skip to Main Content

2019, Coe College, Koraz's review: "Buy online Torsemide cheap - Cheap online Torsemide no RX".

Example 15: Claim turned down carpal tunnel syndrome (packer for years) The injured person worked in a large meat manufacturing business cheap torsemide 10mg without prescription heart attack vol 1 pt 4, packing frozen burgers for 8-9 months torsemide 20mg with amex heart attack help. She stacked the burgers generic 20 mg torsemide fast delivery blood pressure medication over prescribed, seven at a time 20 mg torsemide free shipping hypertension icd 9 code 2013, and put them in a cylindrical bag at chest height. The packed burger bag was then lifted onto a packing belt at the same height and closed by a colleague. The work was quick, and she packed up to 1,500 bags per day with frequent handlings each minute. After well over years work she developed a right-hand carpal tunnel syndrome and had a successful operation. The injured person developed a right- hand carpal tunnel syndrome after 8-9 months work as a packer, the work being quick and characterised by frequent handlings of burgers every minute. Even though she performed wrist-loading, very quickly repeated work in moderately awkward working postures, the claim does not meet the list requirements with regard to the duration of the exposure. To recognise the claim there must have been an exposure for at least 2 years, but the packer only performed wrist-loading work for about 9 months. Example 16: Claim turned down carpal tunnel syndrome (packer for 7 years) The injured person worked in a nappy factory for well over 7 years. She took about 20 nappies from a belt, turned them 90 degrees and put them down in a packing machine and pushed a button. The work was performed at a good working height and with very limited turning of the wrists. After 6-7 years work she developed symptoms of a right-hand carpal tunnel syndrome, diagnosed by a medical specialist. The injured person developed a right- hand carpal tunnel syndrome after well over 7 years work packing nappies. The work involved a limited number of repeated work movements per minute (4-5 movements) and was not characterised by considerable strenuousness and/or awkward working postures. Therefore, the requirement that at least two of the load factors of quickly repeated work movements, strenuousness and awkward working postures should be present was not met. Example 17: Claim turned down carpal tunnel syndrome (social and healthcare helper for 4 years) The injured person worked as a social and healthcare helper in a nursing home for well over 4 years. The work consisted in offering help in connection with personal care, getting dressed, and visits to the bathroom, as well as serving food and administering medicine for typically four residents. After 4 years work she had pain in her left wrist and a medical specialist made the diagnosis of left-hand carpal tunnel syndrome. The injured persons work with personal care in a nursing home for well over 4 years did not involve quickly repeated, strenuous and/or awkward work movements that strained the left wrist several times per minute. Therefore the claim does not meet the requirements for recognition set out in the list of occupational diseases. It furthermore appeared from the medical information that she suffered from a metabolic disease, in the form of myxedema, for which she was receiving treatment. The competitive disease, causing accumulation of fluid, constituted a considerable risk of developing carpal tunnel syndrome. Her symptoms set on a little less than 1 year after she began as a cleaner in the town hall. The cleaner was diagnosed with bilateral carpal tunnel syndrome after a little less than 1 years cleaning work. The basic principle for recognising carpal tunnel syndrome is 2 years of preceding relevant stress. This requirement may be reduced to 1 year if there have been substantial exposures. To this should be added that there is a substantially competitive disease in the form of myxedema, which causes some disposition for developing carpal tunnel