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Penetrance is expressed as the percentage of individuals who have the mutant allele & are actually phenotypically affected buy beconase aq 200MDI without prescription allergy forecast mobile al. For example cheap beconase aq 200MDI on line allergy testing ashby de la zouch, 25% penetrance indicates that 25% of those who have the gene 106 express the trait purchase 200MDI beconase aq mastercard milk allergy symptoms 6 month old. Reduced (incomplete) penetrance is when the frequency of expression of a genotype is < 100% discount beconase aq 200MDI without a prescription allergy symptoms hiv. Nonpenetrance is the situation in which the mutant allele is inherited but not expressed. Variable expressivity is the ability of the same genetic mutation to cause a phenotypic spectrum. It is when the trait is seen in all individuals carrying the mutant gene but is expressed differently among individuals. For example, some patients with neurofibromatosis type 1 (which is an autosomal dominant disorder) have only brownish spots (caf au lait spots) on their skin whereas other patients with the same disease have multiple skin tumors & skeletal deformities. Variable expressivity most likely results from the effects of other genes or environmental factors that modify the phenotypic expression of the mutant allele. For example, individuals with familial hypercholesterolemia who take cholesterol-rich diet have a higher risk of manifesting with atherosclerosis than those individuals with hypercholesterolemia & who take low cholesterol diet. Hence, the variable expressivity in this case is brought about by the influence of an environmental factor (i. In general, variable expressivity & reduced penetrance can modify the clinical picture of autosomal dominant disorders. Pathogenesis of autosomal dominant disorders Autosomal dominant disorders are caused by 2 types of mutations: 1. Loss of function mutations cause autosomal dominant disorders when they result in inactive or decreased amount of regulatory proteins (e. A 50% reduction in the levels of such nonenzyme proteins results in an abnormal phenotype (i. This can sometimes be explained by the dominant negative effect of the mutant allele (i. Clinical examples of autosomal dominant disorders: o Marfan syndrome* o Some variants of Ehlers Danlos syndrome o Osteogenesis imperfecta o Achondroplasia o Huntington disease o Neurofibromatosis* o Tuberous sclerosis o Myotonic dystrophy o Familial hypercholesterolemia* o Hereditary spherocytosis o Familial polyposis coli o Polycystic kidney disease * Only these are briefly described here. Marfan syndrome - is a defect of connective tissue characterized by faulty scaffolding. Microfibrils are normally abundant in the aorta, ligaments, & ciliary zonules of the lens where they support the lens. Hence, Marfan syndrome (in which there is deficiency of normal fibrillin & microfibrils) mainly involves these tissues. Patients are tall & thin with abnormally long legs & arms, spider like fingers (arachnodactyly), hyperextensible joints. Mitral valve prolapse due to loss of connective tissue support in the mitral valve leaflets. Dilatation of the ascending aorta due to cystic medionecrosis (lack of medial support). Dilatation of the aortic valve ring & the root of the aorta Aortic regurgitation. This knowledge of the pathogenesis of familial hypercholesterolemia has led to a logical discovery of its treatment. Familial neoplasms have neoplasm-causing mutations ransmitted through the germ line. Familial neoplasms account for about 5% of all cancers & they are mendelian disorders. It should be noted that most cancers are not familial & these non-familial cancers are caused by mutations of tumor-suppressor genes, proto-oncogenes, & apoptosis- regulating genes in somatic cells. Clinical examples In autosomal recessive disorders, the phenotype is usually observed only in the homozygote. The typical pedigree shows affected male & female siblings with normal parents & offspring. Recessive inheritance is suspected when parents are consanguineous; it is considered proven when the corresponding enzyme levels are low or absent in affected individuals & are at half normal values in both parents. If the trait is rare, parents & relatives other than siblings are usually normal ii. In the mating of 2 phenotypically normal heterozygotes, the segregation frequency with each pregnancy is 25% homozygous normal, 50% heterozygous normal, & 25% homozygous affected. If the trait is rare in the population, the probability of parenta consanguinity is increased. Autosomal recessive disorders show more uniform expression of the trait than autosomal dominant disorders. They frequently show signs & symptoms early in life, whereas many