By S. Zakosh. Oakland University.
Therefore buy estradiol 1 mg on line women's health center hershey pa, in the absence of a high bleed- widely used test for monitoring heparin therapy ing risk purchase estradiol 1mg otc pregnancy belly rings, most patients with an unprovoked event is the activated partial thromboplastin time generic estradiol 1 mg with mastercard womens health 30 day ab challenge, which should receive indeﬁnite therapy buy estradiol 2mg low price menstruation 9 jours. Failure to achieve an adequate therapy (such as 6, 12, or 18 months) are more anticoagulation response with heparin therapy (ie, effective than 3 months because the recurrence activated partial thromboplastin time, 1. Plasmin degrades ﬁbrin to soluble direct thrombin inhibitor, such as argatroban or peptides in the presence of a thrombus or hemo- lepirudin, should be considered. Streptokinase, urokinase, and tissue warfarin should not be initiated until the platelet plasminogen activator are approved for use in the count has returned to normal, especially in those United States. These devices are logic or urologic surgery patients or medical being used more frequently, especially now that patients who are at bed rest (including all critical many can be safely retrieved after several months. Interventional catheter extraction if the bleeding risk is extremely high, mechanical or fragmentation may become viable options for methods of prophylaxis should be used. The vascular changes involve the pulmonary arteriole, and they are characterized by vasoconstriction, vascular remodeling with intimal and medial proliferation, the formation of plexiform lesions, and thrombosis Figure 3. Platelets likely play an impor- patients with an unexplained isolated reduction in tant role as procoagulants by increasing the plate- diffusing capacity). The most common symptoms are liver transplantation, and patients with congenital dyspnea on exertion, fatigue, and syncope, result- systemic to pulmonary shunts. When suggested by his- more advanced disease, the physical examination tory, an overnight polysomnography can be reveals signs of right ventricular dysfunction. Signs Symptoms Left-sided heart catheterization can evaluate for coronary artery disease, as well as measure left Jugular vein distention Dyspnea or exertion Prominent right ventricular heave Fatigue ventricular end-diastolic pressure. This test has been very troversial because of the lack of well-designed useful in monitoring the response to therapy and randomized controlled trials in this population. Unfortunately, calcium- ment is screening of high-risk patients (as previ- channel blockers have no antiproliferative effect, ously discussed) because it is generally believed and thus, only a small subset of patients will ben- that earlier diagnosis and treatment may improve eﬁt from long-term use. General measures Signiﬁcant adverse effects include systemic hypo- include pneumococcal and inﬂuenza vaccinations tension, pulmonary edema, and right ventricular in addition to the avoidance of pregnancy, high- failure. In addition, the reducing endothelial and smooth-muscle cell pro- following supportive treatments are available: liferation target the following three major path- 1. Two studies have shown improved survival with Their overall recommended approach is shown in bosentan therapy compared with historical control Figure 4. Although many of the trials that use these (the sixth line) treatment (lung transplantation or classes of medications were not powered to detect atrial septostomy) should be considered. Responders to patients who are in functional class I receive gen- calcium-channel blockers have a 95% 5-year sur- eral care only, although trials with early use of vival rate. Posttreatment consensus as to which agent to start ﬁrst, nor is markers of poor prognosis included persistent there any current consensus as to the role of com- increases in right atrial pressure, low cardiac index, bination therapy. Trends in the location affects the sensitivity of a rapid quantitative d- incidence of venous thromboembolism during preg- dimer assay in the diagnosis of pulmonary embolism. Intern Med J 2007; 37:38−48 College of Chest Physicians evidence-based clinical This article, although focusing on the Australian experience practice guidelines. Pulmonary arterial hyperten- ultrasonography in the diagnosis of suspected deep sion: epidemiology, pathobiology, assessment, and venous thrombosis and pulmonary embolism. Ann Intern Med 2008; 162:1964−1973 148:278−283 This review summarizes the current state of knowledge A short, easily understandable description of the discovery regarding pulmonary venoocclusive disease. Chest 2004; 126(suppl):14S−34S unfractionated heparin for treatment of pulmonary A comprehensive evidence-based review and recommenda- embolism: a meta-analysis of randomized, controlled tions on the diagnostic approach to patients with suspected trials. The 2008; 29:3−14 duration of oral anticoagulant therapy after a second An up-to-date review of the diagnostic accuracy and utility, episode of venous thromboembolism. However, there suspected acute pulmonary embolism and negative was a trend toward a greater risk of major hemorrhage when computed tomographic ﬁndings: a cohort study. N Engl J Med of cancer cases was 1,372 based on national statistics from 2008; 358:1037−1052 Denmark (ratio of observed/expected number of cancer cases, An updated review of the epidemiology, diagnosis, treat- 1. In so doing, the authors have also performed after withholding anticoagulation from patients with a systematic review of the literature regarding clinical 36 Pulmonary Vascular Diseases (Moores) prediction rules and d-dimer levels and applied these data in This is an extensive review of a pathophysiologic approach to the context of clinical decision making. Major pulmonary embolism: review of risk gratiﬁcation in part based on right ventricular dysfunc- a pathophysiologic approach to the golden hour of tion. The expected 5-year survival • Review the paraneoplastic syndromes associated with lung for the diagnosis of lung cancer is 16% as compared cancer with 65% for colon cancer, 89% for breast cancer, • Place in perspective the appropriate use of laboratory studies, imaging techniques, and diagnostic approaches and nearly 100% for prostate cancer. The current • Review the results of various treatment modalities for both overall 5-year survival rate of 16% is only slightly small cell and non-small cell lung cancers better than the 8% survival rate of the early 1960s. Before reviewing the subject at hand, it must Lung cancer is currently the leading cause of be said that much of the effort evidenced in this cancer deaths in both men and women in the review might not be necessary but for the real United States. Lung cancer causes more deaths than the the efforts of clinicians and clinical researchers, but next four most common cancers combined (colon, the “biggest bang for the buck” comes in the form 49,962; breast, 40,930; pancreas, 34,290; and pros- of lung cancer prevention. Fortunately, the death rate from lung ondary, or tertiary, the prevention of cigarette cancer in men in the