syndrome due to accumulation of fluid in the wrists. The case has furthermore been submitted to the Occupational Diseases Committee for an assessment not based on the list. The Committee did not find, however, that the disease was only or predominantly work-related. The Committee took into consideration that there was no description of any extraordinary stresses that might increase the risk of developing carpal tunnel syndrome and that besides there was a competitive disease which in itself was able to cause carpal tunnel syndrome. His work mainly consisted in fitting heavy metal bands on big metal plates with metal nuts. During the fitting he used a big monkey wrench, which involved a nearly constant pressure against the median nerve for a great part of the working day. After almost 2 years work he developed pain in his forearm and hand, and a medical specialist made the diagnosis of right-hand carpal tunnel syndrome. The injured person has a right-hand carpal tunnel syndrome as a consequence of his work as a fitter. For almost 2 years he was exposed to a nearly constant pressure from a big wrench against the median nerve in the carpal tunnel. The work consisted in the manufacture of elements for grid constructions and, to a lesser extent, fitting/welding. The pipes were placed in a rack, and then he lifted one pipe at a time and milled both ends. Finally the 173 pipes were lifted to a press, a thread was positioned, and he activated the press. He had well over 8 handlings per pipe, equivalent to up to 2,000 handlings per day. The work with the many lifts of pipes was done with extended wrists and involved some strenuousness. In addition, there were many repeated work movements which led to twisting, turning and flexion movements of the wrist. After a few months employment he developed pain in his right wrist and his forearm. A medical specialist made the diagnosis of right-hand tendovaginitis as well as right-hand carpal tunnel syndrome. The claim qualifies for recognition as a complication to tendovaginitis as tendovaginitis can be recognised on the basis of the requirements of the list and there is good correlation between the two diseases. The work was characterised by strenuous and repeated work movements and simultaneous, awkward working postures for the right wrist. The exposure therefore meets the requirements to recognition as stated under tendovaginitis of the hand and forearm (item C. Example 21: Recognition of carpal tunnel syndrome as a complication to tendovaginitis (packing operator for 15 years) A woman worked as a packing operator for 15 years, packing meat in a slaughterhouse. Per hour she packed about 600 hams or cuts, taken from the middle of the pigs back, into boxes weighing 25 kilos each. When packing the back pieces she had to fold them straight and hold them firmly squeezed and adjusted so that they slid into the packing machine. The packing work involved many gripping movements with the right hand and twisting movements of the right wrist in connection with the numerous lifts. When packing 25-kilo boxes she had to operate a vacuum lifter, which was stressful for the arms as she had to take hold of it from above head height. She had to press down the button on the vacuum lifter with a powerful bending movement of all fingers in order to manage to pull it down and it order to get it to let go of the box again after the lift. The work generally involved many lifts at arms length and above the head, due to her moderate height. Towards the end of the period the packing operator developed tendovaginitis of her right wrist and was later diagnosed with carpal tunnel syndrome on the same side. The right-hand carpal tunnel syndrome qualifies for recognition as a complication to tendovaginitis as this disease can be recognised on the basis of item C. She developed carpal tunnel syndrome in immediate connection with the tendovaginitis, and therefore there is good correlation between the two diseases and the exposure in the workplace. More information: Carpal tunnel syndrome and the use of computer mouse and keyboard.

