, and no a result, readers can quickly access information on any topic prospect for relief in our practice lifetime. More than ever, we area and fnd a succinct summary of information along with need every available health professional to possess the healthy the tools for further exploration. Numerous pioneering leaders As the nature of contemporary health care evolves and de- have developed physician health, not only as an area of practice, velops, so does the role of physician. In health” has become one of the cornerstone ideas to improving this book, Puddester, Flynn, and Cohen et al, answer this call. Medicine can be a very rewarding career but it ready resource for those thinking or teaching about physician is also a very demanding profession. The chapters are created to be accessible cine by creating resources and Train-the-trainer Workshops within the busy schedule many physicians maintain. This to support each of the seven identifed domains of physician handbook not only creates awareness to the wide-ranging fac- competence. As a presents many of the practical resources currently available to toolkit, this publication is an easy-to-access resource which all assist physicians and their own health needs. Using divided into chapters which present the specifc elements that real-world situations and scenarios, this guide will help physi- make up the larger themes. The chapters are presented in a cians discover practical and useful strategies for introducing two-page layout complete with specifc learning objectives, a and promoting physical, emotional, and spiritual well-being. As Professionals, physicians are committed to the health Although the guide provides information for physicians and well-being of individuals and society through ethi- throughout their careers the information is presented to show cal practice, profession-led regulation, and high personal students and residents many of the everyday issues that can standards of behaviour. Along with presenting learn- ing moments, this publication provides practical advice for Key Competencies those in training to help manage their own health in the form Physicians are able to… of available resources, practical advice, and key references for 1. Demonstrate a commitment to physician health “bigger picture” for all the phases of a physician’s lifecycle and sustainable practice. The information and cases are based on sce- only describes what makes up physician health, but to have narios that practicing physicians will recognize. Similarly the an easy to access handbook for dealing with physician health resources identifed throughout the handbook make this guide issues directly. There is a quick reference index at the end of a powerful tool for maintaining one’s own health. Medical educators Medical educators will fnd a resource on the principles of phy- sician health. The cases are derived from evidence of patients’ needs, from practicing physicians’ perspectives, from content experts and from empirical research. This guide helps teachers ask effective educational questions that explore the variety of aspects that make up physician health and lead to sustainable practice. Societal expectations 8 Jordan Cohen Section 2 - The individual physician Introduction 11 Derek Puddester A. Leadership and leadership skills 18 Derek Puddester Section 3 - Balancing personal and professional life Introduction 21 Jordan Cohen A. Intimidation and harassment in training 54 Jordan Cohen Section 6 - Collegiality Introduction 57 Jordan Cohen A. Interdisciplinary relationships 66 Janet Wright Section 7 - Physician health and the doctor–patient relationship Introduction 68 Leslie Flynn A. Coping with an adverse event, complaint or litigation 70 Canadian Medical Protective Association B. Boundary issues 76 Michael Paré Section 8 - The physician life-cycle Introduction 79 Jordan Cohen A. Coping with and respecting the obligations of mandatory reporting 98 Canadian Medical Protective Association F. Physicians with an illness or a disability 104 Ashok Muzumdar Section 10 - Financial health Introduction 107 Jordan Cohen A. Puddester completed his undergraduate training in English/Russian Studies and Medicine at Memorial University of Newfoundland. He completed a Psychiatry Residency at McMaster University and a Fellowship in Child Psychiatry at uOttawa. He is the Medical Leader of the Behavioural Neurosciences and Consultation-Liaison Team at the Children’s Hospital of Eastern Ontario. Puddester is an Associate Professor at uOttawa’s Faculty of Medicine where he also serves as the Director of the Faculty Wellness Program. Puddester’s educational and research work focuses on physician health, healthy work environments, e-learning, and curriculum theory and development. The Canadian Association of Interns and Residents has recognized his leadership in physician health by creating the Dr. Derek Puddester Resident Well-Being Award which is given annually to a person or program that has made a signifcant contribution to the improvement of resident health and wellness. She became certifed as a Family Physician in 1988 and subsequently as a psychiatrist in 1995. She then began her professional ca- reer at Queen’s University when she was cross-appointed to the Departments of Family Medicine and Psychiatry in the role of Family Medicine Liaison Psychiatrist. She has held roles as Director of the Continuing Medical Education program, Postgraduate Program Director and the Director of Psychotherapy in the Department of Psychiatry. Flynn is currently an Associate Professor in the Departments of Psychiatry and Family