United States began to smoking has the biggest potential to improve the decrease in 1991, which is reﬂective of a decrease dismal statistics associated with this cancer. The antici- Etiology of Lung Cancer pated decrease has lagged behind the decrease in men, likely to the result of smoking prevalence Tobacco causes 80 to 90% of all lung cancers. The risk of lung cancer increases, in cigar association or a role for supplemental beta-carotene and pipe smokers, depending on inhalation prac- in the prevention of lung cancer. The effect of pipe and cigar use on the risk of same studies provide striking evidence of an exces- lung cancer is generally similar to that of light sive lung cancer incidence in smokers (an adverse cigarette smoking. This finding stresses the importance of chewing tobacco and snuff) are carcinogenic for establishing the efficacy of chemoprevention the upper aerodigestive tract but not for the agents in carefully conducted clinical trials. Genetic Lesions and the Molecular Pathogenesis Passive Smoking of Lung Cancer It is estimated that up to 25% of lung cancer in It is becoming apparent through candidate nonsmokers comes from passive exposure to ciga- gene and genome-wide approaches that clinically rette smoke, which translates into an estimate that evident lung cancers have accumulated numerous passive smoking causes approximately 1. These alterations from mainstream smoke inhaled by the active include the classical genetic abnormalities of tumor smoker and may be even more carcinogenic. It has been conjectured that air pollution increased our understanding of the multiple events may promote the action of other carcinogens but that lead to the development of lung cancer. As risk factors for ﬁeld cancerization theory suggests that multiple lung cancer, most, if not all, of these environmental genetic abnormalities occur throughout the respira- factors either require or are markedly augmented tory epithelium as a result of long-term carcinogen by concomitant exposure to cigarette smoke. Mutations may occur during adult life as a result of cigarette smoking, but it is also possible Dietary Factors that some of them may be acquired during embry- onic development of the bronchial epithelium. The constituents of green and yel- A predisposition to early age of onset of lung low vegetables, such as beta-carotene and selenium, cancer may be inherited in a Mendelian codominant appear to have potential as protective agents against fashion. Both bupropion, an antidepressant that inhibits the Inheriting genes predisposing to malignancy usu- reuptake of dopamine and norepinephrine, and ally results in a high rate of secondary tumors varenicline, a partial nicotine agonist at a subtype (lung, head and neck, esophagus, and other of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor, have been organs). In the There may be an increased risk of neuropsychiatric United States, 10 to 15% of lung cancer occurs symptoms, including agitation, depressed mood, in never smokers (5 to 10% in men and 15 to 25% suicidal ideation, and worsening of preexisting in women). Pharmacotherapy tobacco smoke, cooking fumes, indoor air quality, doubles the cessation success rate at 6 months genetic factors, occupational exposures, hormonal when compared with placebo. Small- Psychological and behavioral techniques, such cell carcinoma is generally regarded as a disorder as delivering a strong personalized message, for which surgery is not indicated. Histologically, they use of telephone “Quit-lines” (telephone therapy are characterized by scant cytoplasm, ﬁne chroma- is now accessible in every state at 1-800-Quit now), tin, and nuclear molding. Conversely, the use cells and stains positive for synaptophysin, of hypnosis or acupuncture has not proven to be chromogranin A, and neuron-specific enolase. Non-small cell lung resistant to radiation therapy and chemotherapy carcinomas are believed to arise from lung epithe- and are therefore best treated by surgery. Fortunately, Adenocarcinomas are the least closely associ- atypical carcinoid tumors of the lung are more ated with cigarette smoking and most commonly responsive to chemotherapy and radiation therapy. They may grow in include squamous dysplasia/carcinoma in situ acinar, papillary, bronchioloalveolar, or solid (leading to squamous cell carcinoma), atypical growth patterns, often in association with the pro- adenomatous hyperplasia (leading to adenocarci- duction of mucus. The role of surgical changes in the T classiﬁcation are to subclassify resection as an adjunct to this combined method T1 into T1a ( 2 cm) and T1b ( 2− 3 cm) and T2 of treatment is still not clear.
To date order 1 mg estradiol overnight delivery menstruation wont stop, recom- with additional doses if defciency confrmed cuss the potential alterations in prenatal care mendations for vitamin testing and treatment Elemental iron with vitamin C (40–65 mg/day) Elemental iron (40–65 mg/day) plus and perinatal outcomes in a pregnancy after published for non-pregnant patients are based prenatal vitamin generic 2mg estradiol with mastercard women's health clinic somerset ky, replace with additional bariatric surgery generic estradiol 2 mg otc women's health center munster indiana. In addition to fol- 22 in order to prevent spina bifda and other ogists cheap estradiol 2 mg mastercard women's health center mt zion, The Obesity Society, and American Society for Metabolic and Bariatric Surgery Medical Guidelines lowing an appropriate diet, measuring vitamin birth defects48. The same can be said for iron for Clinical Practice for the Perioperative Nutritional, Metabolic, and Nonsurgical Support of the Bariatric and mineral levels, and supplementing with defciency anemia which can be associated with Surgery Patient. Interested readers should manage bands during pregnancy, so therapy is nancy complaints (nausea, vomiting, abdomi- daily vitamin and mineral supplements after bariat- consult Chapter 22 for a more complete dis- individualized in consultation with a bariatric nal pain) which may signal a surgical compli- ric surgery, regardless of the type of procedure. Symptoms include can occur as a result of decreased intake and/ abdominal cramping, nausea, vomiting and or intolerance to certain foods or malabsorp- Some of the common and expected physi- Several case reports and case series report seri- diarrhea. J Am Coll Surg sugars for 1 week during the 24–28 weeks of Although it seems logical to conclude that Prepregnancy obesity as a risk factor for struc- 2010;211:169–75 pregnancy. Fertil Steril 2010;94:1426–31 abnormal fetal growth, repeated ultrasound as well as the increasing numbers of bariatric progression in term nulliparous women. Predic- loss of massive excess weight following bariat- with a bariatric surgeon is recommended in are needed to determine the best management tion of hemorrhage at cesarean delivery. Contraceptive treatment after bil- after Lap-Band® surgery: management of the Pregnancy after laparoscopic adjustable gastric B12 defciency in a breastfed infant following iopancreatic diversion needs consensus. Oral contraceptive 1994;87:1208–13 and fetal deaths after gastric bypass surgery for