discount torsemide 20 mg without prescription

You should not use alcohol or street drugs because they may cause the antidepressants not to work as well torsemide 10 mg blood pressure up and down quickly. The latest information on medications for treating depression is available on the U order 10 mg torsemide visa arteria facialis. This therapy helps you learn to change the way depression makes you think torsemide 20mg discount prehypertension for years, feel 20 mg torsemide with mastercard blood pressure testers, and act. Ask your doctor or psychiatrist which professional you should go to for talk therapy. In the meantime there are things you can encourage a person with depression to do Set realistic goals and take a reasonable amount of responsibility. The most important thing anyone can do for the depressed person is to help him or her get a diagnosis and treatment. You can encourage the person to stay with treatment until he or she feels better (it may take several weeks), or to talk to his or her doctor about a different treatment. Sometimes you might need to make an appointment and go with the depressed person to the doctor. It may also mean checking on whether or not the depressed person is taking medication. You should encourage the depressed person to follow the doctors advice about the use of alcohol while on medicine. Invite the person for walks, outings, to the movies, and other activities that they used to enjoy. Do not accuse the depressed person of faking illness or of laziness, or expect him or her to snap out of it. Keep that in mind, and keep telling the depressed person that, with time and help, he or she will feel better. But, we know from research that people with heart disease are more likely than healthy people to suffer from depression. Also, people with heart disease who are depressed have a greater risk of dying after a heart attack and stroke than those who are not depressed. Talking Points: Remember, depression can make it hard to function in everyday life. Depression makes it hard to care about taking medicine or to remember to take medicine. Making lifestyle changes such as increasing physical activity, eating healthy foods, and quitting smoking can seem impossible to someone suffering from depression. Depression may affect heart rhythm, increase blood pressure, and affect the bloods clotting ability. Despite research showing a link between depression and heart disease, depression often is not diagnosed and is left untreated. Persons with heart disease or stroke, their families and friends, and sometimes even their doctors may not see the signs of depression, or may mistake them for the usual feelings that are a part of heart disease or stroke. Doctors trained to see the signs of depression know the right questions to diagnose depression and can treat the person for it. But most people who survive a stroke become depressed because of the changes in their lives. How can they help people understand that depression is a real illness, but that there is hope for feeling better. People who have reduced blood fow to the heart during mental stress are more likely to have reduced blood fow to the heart during everyday activities. They are also more likely to have heart problems, such as angina and repeat heart attacks. Taking practical steps to maintain your health and outlook can reduce or prevent these effects. The following are some tips that may help you to cope with stress Get help from a mental health care provider if you are overwhelmed, feel you cannot cope, have suicidal thoughts, or are using drugs or alcohol to cope. Ask for help from friends, family, and community or religious organizations to reduce stress due to work burdens or family issues, such as caring for a loved one. National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion Division for Heart Disease and Stroke Prevention Look for the good in situations instead of the bad. If you are thinking about killing yourself or know someone who is talking about it, get help Call 9-1-1. Put a checkmark by each one that sounds like you: I am really sad most of the time. Depression can make it very hard for you to care for yourself, your family, or even hold down a job. Go to the government services pages and look for "health clinics" or "community health centers. You may need a medicine called an antidepressant or you may need to talk to a mental health professional who will help you learn to change how depression makes you think, feel, and act. How to Help Someone Who May Have Depression If you know someone who seems depressed and may need help, here are some things you can do Talk to him or her, and listen carefully. Keep trying if he or she says no, but dont push him or her to take on too much too soon. But as you begin to become aware of your depression and begin treatment, you will start to feel better. Often during treatment for depression, sleep and appetite will begin to improve before your depressed mood lifts. Note to trainer: The directions for measuring blood pressure follow the American Heart Association method; please see Appendix A. What Are Some Good Habits That Keep People Healthy and Can Prevent High Blood Pressure or Lower It if It Is Already Too High? What Community Health Workers Can Do (with Program Support) to Help Community Members Who Are at Risk for High Blood Pressure and to Help Community Members Who Already Have High Blood Pressure (with Program Support) 711. What Can Community Health Workers Do to Support People at Risk for High Blood Pressure or Who Already Have High Blood Pressure? Which of the following situations can cause a false reading of high blood pressure? The arm to be used for taking the blood pressure has been resting on the arm of a chair. Telling the client that he or she will feel some pressure on the arm being used to take the blood pressure. Not matching the index line on the blood pressure cuff to the right place on the arm. When their doctor tells them to stop taking their medicine for high blood pressure and does not put them on a new one to control their blood pressure. Unfortunately, only about half of all people with high blood pressure have it under control. This chapter will teach you about blood pressure, why high blood pressure is harmful, what the risk factors for high blood pressure are, and how to measure and record blood pressureusing two kinds of blood pressure monitors. You will use this information and your new skills to help community members become aware of blood pressure, to encourage these men and women to visit a health care provider, and to take action to prevent or control their high blood pressure. Blood pressure is the force of blood pushing against the walls of your arteries as the heart pumps blood through these blood vessels. If this pressure goes up and stays high over time, it can harm the body in many ways. High blood pressure means that the heart has to pump harder than normal for blood to get to all parts of the body. Often the heart must work harder if the arteries are too narrow or stiff or there is too much fuid in the body. If high blood pressure is not treated, the heart has to keep working harder than it should.