Medicine and the Associate Dean of Postgraduate Medical Education at Queen’s University. Flynn has received departmental awards for Excellent Leadership in Education and Dedication to the Ideals of the Department as well as the Annual Staff Excellence in Teaching Award. She has conducted research in physician health, the Role of Health Advocate, interprofessional education and the scholarship of teaching and learning. Cohen is currently an Assistant Clinical Professor in the Department of Psychiatry of the Faculty of Medicine at the University of Calgary, where he completed both his residency and undergraduate medical training. He is also the Director of Student Affairs of Undergraduate Medical Education and Chair of The Physicianship Course for the Faculty of Medicine at the University of Calgary. His educational and research work focuses on balancing medicine, physician health and professionalism. He is also a board member of the Physician Health Monitoring Program for the Alberta College of Physicians and Surgeons. Derek Puddester Resident Well Being Award 2006 for his contributions to resident health; the Department of Psychiatry’s Postgraduate Clinical Education Award 2008 in recognition of outstanding contribution in the area of postgraduate clinical education; and the Department of Psychiatry’s Postgraduate Research Award for Part-time Faculty 2008 in recognition of outstanding research contributions in Psychiatry. Goals and objectives of this guide The vast majority of today’s physicians entered their profession This handbook is designed to help educators and learners after considerable refection, years of academic preparation, better understand the broad meaning of “physician health,” and in the face of signifcant competition and challenge. The to discover practical strategies to promote professional health intellectual, emotional, physical and social demands of medi- and to apply such knowledge to real-world situations. It is not cal training are rigorous, as are the professional and personal meant to be an academic exercise, but rather to form part of demands of practice. The good news is that most physicians a practical toolkit of resources that Canadian physicians can thrive in their work environments, are strong and healthy, access and apply as they see ft. Readers can use this handbook practise excellent strategies to safeguard their own well-being, to explore their own questions and needs, educators can draw and enjoy long and healthy lives. When physicians’ personal upon it as a resource for teaching and learning programs, and well-being and professional commitment are in balance, posi- investigators may fnd it helpful in identifying avenues for tive synergies result that sustain them in their healing role, to research in physician health. Topic areas were identifed by a panel of experts who work in And yet the phrase physician health seems not to convey that the trenches with physicians presenting with health concerns.
The National Institutes of Health should support a study of the effectiveness and safety of peripartum antiviral therapy to reduce and Foreign-Born Populations possibly eliminate perinatal hepatitis B virus transmission from women • 5-2 order 200mg nizoral free shipping antifungal mouth. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention discount nizoral 200mg fungus quizlet, in conjunction at high risk for perinatal transmission cheap 200mg nizoral fast delivery xanthone antifungal. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the Depart- foreign-born populations buy 200mg nizoral with amex fungus nail medicine. At Community Health Facilities a minimum, the programs should include access to sterile needle • 5-9. The Health Resources and Services Administration should pro- syringes and drug-preparation equipment because the shared use of vide adequate resources to federally funded community health facili- these materials has been shown to lead to transmission of hepatitis ties for provision of comprehensive viral-hepatitis services. Federal and state governments should expand services to reduce High Impact Settings the harm caused by chronic hepatitis B and hepatitis C. The Health Resources and Services Administration and the should include testing to detect infection, counseling to reduce alcohol Centers for Disease Control and Prevention should provide resources use and secondary transmission, hepatitis B vaccination, and referral and guidance to integrate comprehensive viral hepatitis services into for or provision of medical management. Hepatitis and Liver Cancer: A National Strategy for Prevention and Control of Hepatitis B and C http://www. It supports viral hepatitis programs at the national, state, and community levels; disseminates hepatitis-related information to the public; and develops guidelines for prevention and con- trol. Hepatitis and Liver Cancer: A National Strategy for Prevention and Control of Hepatitis B and C http://www. Hepatitis and Liver Cancer: A National Strategy for Prevention and Control of Hepatitis B and C http://www. In addition, viral hepatitis education and training activities are administered by the Bureau of Health Professions. Medicare covers people 65 years old or older, people under 65 years old who have specifed disabilities, and people who have end-stage renal disease. Medicaid is a state-administered program available to low-income individuals and fami- lies who ft into an eligibility group that is recognized by federal and state law. Eligibility for Medicaid and coverage for viral hepatitis services vary from state to state. The total funding