challenges in newborn screening for vitamin absorption and sex hormone binding globulins 48. Contraceptive use among women ety for Metabolic and Bariatric Surgery Medical with a history of bariatric surgery: a systematic Guidelines for Clinical Practice for the Periop- review. In contrast, bioimpedence (a mea- sure of the opposition to the fow of electric Defnition and epidemiology current through tissues) is an ineffective mea- sure of adiposity. The pathological processes diovascular system is further stressed by the globulin synthesis, which leads to higher free neous labor declines by as much as 50%. Another factor that has cessive weight gain between the frst and third stress, infammation and altered vascular func- high demand for cardiac output can result in been identifed as a possible causative agent trimesters is also associated with longer gesta- 30 congestive cardiac failure48 and the strong as- tion have been proposed. Concomitant with these problems, pregnancy rate in both ovulatory women16, and The association between pre-pregnancy ma- aspiration under anesthesia is increased. The odds ratio for cesarean de- Early miscarriage is four times more likely in Although the screening criteria for gestational due to problems in identifying the midline and livery is 3. Indeed, accuracy of sonographic should be achieved before commencing as- developed world; however, in no other country these associations, though none are confrmed. As funding for cesarean wound infections, endomyometritis weight gain, nor normal-weight women with uterine deaths’, and fetoplacental dysfunction infertility treatment is actually dependent on and urinary tract infections. As assisted conception operations, even when prophylactic antibiotics Accordingly, an overweight woman can reduce is funded privately elsewhere in the developed are administered53,54. However, the Canadian Fertil- Shoulder dystocia is an essentially unpre- Offspring of obese women are at risk of child- breastfeeding duration shortens. Fetus Perhaps even more concerning is the two-fold Barker’s hypothesis of ‘developmental ori- increased risk of developing childhood meta- gins of adult health and disease’ states that en- Birth defects Assessment of fetal well-being bolic syndrome (obesity, hypertension, dyslip- vironmental factors, particularly maternal un- idemia and glucose intolerance) in infants born dernutrition, act in early life to program risks The association between obesity and fetal neu- All methods of determining fetal well-being to obese women, and those born macrosomic for later life adverse health outcomes81. Admittedly, individuals tite suppressants (sibutramine, rimonabant); obesity in non-pregnant adults offers a tem- These recommendations have not been stud- from various ethnic and socioeconomic back- and lipase inhibitors (orlistat). Moreover, no during pregnancy’ which advises that weight Applying this to the preconceptional situation true for obese infertile women who are more long-term data are available on their eventual gain for pregnancies should be inversely corre- is considered below. In terms of obese women, weight Conservative information about local patient support pro- tional woman, as its impact on her future fer- gain of less than 7kg has no negative impact grams should be readily available. On the Within the context of a preconceptional coun- Exercise should be encouraged for both The choice of drug can be steered by the contrary, a recent Missouri population-based seling session, physicians should ensure that weight loss and other health benefts; targets patient’s preference, local drug costs and cohort study described reduced risks of pre- an extended consultation is booked so that the the patient’s comorbidities. Activities that can be in- eclampsia, cesarean section and macrosomia many risks outlined above can be discussed, corporated into everyday life will be better the most effective for weight loss, improves in obese women who lost less than the rec- the extent of detail being tailored to the pa- adhered to. Sibutramine also im- is particularly signifcant for the nulliparous clinicians often are poor counselors, so much nancy, so any fears that this could harm an proves triglyceride levels and increases high woman who, with each successive pregnancy, so that obesity management training for the early pregnancy can be dispelled95. Pre- work by limiting the amount of solid food that The adjustability of gastric bands (enabled It is imperative that obese women are existing cardiovascular disease, uncontrolled can be ingested at any one time. The patient via a small access port positioned under the strongly advised to take folic acid supplemen- hypertension and tachycardia are therefore should chew well and eat slowly, or vomit- skin) makes them an attractive option for pre- tation as they are not only at a heightened risk contraindications. Weight loss is achieved mainly conceptional women, as it allows modifca- of fetal neural tube defects, but have also been tive for weight loss, but the secondary benefts through an unpleasant sense of fullness. A group in Australia recommendation is to ‘consider high-dose fo- glucose and hemoglobin A concentrations gives rise to satiating signals, and diarrhea is 1C have shown that ‘active management’ of the lic acid (5mg/day)’ in severely obese women in patients with diabetes, as well as total cho- a common side-effect. This could mean that obese women The risk of fetal undernutrition is the great- months to avoid conceiving during the rapid require higher doses, but could also mean that Obesity surgery is an option for the obese who est concern for preconceptional women con- weight loss phase. Postoperative weight loss is far in excess are much less likely with restrictive than with avoid potential nutritional defciencies; how- Vitamin D defciency can occur during peri- of that which medical or conservative therapy malabsorptive procedures, and can be pre- ever, evidence supporting this admonition is ods of high demand including intrauterine life, can offer. Macronutrient defciencies vitamin D is synthesized in the skin by expo- of comorbidities including diabetes, hyperlip- include protein-calorie malnutrition and fat sure to sunlight, considerable variations occur idemia, hypertension and obstructive sleep ap- malabsorption; and the commonest micro- General measures secondary to geographical latitude and skin nea in the majority of patients99. Nei- loss on pregnancy are great and certainly seem ther the Royal College of Obstetricians and tion so that the target weight can be achieved accumulation in fat cells and possibly a reduced to outweigh any potential adverse effects. Ann acteristics of gestational diabetic mothers Epidemiology 1999;10:422–8 Epidemiol 2005;15:475–82 The management of obesity has long been and their babies in an Indian diabetes clinic. Leeners B, Rath W, Kuse S, Irawan C, poorly understood and, as a consequence, the J Assoc Physicians India 2005;53:857–63 and the risk of spontaneous abortion after Imthurn B, Neumaier-Wagner P. National Institute for sitivity and androgen production in wom- body mass index and hypercholesterolemia: and additional risk