Hepatopancreaticobiliary anticarcinogenic mechanisms that confer clinical benefts in infammatory bowel disease and colorectal malignancies cheap 10 mg torsemide amex hypertension with pregnancy. Hemolytic disorders include a broad spec- cellular injury to apoptosis buy torsemide 10mg amex heart attack high come over to the darkside feat jimi bench, necrosis order torsemide 10 mg heart attack low vs diamond, infammation torsemide 10mg discount blood pressure healthy numbers, and trum of hereditary and acquired conditions that range from irreversible fbrosis that can culminate in cancer [54]. Pterostilbene also decreased cell viability of HepG2 cells permanent cellular and parenchymal hepatic impairment. Further- pterostilbene are applicable to human cases of hepatoma as more, rats treated with blueberries had increased frequency of well. Further research should focus upon the medicinal polysaccharide-induced hepatic injury [57]. The etiology and pathogenesis of pancreatic anti-infammatory and antioxidative efects. Additional key cancer is multifactorial and involves various genetic and en- fndings included decreased lipid peroxidation measured vironmental components. Treatment mutations making it a highly chemoresistant disease with low with blueberries also inhibited proliferation of hepatic cancer rates of survival [62]. Despite extensive scientifc eforts, an cells which was demonstrated by Schmidt et al. The efcacious strategy for prevention and cure of pancreatic can- cumulative evidence suggests that blueberry supplementa- cer remains elusive. Pterostilbenes antioxidant efect which translated into downstream increased enzymatic activ- was found to correlate with repression of an established car- ity [64]. In experiments conducted oxidant activity in cancerous HepG2 hepatoma and normal by Kostin et al. The authors concluded that the efects supporting previous evidence of an antioxidant efect [69]. Satheesh and Pari examine the mechanisms involved in pterostilbene-induced hypothesized that pterostilbene treatment in diabetic rats antioxidant activity and inhibition of pancreatitis and pan- would increase antioxidant activity and lessen the impact of creatic cancer in clinical trials. Experiments performed by Manickam and col- ing hyperglycemia and associated liver and kidney damage. In identify the blueberry-derived mediator and investigate a addition, pterostilbene increased expression of the glycolytic plausible association with pterostilbene. Bickford and early stage adipocyte diferentiation and decreasing the risk colleagues found evidence that blueberry-fed aged rats of atherosclerosis [79]. In addition, blue- and downregulating leptin, indicating an antilipogenic efect berry-fed aged rats performed rod-running motor tasks at [79]. Expression of adiponectin negatively correlates with a faster pace compared to controls. Ultimately, the glucose and nifcant expression of blueberry-derived polyphenolic com- lipid-lowering efects of the dietary compound pterostilbene pounds in regions important for learning and memory may contribute to its clinical potential for prevention or treat- assessed the impact of blueberry supplementation on brain ment of diabetes. The study results found that accumulation of polyphenolic com- pounds in the cortex correlated with Morris water maze 2. To determine whether pterostilbene was involved in neuroprotective outcomes, Joseph and colleagues treated aged rats with low (0. Epidemiological trials have shown an associa- pterostilbene and evaluated endpoints of cognitive and motor tion between poor diets and increased risk of prostate cancer functions [83]. Consumption of dietary antioxidants is thought to aged rats performed better on cognitive and motor tasks com- reduce prostate cancer risk in some men by reducing infam- pared to controls in a dose-dependent manner. Schmidt and colleagues supplementation study conducted by Andres-Lacueva and found that blueberry anthocyanins inhibited cell growth of colleagues [88]. The study fndings suggest that pterostilbene prostate cancer by 11% and inhibited adhesion of Escherichia may be involved in modulation of neural plasticity and asso- coli, the bacteria primarily associated with urinary tract infec- ciated cognitive and motor functions. Hippocampal levels of pterostilbene correlated with blueberries in prostate cancer is predominantly a result of the working memory performance that suggests that improve- anticancer mechanisms of