autosomal dominant disorders have delayed onset e. Pathogenesis Many autosomal recessive disorders are caused by loss of function mutations which result in decreased enzyme proteins. Heterozygotes Equal amounts of normal & defective enzymesCells with half the normal amount of the enzyme function normally No disease. Clinical examples include:- - Sickle cell anemia - Thalassemias - Congenital adrenal hyperplasia - Cystic fibrosis Wilson disease - HemochromatosisMendelian disorders associated with enzyme defects:* o Phenylketonuria o Galactosemia o Homocystinuria o Lysosomal storage diseases o Alpha 1 antitrypsin deficiency o Glycogen storage disease * These will be discussed further. Accumulation of the substrate, &/or one or both of the intermediates, & the products of the minor pathway depending on the level of the block. This mechanism occurs in the following diseases: Lysosomal storage diseases Galactosemia Phenylketonuria 2. Mendelian disorders associated with enzyme defects include most inborn errors of metabolism such as: o Lysosomal storage diseases (E. Gaucher disease) o Phenylketonuria o Severe combined immunodeficiency disease o Alpha 1 antitrypsin deficiency o Albinism o Lesch Nyhan syndrome In order to illustrate the basic principles of this category, only the first two disorders from the above list are discussed below in moderate depth. Lysosomal storage diseases - result from lack of any protein essential for the normal function of lysosomes. Lysosomes are intracellular organelles used for degrading a variety of complex substrates. The following figure compares the normal lysosomal degradation pathway with that of lysosomal storage disease. Complex substrate Normal lysosomal degradation Lysosomal enzyme deficiency pathway:- ( i. Lysosomal storage diseases can be divided into the following subgroups based on the nature of the accumulated substance: a. Niemann-Pick disease types A & B (have deficiency of sphingomyelinase resulting in the accumulation of sphingomyelin). Brain is rich in gangliosides, hence defective degradation of gangliosides as in Tay-Sachs disease results in the storage of gangliosides within neurons leading to neurologic symptoms. Organs rich in phagocytic cells such as the spleen & liver are frequently enlarged in several forms of lysosomal storage diseases. This is because cells of the mononuclear phagocytic system are rich in lysosomes & are involved in the degradation of a variety of substrates. From among the various types of lysosomal storage diseases listed above, only Gaucher disease is discussed here to illustrate the basic principles of lysosomal storage diseases. Glucocerebrosides are continually formed from the catabolism of glycolipids derived mainly from the cell membranes of old red blood cells & white blood cells. Type I (Chronic non-neuronopathic form) (Adult Gaucher disease):- - accounts for 99% of the cases. In the mating of a heterozygous carrier female parent & a normal male parent (the most frequent setting), the sons are hemizygous affected 50% of the time (i. Affected daughters are produced by matings of heterozygous females with affected males. This is because a male contributes his Y chromosome to his son & does not contribute an X-chromosome to his son.
While dentistry is a fast-growing occupational A 1978 study compared male and female pharma- area for women purchase 200MDI beconase aq with mastercard allergy quick fix, barriers to job advancement and career cists salary and benefits (Shoaf & Gagnon generic beconase aq 200MDI free shipping allergy testing columbia sc, 1980) generic 200MDI beconase aq overnight delivery allergy shots refrigeration. This satisfaction may continue to occur for women entering study found that 29% of women worked part-time cheap beconase aq 200MDI visa allergy symptoms cold, com- these professions. There was no difference in almost 27% of dental hygienists reported sexual harass- disability insurance, sick days, or paid vacation. It was ment, with the majority reporting their employer/dentist found that men had higher salaries, because they had as the perpetrator. They usually would have participated in a Another study examined the perceptions of work dental assistant program at a community college level. This study found no difference in the graduate level coursework and then graduate from a perceived amount of time spent performing clinical dental school. However, women felt that they spent more one of eight fields including orthodontics and periodon- time in dispensing activities such as screening drug tics. As had been seen in previous studies, men women in dentistry were expected to enter certain areas reported a greater job satisfaction and women had a of the profession, such as maternity and child welfare greater likelihood