factors from a Lon- Health and Clinical Excellence; 2006. Am J Clin Nutr 2007;86:404–11 tal blood sampling in labour and the deci- pregnancy and ovulation rates in anovulato- Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol 2004;18:196–201 56. Anesthetic and ob- Obstet Gynecol 1998;179:476–80 ciation with birth weight, maternal obesity, Br J Obstet Gynaecol 2008;115:44–50 stetric outcome in morbidly obese parturi- 63. As such, they are suitable for precon- For the past several decades, women have ceptional counseling and special attention and been having their babies later in life. At the same time, other women • Advanced maternal age have diseases which were previously incom- patible with long-term survival and now, after • Advanced paternal age therapy, these women wish to have their own • Risk of fetal exposure to teratogens families. These two previously unknown cir- • Consanguinity cumstances, plus an increasing awareness of genetic disorders, are leading more and more • Known genetic syndrome within the potential parents to seek specialist genetic family advice on pregnancy planning, investigations • Unexplained physical or mental handicap and management prior to conception. Medical personnel involved with factors are less well recognized and may need patients during antenatal care should be able to be proactively asked about by the health to take and document a simple pedigree, and professional. Under these circumstances it Affected individual Where the partners are blood Down’s (trisomy 21), Edward’s (trisomy 18) is possible to see that if there is a single case (symbol coloured in) relatives (consanguineous relationship) and Patau’s (trisomy 13) syndromes are all of Duchenne muscular dystrophy within the Children/siblings well recognized, and screening programs are family, the type of mutation may dictate the Multiple individuals available for early-stage identifcation in preg- likely origin of the mutation. The chro- Recreational and therapeutic drugs, and intrin- mosome lost during this process may be from sic maternal metabolites can cause teratogenic Non-identical twins (dizygotic) the parent who passed on only a single copy, effects in the fetus. If trisomic rescue a b affects an imprinted chromosome (6, 7, 11, Recreational drugs Place male partners on Include affected and unaffected 14, 15 and possibly 20), this process may lead the left if possible Record at least basic details individuals on both sides of family as this can help in to major fetal abnormality. Prolonged exposure leads to intra- “Problem with Use standardized symbols and it is important that couples are aware of excessive (circles for females, squares No other cases of uterine growth retardation and poor brain bleeding” for males) breast cancer known the difference between screening and diagnos- in family growth, which may result in learning diffcul- tic tests. It causes major brain abnormalities If several conditions appropriate, record age and cause of with septo-optic dysplasia and schizenceph- run in the family, use death different shadings and aly among those implicated. Names of extended necessary unless their family members may child has a significant Increasing paternal age results in primary sper- Other vasoactive drugs such as amphetamines not be necessary unless condition they are at risk of a matogonia originating from germ cells which may cause similar effects. These effects are in genetic condition, or Consider if it is necessary to record they have a common sensitive information that is unlikely to Fill in the symbol for people have undergone an increasing number of mito- contrast to in utero exposure to opiates which known or reported to be Date and write your name disease which is answer a genetic question (such as legibly on the pedigree clustering in the family terminations of pregnancy or issues of affected; write in other ses, which in turn give rise to an increased causes withdrawal symptoms in the neonate paternity not relating to potentially at risk diagnoses underneath the person’s symbol chance of gene mutations. Reproduced from National Genetics Education and Development Centre ples of this process include achondroplasia retardation and an increased risk of premature (www. A prime example is tha- drome within the family, it is important to pregnancy associated diseases such as pre- lidomide, developed in the 1950s as a sedative obtain documentary evidence. Retinoic acid analogues are well known terato- and antiemetic, which caused major limb and history should be taken including the dates of Despite this, many drugs have been used gens used in the treatment of acne and psoria- other abnormalities. Many of information regarding the affected person pregnancy for the treatment of maternal dis- the pharmaceutical community is well aware drugs appear to be safe, however, such as the may need to be obtained before further details ease. It is then neces- of this chapter to discuss fetal teratogens in used for treatment of hypertension, beta- sary to ascertain whether a couple is at risk of depth, and all drug treatment in pregnancy agonists, steroids and antibiotics.
In the United States order estradiol 1mg free shipping menopause mood changes, there are twice as many surgeons in proportion to population as in England and Wales order 1 mg estradiol overnight delivery breast cancer quilt pattern free. If the results of the H alothane study are accurate purchase estradiol 2mg without prescription womens health evergreen, many patients are rolling dice with their lives when they seek care buy estradiol 1 mg with mastercard menopause emotional changes. In general, the research shows that the quality of medical care varies greatly; many instances of poor care can be found. T he data are also remarkable in light of the presuppositions most consumers hold about the quality and reliability o f medical care. Most of the studies in the report judge the quality of care by examining the “processes” of care rather than “outcomes” of care. In other words, the “m anner” in which care was provided is the focus of most o f the studies, rather than the actual “outcomes” o f care. Initially, only 94 of the 141 patients com pleted the battery of studies based on diagnostic X-rays; 77 (or 55 percent) re ceived an adequate work-up based on the intern’s diagnostic impression; but only 37 o f 98 patients, having received diagnostic X-ray examinations, were inform ed whether the findings were normal or abnormal; and only 14 of the 38 patients with abnorm al X-ray results (or 37 percent) ap peared to have received adequate therapy for the conditions indicated. Thus, the study resulted in effective medical care for only 38 patients (or 27 percent). N either effective nor ineffective care was given to 19 patients, or the rem aining 13 percent. T he study was not conducted in a small rural hospital, nor in the inadequate and shabby facilities often found in m ajor public hospitals. It was conducted in the Baltimore City The Impact of Medical Care on Patients 11 Hospital emergency room, where it was assumed that the competence and efficiency of the house staff would be optimal. Although few doubts were expressed by his