pterostilbene. Studies show that ments in neurological function may be directly related to pterostilbene treatment inhibits prostate cancer proliferation pterostilbene consumption. Moreover, several studies cancer cells, despite upregulation of basal antioxidant activity. Cell type Mechanism References Pancreas Cell viability, apoptosis, caspase 3/7, G0/G and S phase arrest Mannal et al. Currently, the pre- themechanismsofpterostilbenearecomparabletomech- ventive and chemotherapeutic potential of pterostilbene in anisms exhibited by blueberry treatment in similar disease human prostate cancer has not been established; however, the models (Table 1). The overlap is signifcant because blueber- evidence suggests that pterostilbene may have alternate ries are a widely consumed fruit comprised of various con- efects on prostate cells based upon genetic composition of centrations of pterostilbene with proven high antioxidant each cell, becoming benefcial in the regulation of normal capacity [3, 4, 98]. Although it is postulated that the pteros- prostate cells and producing inhibition in cancerous cells. The results presented in this review exemplify pterostil- benes complicated efect upon antioxidant activity and criti- cal pathways of pathogenesis in multiple organ systems. Additional directions should focus which include reduction of proliferation rates, induction of upon the creation of human population studies and clinical apoptosis, alteration of the cell cycle, and inhibition of meta- trials to evaluate the safety and efcacy of pterostilbene in the stasis [5]. The relationship between pterostilbene and oxida- prevention and treatment of disease. McFadden, Pterostilbene and cancer: cifc pathways based upon the nature of the disease process current review, Journal of Surgical Research,vol. Duke, Cancer chemopreventive and strated in vitro and in vivo occur in humans as well. Adly,Oxidativestressanddisease:anupdatedreview, that pterostilbene is safe for administration to humans and Research Journal of Immunology,vol. McFadden, Pterostilbene inhibits breast cancer in vitro cular endothelial cells against oxidized low-density lipoprotein- through mitochondrial depolarization and induction of cas- induced apoptosis in vitro and in vivo, Apoptosis,vol. Attatippa- daily fruit ingestion on angiotensin converting enzyme activity, holkun, and F. Suh, Biological/chemopreventive activ- of methoxylated stilbene analogues on HepG2 hepatoma and ity of stilbenes and their efect on colon cancer, Planta Medica, Chang liver cells: implications for structure activity relation- vol. Ho, Pterostilbene inhibited tumor invasion via suppress- rats, Clinical Cancer Research,vol. McFadden, Pterostilbene inhibits pancreatic cancer in radiotherapy: a Bcl-2- and superoxide dismutase 2-dependent vitro, Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery,vol. Molin, generations: from pathophysiology to prevention and manage- Endotoxin- and d-galactosamine-induced liver injury im- ment, The Lancet,vol. Yadav,Pterocarpus marsupium tion of potent antiproliferation and antiadhesion components extract (Vijayasar) prevented the alteration in metabolic pat- fromwildblueberry(Vaccinium angustifolium Ait. Farboodniay Jahromi, from Vitis coignetiae protect H2O2-induced inhibition of gap J. Inayat Hussain, Cytotoxic and antioxidant efects key enzymes of glucose metabolism in streptozotocin- and Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity 15 nicotinamide-induced diabetic rats, Life Sciences,vol. Pari, The antioxidant role of pterostil- Alzheimers disease, Neurobiology of Aging,vol. Citron, Alzheimers disease: strategies for disease modifca- nalofAgriculturalandFoodChemistry,vol. Rimando, Diferential efects of resveratrol and its naturally American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. Joseph, Anthocyanins in aged blueberry-fed rats are found centrally and may enhance mem- ory, Nutritional Neuroscience,vol. Gottschall-Pass, Feeding rats diets enriched in lowbuch blue- berries for six weeks decreases ischemia-induced brain dam- age, Nutritional Neuroscience,vol. Tere are two major types of dia- risk factor responsible for the development and progression betes mellitus: type 1 (insulin dependent) diabetes and type 2 (noninsulin dependent) diabetes. Systemic complications of vascular complications in diabetic patients, although sev- are major cause of the mortality in these patients with either eral other mechanisms were also proposed [1, 2].