level is about $5 million per year, and the average award is $90,000. Hepatitis and Liver Cancer: A National Strategy for Prevention and Control of Hepatitis B and C http://www. About 78% of the plans include hepatitis B vaccinations whether or not other hepatitis B pre- vention services are included. The medical management component is included in the smallest percentage of plans (62. Overall, the coordinator survey revealed that over 40% of juris- dictions do not have plans; of the states that do have plans, only half have all the components, and only 20. The primary barrier to plan implementation was fnancial constraints on overall funding and staffng (96. Most of them focus on advocacy efforts, such as raising public awareness about viral hepatitis and encour- aging people, especially in high-risk populations, to be vaccinated for hepatitis B, to undergo risk-factor screening for hepatitis B and hepatitis C, and to determine whether laboratory testing and medical management are needed. Hepatitis and Liver Cancer: A National Strategy for Prevention and Control of Hepatitis B and C http://www. The Harm Reduction Coalition is an example of an organization that develops and disseminates hepatitis C information among illicit-drug users (Harm Reduction Coalition, 2009). Existing efforts at interagency information exchange, intermittent meetings to share plans and results, and joint administration of funds for some grants are not suffcient for the scale of the health burden presented by hepatitis B and hepatitis C. Community outreach and immunization for pri- mary prevention are discussed in depth in Chapters 3 and 4, respectively. Identifcation of infected persons, harm reduction, and medical manage- ment are reviewed below. As discussed in Chapter 3, culturally relevant, accessible, and trusted sources of communication are required to increase awareness and promote use of appropriate services. Hepatitis and Liver Cancer: A National Strategy for Prevention and Control of Hepatitis B and C http://www. Risk factors include being born in a country where the disease is prevalent, and behavior such as illicit-drug use and having multiple sexual partners. Hepatitis and Liver Cancer: A National Strategy for Prevention and Control of Hepatitis B and C http://www. Providers should review patients’ backgrounds (for example, country of birth) and discuss relevant behaviors to determine what services they need. Figure 5-1 illustrates the pathway of services and care for people de- pending on their risk factors identifed. Hepatitis and Liver Cancer: A National Strategy for Prevention and Control of Hepatitis B and C http://www. Risk-factor screening has been tested by using question- Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. Hepatitis and Liver Cancer: A National Strategy for Prevention and Control of Hepatitis B and C http://www. It has been found to correlate with infection status and is an effective mechanism for identifying candidates for testing (Armstrong et al. Researchers who were evaluating hepatitis C incidence along the Texas–Mexico bor- der found tattooing to be an independent risk factor for infection in their majority-Hispanic population (Hand and Vasquez, 2005). Hepatitis and Liver Cancer: A National Strategy for Prevention and Control of Hepatitis B and C http://www. As effective antiretroviral therapies emerged, recommendations for screening and testing were expanded (Myers et al. TheThe availability of rapid tests in theavailability of rapid tests in the Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. Hepatitis and Liver Cancer: A National Strategy for Prevention and Control of Hepatitis B and C http://www. Hepatitis and Liver Cancer: A National Strategy for Prevention and Control of Hepatitis B and C http://www. Table 5-2 provides guidance on the interpreta- tion of hepatitis B serologic test results. Cost-effectiveness data on the use of laboratory testing in particular at- risk populations are available. Hepatitis and Liver Cancer: A National Strategy for Prevention and Control of Hepatitis B and C http://www. Reactivations have also been reported to occur with other types of immunosuppressives, notably anti–tumor- necrosis factor therapy for rheumatoid arthritis and infammatory bowel disease (Esteve et al. Hepatitis and Liver Cancer: A National Strategy for Prevention and Control of Hepatitis B and C http://www. Hepatitis and Liver Cancer: A National Strategy for Prevention and Control of Hepatitis B and C http://www. Hepatitis and Liver Cancer: A National Strategy for Prevention and Control of Hepatitis B and C http://www. Hepatitis and Liver Cancer: A National Strategy for Prevention and Control of Hepatitis B and C http://www. Research to develop a vaccine for hepatitis C continues although it is unlikely that a vaccine will be developed and licensed in the near future. Given the com- plexity of the issues surrounding vaccination of children and adults, this report devotes a separate chapter (Chapter 4) to immunization. Support for abstinence is an element of harm reduction but is not a requirement for participation in harm-reduction programs. Harm reduction focuses on providing information about safer practices (for ex- ample, how to inject without exposing oneself to contaminated blood), providing materials for engaging in safer practices (such as needle syringes and condoms), and offering hepatitis B vaccination. Because harm reduc- tion does not condemn illicit-drug use and instead seeks practical solutions to mitigate its harmful consequences, these programs can be controversial (Des Jarlais et al.