superiors about his m ethodol ogy, the uncritical assum ption was that the findings of the study were characteristic of City Hospital, a less prestigious institution than Johns Hopkins. T he challenge proved too much for Brook; his next target was the em ergency room at Johns Hopkins. Using essentially the same methodology, Brook’s work revealed that only 28 percent o f 166 patients with gastrointestinal symptoms were given acceptable care, 2 percent less than in the City Hospital. And, although he has refrained from generalizing about his re sults, that is, from drawing inferences about medical care in general from treatm ent of the “tracer” condition, generaliza tion seems w arranted. Less 12 1‘he Impact of Medicine understandable is medicine’s persistent refusal to examine what it does for the patient in relation to the result to the patient. T here are a num ber of reasons why this occurs, but a principal one is that the physicians need to keep busy. Tonsillectomy is the most common surgi cal procedure perform ed in W estern civilization. Nevertheless, recent data reflect that, in most communities, approxim ately 20 to 30 percent have their tonsils rem oved. Nonetheless, because of the volume of cases, tonsillectomies account for 100 to 300 deaths annually in the United States. Finally, there is some evidence that removal of the tonsils results in the loss to the patient o f an invaluable “im munity” mechanism, possibly linked to increased risk o f H odgkin’s disease and bulbar poliomyelitis. T he young tonsillectomy candidate, perhaps five or six years of age, is made captive in a hospital, separated from his or The Impact of Medical Care on Patients 13 her parents, and surrounded by mysterious figures in white coats. T he emotional harm is dem onstrable, and the pallia tive ice cream at the end of surgery hardly compensates. The psychiatric literature contains evidence that childhood tonsillectomy often has profound irreversible and lifelong repercussions. T here is an extensive literature on this subject, most of which has been ignored by practitioners. T he subtitle o f the first speaks for itself: “A Study Based on Removal o f 704 Normal Ovaries from 546 Patients. Classic examples of calamities in medicine have been the loss or im paired hearing o f some patients given chloramphenicol, and the w renching results of the use of thalidom ide. They include post operative pulm onary infections, wound infections, burn in fections, and tracheotom y infections, to nam e a few. Some re cently concluded research links the death o f thousands of asthmatics to the inhalation of isoproterm ol, a medication for the treatm ent of asthma, which can be purchased either with a prescription or over the counter. Paul Stolley of the School of Hygiene and Public Health at Johns Hopkins University, in reviewing research on the question, rem arked, “It’s the most tragic drug disaster on record. In En gland, the deaths of approxim ately 3500 asthmatics have been traced to its use. Adverse results from tonsillectomies and hysterectomies, and infections are the most common iatrogenic phenom ena, but there are others. Charlotte Mul ler, a professor of urban studies at City University of New York, has extensively studied drug prescribing and use pat terns. She docum ents the staggering degree o f overmedica tion, and concludes that it is “one source of reduced hum an welfare. Damage arising both from faulty diagnostic and therapeutic procedures is another example. H andler also spotlights a new and fascinat ing problem, psychosemantics, a congeries o f anxieties in duced in patients by what a physician says or implies. New drugs are introduced to the m arket with an advertising barrage focused on the physician. T heir journals, even the more popular ones like Medical Economics and Medi cal World News, are filled with them. Doctors’ offices and probably their homes are well stocked with drugs, many proffered free by pharmaceutical companies. And then there are the grinning drug pushers—the detailers of the major pharmaceuticals. Since doctors do not have the time to educate themselves about most drugs, they frequently look to the detailer for their inform ation. Pekkanen puts it this way: Contrary to their accepted image and contrary to what the public rightly expects, doctors often know very little about the drugs they are prescribing. T here are drugs that dull, like tranquilizers, and others that speed up, like the friendly am phetam ine family. Doctors who seek to calm the frenzied 16 The Impact of Medicine patient with tranquilizers and to bolster the will of the over weight patient with am phetam ines are not necessarily harm ing the patients. But physicians who maintain a patient on drugs because they are unwilling to consider alternatives may be. A study completed in 1973 shows that, conserva tively, 7 percent of all patients suffer compensable injuries while hospitalized, but few of these patients do anything about it. Infections, overmedication, removal of healthy organs are all included, but a more penetrating example is the diagnosis and treatm ent of “non disease. T he assumption is that the error arises from a false diagnosis, or from a failure to diagnose. H eart m urm urs can be “detected” in up to one-half of a given sample of children. O f the rem ainder —those who did not have any heart abnormality—40 per cent or 30 children were “restricted” in their activities. Most of the restrictions were imposed by physicians, but parental zeal was a contributing factor. In this case, therefore, the am ount of disability resulting from nondisease exceeded the disability due to actual heart disease. T he medical care system is subject to the same foibles, imperfections, and inefficiencies that plague all large institutions. O ne o f the major differences, however, between the medical care sys tem and many other large institutions lies in its capacity to do harm.
Doctors attended from all over Latin America and the guest of honour was the Brazilian Minister of Health generic estradiol 1mg without a prescription womens health group tallmadge oh, Dr Guerra buy estradiol 1 mg online menstruation 15 days apart. Science and the pharmaceutical industry had been called upon in a crisis and had risen to the occasion order 2mg estradiol with amex breast cancer death rate. The interests of the Campaign Against Health Fraud and its - members were uncritically relayed to Members of Parliament discount 2mg estradiol overnight delivery women's health center vienna va. In (both) these cases the group co-ordinated a response to try and repair the damage done by misinformation of this kind. Despite protestations from practitioners of alternative medicine who attended, the meeting appeared to be filibustered by Dr Pinching. In Britain the general practitioner is the gatekeeper not just for all health services but also for specific drugs. Wellcome needed marketing strategies which ensured that doctors did not suggest or prescribe other treatments. It would seem that Wellcome wanted to stop general practitioners from either treating patients themselves or referring them to community-based alternative practitioners. The dispute was finally