torsemide 20 mg online

On the other hand cheap torsemide 20 mg with amex blood pressure negative feedback, these animals may have an abnormally intense response to a sudden stimulus cheap 20 mg torsemide overnight delivery blood pressure white coat syndrome. For example torsemide 10 mg discount arrhythmia murmur, christian and Radcliffe (1952) describe the case of various captive wild animals order 10mg torsemide mastercard blood pressure medication for nightmares, after being kept in extremely small cages, which died suddenly on being moved to a new installation. In all of the cases, there were signs of adrenal cortex atrophy, which indicates an inability to adapt to a new and potentially stressful situation. It has been found in the domestic cat that a change in behaviour caused by a situation of stress following a change in the animals environment, can lead to anorexia, immobility and general inhibition of behaviour. In some cases it can lead to death from liver failure due to the process of lipidosis (Fatj et al. Therefore, an attempt must be made to classify the types of aggressive animal behaviour. The most objective system of classifcation is probably one based on the nervous structures involved in the control of aggressive behaviour. This classifcation distinguishes only three types of aggression: offensive, defensive and predatory. They are distinguished not only by the nervous structures that control them, but also by the context in which they appear, and by the relatively invariable motor sequences that characterize them (Moyer, 1968). Such sequences have been described in great detail in the domestic cat (Leyhausen, 1979). Some of the enrichment techniques used for wild felids in captivity include hiding food so that the animal must dedicate time to searching for it; giving a supply of toys and installing platforms that provide the animals with a three dimensional space (Martos, this book). The effects of environmental enrichment are variable and depend on the technique used and the characteristics of every species and individual. It is important to take into account that, occasionally, environmental enrichment programmes can have negative effects on the animals welfare. For example, in animals housed in groups enrichment can cause an increase in aggression by stimulating competition for resources that did not previously exist. However, this problem usually disappears following an increase in the number of objects or feeding points used for the enrichment, so that the animals have no need to compete with one another (Bloomsmith et al. Furthermore, in order to assess the effect of enrichment upon physiological parameters indicative of chronic stress, it can be useful to analyse the concentration of metabolites of cortisol in the faeces before and after carrying out the programme. Ps y c h o a c t i v e d R u g s Psychoactive drugs can be useful to alleviate specific situations of stress. It is important to take into account, however, that under no circumstance should they be used over a prolonged period of time in order to mask the effects of inadequate housing or husbandry. It is important to note, however, that there is very little information about the use of such pharmaceuticals in non-ungulate mammals, so they must be used with caution. Some species of artiodactyls have been known to perform aggressive behaviours towards people following the administration of long-acting neuroleptics (Ebedes, 1993). Serotinin is a neurotransmitter that has an important regulating effect on the anxiety response. Furthermore, unlike benzodiazepines, it does not interfere with learning and memory. Fluoxetine is a selective inhibitor of serotonin reuptake, and is very useful against aggression problems between cats. The effects of the selective inhibitors of serotonin reuptake may not be immediate and can even take weeks to appear (Overall, 1997). Both drugs have occasionally been used on wild cats in captivity to control fear and aggression. However, they must be used with caution, since there is little information about their possible effects on wild animals. Ph e R o m o n e s Felids possess pheromone-producing glands on the sides of the head (temporal glands) around the mouth (perioral gland) and tail (caudal glands). Temporal and perioral glandular secretions are deposited as the animal rubs its head against an object, or