resolved in high level negotiations between President Ronald Reagan and French Premier Jacques Chirac. Weiss had offered Wellcome his ideas about diagnostic testing kits and had then gone into business with them to produce these kits. In 1985, it was estimated that the British market for diagnostic kits was worth between £3 million and £4 million, and a world-wide market worth £180 million. The Surrey University department which Professor Marks heads has received over half a million pounds from Wellcome since 1985. Was it because of a genuine paternalistic concern for those who may test positive? Or could it have been that the drug companies feared that self-testing might lead to self-medication? In March 1992, the Department of Health banned the public sale of home testing kits in Britain. A journal on medical history published by the British Medical Association is perhaps more prestigious than a journal on the history of medicine published by a drug - company, or a Trust associated with a drug company. On his retirement in 1991, he took up a position as an associate research worker at the Wellcome Institute. In the early months of March 1988, Wellcome gave a covenant, amounting to £36,000 annually for four years and totalling £144,000, to the Foundation. It was expected that Wellcome representatives, together with Calmicff sales representatives, would be showing the videos and promoting the free package in all 11,000 surgeries in Britain. Dr John Marks is the brother of Vincent Marks, a keen member of the Campaign Against Health Fraud and prominent member of the Medical Research Council. In August 1988, the Medical Research Council published the detailed protocols for the Concorde trials. The Wellcome position was based upon the life history of the classic virus, which first infects the subject then proliferates within the body. Such people believed that co-factors probably played some part in all three circumstances. There were, as well, those who were adamant that the introduction of chemicals to the body, especially ones which actually destroyed the same cells that the infection itself was killing, was just such a co-factor. The agreement which set up Concorde was between Wellcome, the Medical Research Council and the Department of Health. In order to give drug trials a patina of independence, they are usually agreed between a university or hospital and the company producing the drug. Because Concorde was such a large trial, using considerable Health Department facilities, and because the whole issue of trialing a drug for what appeared to be a terminal illness was an issue designed to create moral panic, the Department of Health was, from the beginning, deeply involved. There is inevitably, therefore, a high degree of government interest in its programmes and strategies. Because of this interest, and the considerable involvement of the Department of Health, it would be accurate to say that the agreement for the Concorde trial was in fact a partnership between Wellcome and the British government. The matter of how the Concorde trial was run, its efficacy, its scientific conduct and its ultimate plausibility, became, 12 from August 1988, the date that the detailed protocol was finished, an affair of State. In a truly ethical situation, no one supported by Wellcome or receiving money from them, would have been involved in the administration of the trials. Usually, pharmaceutical companies provide the drug for trial and then pay the hospital or the academic institution per head for the treatment of trial subjects. Any hospital doctor who is contracted to trial a drug by a pharmaceutical company is in danger of mixing two sets of patients. Many patients were not given information about the possible range of treatments, but were taken straight into the Concorde trials. Detailed information was important, considering that by 1989 there had been reports of serious adverse effects upon patients; these included muscle wasting, serious anaemia, loss of white blood cells and impotence. In Britain and France, however, the clinicians involved in Concorde continued to give trial subjects l,000mg a day up to the completion of the trial in 1992. They argued that as the study was blinded, it would have been impossible to reduce the dosage without destroying the trial. Was it ethically correct to continue with the trial, once it had been suggested that at 1,000 mg a day there might possibly be a chance of serious adverse effects? The Concorde trial was not, however, just another small trial where the drug company could easily control the clinicians. Although ending up with a weaker settlement than it had set out to achieve, Wellcome did manage to negotiate a clause in the protocols which gave it complete control over any final report for uses other than publication. Ostensibly these two items gave Wellcome control over all draft reports and final 14 reports for all official uses other than publication. As publication was the very last stage in the process and might never actually happen, all report writing was in effect in the hands of Wellcome, despite the massive financial input into the trials by the British government. No other publications, either in writing or verbally, will be made before the definitive manuscript has been agreed and accepted for publication... The Wellcome Research Laboratories will prepare a detailed report of the Study for internal use and for submission to regulatory authorities. With government cuts in the eighties, Wellcome frequently protested as it saw itself increasingly stepping into the breach to support medical research. The gradual dominance of private finance in research was, however, a political as well as an economic trend and had the advantage that private interests were able to have access to research and results. By the late eighties, medical research in Britain was controlled by a partnership between Wellcome and the government. He was leader of the House of Lords from 19701973 and a member of the All-Party Group for the Chemical Industry. Lord Jellicoe is involved in all those things in which someone dedicated to medical research and health would be expected to be involved. Lord Jellicoe is also involved with Rockefeller interests especially through his directorship of Morgan Crucible. When he left the Department of Health, he took up a post at the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine. Sir Austin Bide was the Chief Executive at the drug company Glaxo from 1973 to 1980, he then became first the Chairman of the Board and in 1985their Honorary President. He too has an interest in confectionery, having been a director of J Lyons & Co in the late seventies.
They are Robert Ornstein order 2 mg estradiol with mastercard women's health clinic ottawa hospital, The Psychology of Consciousness (New York: Viking Press order 2mg estradiol free shipping menstruation occurs in response to, 1972) quality estradiol 2 mg pregnancy weeks, and Claudio Naranjo 1mg estradiol for sale menstruation yellow discharge, The One Quest (New York: Viking Press, 1972). Carlos Castaneda, The Teachings of Don Juan: A Yaqui Way of Knowledge (Berkeley: University of California Press and Ballantine Books, 1968), pp. Originally published by the University of California Press; reprinted by permission of T he Regents of the University of Califor nia. The episode is recounted in A rthur Koestler, The Roots of Coitwidence (New York: Random House, 1972), pp. Sheila O strander and Lynn Schroeder, Psychic Discoveries Behind the Iron Curtain (Englewood Cliffs, N. Russel T arg and Harold Puthoff, “Information Transmission Under Conditions of Sensory Shielding. A recent attempt to develop a theory of the paranorm al is contained in a book by Larry LeShan, footnote 30, this chapter. Burr, The Fields of Life: Our Links With the Universe (London: Neville Spearman, Ltd. See Cleve Backster, “Evidence of Primary Perception in Plant Life,” International Journal of Parapsychology, 10 (1968), 4. G unther Stent, “Prematurity and Uniqueness in Scientific Discovery,” Scientific American, 227 (December 1972), 84-93. See, for example, research reported by Danish researchers in New Scientist, November 8, 1973. Kenig, “Biological Effects of Extremely Low Frequency Electrical Phenomena in Atmosphere,” Journal of In terdisciplinary Cycle Research, 12, 3; and H. Heller, “Cellular Effects of Microwave Radiation,” Symposium proceedings, Richmond, Va. This anecdote is also recorded in Watson’s Supernature, footnote 55, this chapter. The outlines of this analysis are owed to Ivan Illich in his essay, “The Political Uses of Death,” Hastings Center Studies, 2, 1 (January 1974). A Needed Ar mamentarium of Modern Medicine,” Social Science and Medicine, 6 (1972), 537-544. For a discussion of “sick roles,” see Miriam Siegler and Hum phrey Osmond, “The Sick Role Revisited,” Hastings Center Studies, 1, 3, 41. Gregory Bateson, Steps to an Ecology of Mind (New York: Ballantine Books, 1972), p. Gay Gaer Luce, Body Time: Physiological Rhythms and Social Issues (New York: Pantheon, 1971). These data are drawn from Fuchs, “Some Economic Aspects of Mor tality in Developed Countries" (see footnote 56, Chapter 2). O ther factors probably include better overall health on the part of those who marry and the regularity of the lives of m arried men. McHale says, “Though seemingly innocuous in its theoretical origins, ecology generates a radical view of hum an society, which may prove to be more ‘positively’ revolutionary. Captain Bob Hoke, “Health and Healthing: Beyond Disease and Dys functional Environments,” paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, Washing ton, D. See also his “Man-Environment Rela tions and Healing,” paper prepared for the American Psychiatric Association Annual Meeting, Honolulu, Hawaii, 1973. Captain Bob Hoke, “Promotive Medicine and the Phenomenon of Health,” Archives of Environmental Health, 16, 269-278. Marc LaLonde, Minister of National Health and Welfare, A New Per spective on the Health of Canadians (Ottawa: Government of Canada, 1974), pp. See Disease, Life and Man, Selected Essays by Rudolf Virchow, Helfand Rather (trans. Garrett Hardin, “The Tragedy of the Commons,” Science, 162 (De cember 13, 1968), 1243-1248. The fact that providers of medical care do stimulate a demand for their services is incontrovertible. Departm ent of Health, Education, and Welfare, "Determinants of Expenditure for Physicians’ Services in the U. Bunker, “Surgical Manpower,” Neu’ England Journal of Medicine, 282, 3 (January 15, 1970). There are some doubters; among them is Harry Schwartz, who argues that the worst of the cost crunch is over. See Harry Schwartz, The Case for American Medicine: A Realistic Look at Our Health Care System (New York: David McKay Co. This analysis does not take into consideration earlier "medicines,” such as Greek or Roman medicine. Lord Ritchie-Calder, Medicine and Man (New York: Signet Science Library, 1958), p. See John Powles, “On the Limitations of Modern Medicine,” Science, Medicine and Man, 1 (1973), 13. See Max von Pettenkofer, “The Value of Health to a City,” lectures quoted in Bulletin of the History of Medicine, 10 (1941), 487-503. Cochrane, Effectiveness and Efficiency (London: The Nuffield Provincial Hospitals Trust, 1972). Authoritative commentators like Jerom e Frank are beginning to assess its importance. Abraham Flexner, Medical Education in the United States and Canada (New York: Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching, 1910). Crombie, “The Future of Biology, the History of a Program,” Federal Procedure, 25 (1966), 1448-1453. Leo Tolstoy, “The Death of Ivan Illyich," in Leo Tolstoi, Short Stories, Margaret Wettlin (trans. Barbara Ehrenreich and John Ehrenreich, The American Health Empire: Power, Profits and Politics (New York: Random House, 1970). Rashi Fein, “On Achieving Access and Equity in Health Care,” Milbank Memorial Fund (hiarterly, 50, 4 (October, 1972), 158-159. Jerome Schwartz, “A Critical Review and Evaluation of Smoking Con trol Methods," Public Health Report, 84, 6 (June 1969). The research was reviewed in The Los Angeles Times, November 14, 1973 (emphasis added). Some earlier findings can be found in Lester Breslow and Bonnie Klein, “Health and Race in California,” American Journal of Public Health, 61, 4 (April 1971). Although I do not entirely relish the association, the best piece on this subject I have read is a chapter by Milton Friedman in his book, Capitalism and Freedom (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1962). John Radar Platt, “Hierarchical Restructuring,” Bulletin of Atomic Scien tists, November 1970. Peter Sedgewick, “Illness—Mental and Otherwise," Hastings Center Studies, 3 (1973), 37. As Chapter 2 indicates, the technology of outcomes assessment must be rapidly improved if this is to be accomplished. For a fascinating article on the relationship between disease and old age, see Alexander Leaf, M. Ailment Receives Little Attention, Doc tor Says,” The Los Angeles Times, November 6, 1972. The Ambulance Scandal: A Hazard to Life and Health,” Medical World News, 11 (December 4, 1970). Doxiadis, Constantine, “Confessions of a Criminal,” Los Angeles Times, January 7, 1973. Transcript of the Interdisciplinary Symposium of the American Academy of Parapsy chology and Medicine, San Francisco, October 30, 1971. The Changing Age Profile, Implications for Policy Planning in Metropolitan Washington.