sometimes another animal (Bradshaw and cameron-Beaumont, 2000). The facial pheromones of the cat are of interest in clinical ethology because they can reduce the stress response and aggressive behaviour towards other animals of the same species (Pageat and Gaultier, 2003). The domestic cats facial pheromone has been shown to be effective in other species of cats such as tigers. It is produced by glands within the skin around the abdominal area (Gaultier et al. An appeasing pheromone has recently been isolated in the domestic cat, and work will be carried out promptly to determine whether or not it also has an effect in other cat species. This is especially relevant in captive breeding centres, as lack of adaptation to the environment results in a decrease in reproductive effciency. Environmental enrichment programmes should be part of the day to day husbandry routine for wild cats in captivity. Furthermore, the use of pheromones to prevent or remedy stressful situations is a promising technique that deserves thorough investigation. Effcacy behaviour in mammals Reproduction, nutrition and of dog-appeasing pheromone in reducing stress associated Development 45, 345-351. Interdisciplinary Methods in the Iberian lynx (Lynx pardinus) conservation Breeding programmeme, in: Vargas, A. Unusual gonadal hormone profles in the Iberian lynx as determined by fecal monitoring, in: Vargas, A. Produce una inmensa tristeza pensar que la naturaleza habla mientras el gnero humano no escucha. Este est compuesto por una serie de estmulos ante los cuales el individuo debe reaccionar. En cautividad, las condiciones cambian, el entorno pierde complejidad y se vuelve predecible. Este hecho puede traducirse en una prdida en la riqueza de comportamientos presentados por el individuo 137 que, al no poder realizar determinadas conductas, puede desarrollar otras no naturales que podran llegar a considerarse patolgicas, como las denominadas estereotipias. El objetivo de este captulo es el de recopilar informacin sobre la utilizacin de las tcnicas de enriquecimiento ambiental destinadas a mejorar el bienestar de los felinos. Al fnal del captulo se debatirn algunas aplicaciones del enriquecimiento ambiental en los centros de cra para la conservacin del lince ibrico. Each species is adapted to a given type of environment and has a behavioral repertoire that has been especially developed to survive in it. In captivity, conditions change and the environment becomes less complex and predictable. The fact of not being able to perform a given behavior may lead captive individuals to perform other unnatural behaviors that may in some cases even be pathological in the case of stereotyped behavior. The purpose of this chapter is to compile information about the use of environmental enrichment techniques aimed at improving the welfare of felids. This implies reviewing the different types of enrichment used (physical, occupational, food, sensory and social enrichment) and how enrichment affects animal behavior. Finally, we discuss how the above-mentioned issues can be implemented, taking the model of an environmental enrichment programme used at the Disney Animal Kingdom Theme Park as a reference. At the end of the chapter, we discuss the use of environmental enrichment in breeding centers for the conservation of the Iberian lynx. In any case, the main objectives of an environmental enrichment programme are the following (Young, 2003): 1) Increasing behavioral repertoire of captive animals. These territories are impossible to recreate in captivity, especially taking into account ethical problems and public reaction towards supplying live prey for zoological specimens. On the other hand, felids habituate relatively rapidly to novel conditions for which, according to Mellen (1998), enrichment should be dynamic and constantly modifed to effectively induce the behaviors in captives that are more characteristic of their wild counterparts. However, there are many studies and publications about the different possibilities of enrichment. The proposal we analyze now has been based on the classifcation model formulated by Segonds Pichon (1994) and adapted by Lozano-Ortega for rescue and rehabilitation centers (1999).

8 of 10 - Review by I. Vak
Votes: 157 votes
Total customer reviews: 157
pornplaybb.com siteripdownload.com macromastiavideo.com shemalevids.org
Back To Top