Some patients may simply become irritable and emotionally labile on abrupt withdrawal from lithium discount 2 mg estradiol amex women's health clinic yonge and eglinton. Post ea (1992) contended that if effective lithium prophylaxis is stopped it may not work a second time although this argument is not convincing buy generic estradiol 2 mg on line menstrual bleeding for 2 weeks. Page ea (1987) investigated the fate of unipolar and bipolar affective disorder patients most of whom had taken lithium for at least 13 years buy generic estradiol 2 mg line menopause estradiol levels. At follow-up 49% experienced a complete remission purchase estradiol 1 mg on line 40 menstrual cycle, 41% had a partial but significant response and 10% had no response to lithium. No specific individual or illness factor was found to correlate with a favourable outcome, and no correlation was discovered between the average serum lithium level and outcome. In a retrospective study of manic patients, Golney and Spence(1986) found a favourable response to be associated with bipolar status with a family history of depression or mania, unipolar status with endogenous illness, and with the absence of significant disturbance of personality. In the same study the response to lithium over 6 months in unipolar illness and over the first year in bipolar illness was strongly associated with long-term response. According to Prien and Gelenberg (1989), the average failure rate for lithium in preventive treatment studies was 33%, where a failure was defined as episodes needing admission or the addition of other drugs. Lithium therapy may reduce the frequency of repeated aggression or self-mutilation in the mentally handicapped, psychotics, or delinquent subjects. There are no special features in such cases that would help one to predict a useful response. Amiloride reduces lithium-induced polyuria without affecting lithium or potassium levels. Adding hydrochlorothiazide (50 mg/day) to amiloride increases the risk of toxicity. Other possible interventions include dose reduction, single daily dosing (trough assists renal recovery), and potassium supplements. Depending on individual circumstances the present author usually starts patients on an average dose of 800 mg lithium carbonate at night, further dose changes being dictated by clinical state and serum levels. Short-acting preparations may cause nausea, whereas delayed-release preparations may be more likely to induce diarrhoea. Hullin of Leeds has shown that lower levels are effective but high relapse rates occur below 0. Some factors increasing the likelihood of lithium intoxication Overdose High prescribed dose Renal disease Excess sweating Dehydration Hyponatraemia Vomiting 3477 Diarrhoea Tropical heat Sauna Infection Fever 3478 Trauma/surgery 3479 Diuretics Indomethacin 3480 Tetracyclines 3474 The patient should drink non-sweet fluids to compensate. Potassium-sparing and loop diuretics are relatively less likely to raise lithium levels. When treating a hypertensive patient who is taking lithium, consider a beta-blocker or clonidine, but avoid thiazide diuretics. Diclofenac, indomethacin, metronidazole, spectinomycin, ibuprofen and piroxicam have been reported to raise the plasma lithium concentration. Some factors that give a falsely low lithium concentration in tissues include >13 hours 3485 since last dose ingested , brain damage, and phenytoin. Lithium intoxication usually develops over days or more quickly in the case of overdose. Lithium should be stopped for a few days during an intercurrent illness or suspected toxicity. Lithium intoxication has to be a clinical diagnosis because it results from high intracellular lithium concentrations, which may not be reflected in serum levels. Intoxication may lead to full recovery, death, persistent renal symptoms, spasticity, cognitive impairment, or permanent cerebellar damage with loss of Purkinje cells. Management of intoxication includes early diagnosis and treatment of overdose (initially stomach washout and activated charcoal left in 3489 3490 stomach ). This is explained by the relatively slow equilibration between intracellular (incl. Because lithium is readily dialyzable (and not excreted by kidneys in dialysis patients - it is only removed at dialysis), it is therefore given (300-600 mg lithium) to patients – orally or into dialysate - on renal dialysis who need lithium for their affective disorder after their dialysis sessions. Serum levels are measured some 3-4 hours after dialysis because serum levels may rise following dialysis due to equilibration with the tissues. Contraindications to lithium therapy (vary with circumstances) Patient unreliability 3492 Early pregnancy Elective surgery Uncompensated renal disease 3493 Severe cardiac disease Diuretic therapy Lithium may cause acute tubular necrosis. Lithium should not be given to patients with 3495 myasthenia gravis , Addison’s disease or untreated hypothyroidism. Glomerular sclerosis, tubular atrophy, and interstitial fibrosis may occur in lithium treated patients and animals. However there is some evidence that the incidence is not particularly high 3496 when function is considered. Many authors have commented on the non-likelihood of death from lithium-induced nephropathy. Lithium can be used during maintenance haemodialysis where it has been given after dialysis in doses of 300-600 ms/day. Some increase in serum creatinine concentrations and a lowering of maximum concentration capacity in lithium-treated patients over time is neither uncommon nor worrying. Serum creatinine may be normal in the elderly despite impaired renal function because of reduced muscle mass. A recent myocardial infarction is a relative contraindication because of the risk of arrhythmias. Cyclosporine can increase lithium serum levels by decreasing its excretion, thus necessitating a lowering of the lithium dosage. After a few years on lithium some 3498 authors have found a 3-50% incidence of goitre (larger size on ultrasound in smokers) 3499 and 4-21% incidence of hypothyroidism. Pre-existing anti-thyroid antibodies or a family history of thyroid disease increase the chances of developing lithium-related hypothyroidism. Hypothyroidism and euthyroid goitre are managed with thyroxine 3500 supplementation and the continued administration of lithium. Whether uncommon cases of hyperthyroidism can be attributed to lithium is difficult to say. Rosser (1976) described the emergence of thyrotoxicosis after lithium was stopped and Byrne and Delaney (1993) reported a case where thyroid ophthalmopathy regressed after stopping lithium. The mechanism appears to be stimulation of granulocyte-stimulating factor and interleukin-6. It is suggested that lithium be withheld on chemotherapy days or during cranial (but not other) radiation in cancer patients. Side effects include polyuria, thirst, nausea (take after food), loose stools, metallic taste, 3502 3503 fine tremor, weight gain , Parkinsonism , fatigue, and delayed reaction time whilst 3504 driving. Pooled data from a number of studies (Goodwin & Jamison, 1990) found that the most frequent subjective complaints were (percentage of patients): thirst (36%), polyuria (30%), memory difficulties (28%), tremor (27%), increased weight (19%), drowsiness (12%), and diarrhoea (9%), with over one-quarter having no complaints. The most likely problems leading to non-adherence were memory difficulties, weight gain, temor, polyuria, and drowsiness. Tremor may improve with smaller and more frequent doses, avoidance of 3505 3506 caffeine , or the addition of beta-adrenoceptor blocking drugs. The combination of lithium and antipsychotic drug can lead to somnambulism, which should respond to dose reduction. Cohen and Cohen caused a scare by reporting 4 cases of brain damage in subjects on both lithium and haloperidol, occurring in the one hospital, at the same time. If the patient is monitored closely and if doses are kept low it should be possible to prevent such problems. A number of studies conducted during the 1980s found a slightly lower plasma folate concentration in lithium-treated patients.