of leaving the profession (Quandt & services (Stewart & Drummond, 2000). Recent data show that women (Wolfgand, 1995), no difference was found between the make up 38% of dental school students and approxi- genders. Scarbecz and Ross there was a negative relationship between career com- (2002) recently studied gender differences in the moti- mitment and professional recognition stress. This study found that female students ranked people-oriented motives higher than their male counterparts. Male students felt that self- Other Health Professions employment and business-related reasons were more There are a multitude of other health professions in important. As noted in the fields gains and flexibility of career as being equally important. These fields career group, more men were in private practice whereas 28 Women in the Health Professions more women were faculty at dental schools. The majority of respiratory thera- lished career group, more men were group practice own- pists are women. They treat all ages, from premature ers and women were more likely to be in a solo practice. Approximately 80% of 80% of respondents reported that they were satisfied respiratory therapists work in hospitals, while others with their career (Price, 1990), and that they had a good work in doctors offices and in home care settings. The median length of career break cations may include specific degrees, or certificate pro- taken by a woman dentist has been reported to be grams. Most states have licensure requirements for 9 months, that of hygienists 11 months, and that of den- respiratory therapists. Most of the career breaks elderly Americans, many of whom may develop chronic taken by women dentists are for childcare reasons. Physical therapy is the discipline been the primary caregivers of children and those with where scientific physical procedures are used to treat disabilities; and they dominate the field of occupational people with disabilities or diseases with the goal of therapy (Froehlich, 1992). Physical therapists work in a vari- tional therapists are women (Froehlich, 1992; Miller, ety of locations including hospitals, rehabilitation 1992). Modern physical therapy started in the Occupational therapists believe in the importance 19th century in Britain, and became popular in the of meaningful work to the overall well-being of patients, United States shortly after its start in Britain. The field and work with patients to empower them (Froehlich, was female dominated and most graduates from physi- 1992). They must work against prevailing negative atti- cal therapy school during that time were young women. It was found that family issues are the science and art for the purpose of healing (White, 2001). In the late 1800s, music female physical therapists appears to depend largely on recordings were used to help with sleep and surgery- their family responsibilities (Rozier et al. In 1926, Isa Maud Ilsen, a nurse, established the National Association Respiratory Therapists. In the 1940s, often critical in the care of patients suffering from music was used to treat wounded and shell-shocked 29 Women in the Health Professions veterans, as well as patients undergoing dental proce- report of the committee on women in cardiology. Physician characteristics Music therapists use music to bring about changes and distribution in the U. Addressing the barriers to midwiferyAustralian mid- can bring up memories (White, 2001). Preferences for female and male nurses: The role of age, gender and previous experienceyear 2000 com- Women in the health professions today are a pow- pared with 1984. Pediatricians working sensitive and stigmatized issues as domestic violence and part-time: Past, present, and future. Sex differences in career progression and satis- long and unpredictable hours and corporate downsiz- faction in an academic medical center. Mad scientists, compassionate healers, and greedy women, such as balancing the multiple demands of par- egotists: The portrayal of physicians in the movies. American uted, with women of color still grossly underrepre- Journal of Hospital Pharmacy, 44(12), 2708. The why and wherefore of empowerment: The Community Dental Health, 18(4), 236241. Canadian Medical Association Journal, 167, olution: Women and health care in America (p. Leaders in American surgery: Where are the men and women pharmacists in nonadministrative positions. State regulation of midwives: Issues American Journal of Public Health, 92(11), 17591760. Sex differences in physician patients and physicians communication during primary care burnout in the United States and the Netherlands. She ate not the bread Lorann Stallones of idleness: Exhaustion is related to domestic and salaried work of hospital workers in Quebec. United States Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Centers for Disease Control, National Center for Health Statistics. Health characteristics of workers by occupation and sex: United States, 198385 (Adv. Vast numbers of women are found working as teachers, United States Department of Labor, Occupational outlook handbook. Often the jobs involved are considered and women patients: Sex bias or appropriate care? Journal of the women has traditionally been viewed as marginal and American Medical Womens Association, 57(4), 180184. Women in pharmacy: Some predictions for women stu- inclusion of women in studies of occupational hazards. Job stress, coworker social support, and career have been the majority of workers. Who has higher job with distinct patterns of segregation that are somewhat satisfaction: Male or female nurses? Although there has been a marked decline in the number of occupations that completely excluded one sex or the other, there is an increased Suggested Resources likelihood that men will work in occupations where United Nations. Men may work in environ- ments where there are few women, but women rarely 32 Women in the Workforce work in environments where there are more women between women and men. Traditional jobs that women have held have ment operators women comprise only 5% of the work- often become mechanized, and have moved from force, but their salary is 90% of mens salaries, while a domestic activity to a marketplace activity. Often, as among nurses women comprise 91% of the workforce a result the jobs then become mens work rather than and their salaries are 88% of mens. An example of this would be the trans- ential in salaries is seen in the sales occupations, where formation of sewing done by women as seamstresses in women comprise 45% of the total workforce and their their homes to factories devoted to sewing where men salaries are 62% of their male counterparts.
It increases growth and yield and also provides protection to the roots against edaphic (soil) stresses purchase beconase aq 200MDI online allergy symptoms to condoms, pathogen and pests order beconase aq 200MDI on line allergy symptoms pet dander. It helps in the increased uptake of soil and mineral water solution by the plant root system cheap beconase aq 200MDI visa allergy forecast davis ca. Ectotrophic mycorrhiza buy beconase aq 200MDI free shipping allergy shots benefits, which are found only outside the surface of roots of plants. Endotrophic mycorrhiza, which are found inside the roots, in the intercellular spaces and even inside the cell (intra and intercellular) eg. Biofertilizers are easy to produce in abundance and are available at low cost to the marginal farmers. Application of biofertilizers increases yield upto 45 per cent and the left over biofertilizers in the soil increases yield as long as the biofertilizer remains in the soil up to 3 to 4 years. Since, cyanobacteria are potent neutralizers, they help in the neutralization of soil. The process of converting untenable, fallow land to cultivable soil is termed as soil reclamation. Ectotrophic mycorrhiza, which acts as a biofertilizer, increases the surface area of the roots of host plants, so that more absorption of nutrients by the roots is made possible. Crop diseases and their control The diseases in crop plants result in a heavy loss of crop yields and cause considerable damage to crops year after year. To check the plant diseases, it becomes necessary to know about the cause of the diseases, of the life history of the causal organism and of the meterological conditions which influence the host and parasite interaction. Control measures may be divided into two main groups prophylaxis and disease resistance. Prophylaxis includes the protection of the host from exposure to the pathogen, from infection or from environmental factors favourable to disease development. Disease resistance implies the improvement of resistance of the host to infection and to disease development. Characteristic isolated, bluish green necrotic lesions with a water soaked appearance are formed on the leaf blades. The lesions are broad in the centre and possess narrow elongations on its top and bottom. The lesion formation leads to ultimate drying of the leaves, and the seedlings wither and die. After transplantation, the symptoms appear in the form of necrotic lesions both on the leaf lamina and the leaf sheaths. The necrotic lesion is spindle shaped grey in the centre and remain surrounded by brown and yellowish zones. The pathogen The fungus Pyricularia oryzae when young possesses hyaline and septate mycelium. The seed protectants such as agrosan, cerasan and spergon have been proved responsible for the control of disease. The secondary host plants such as Digitaria marginata should be collected from paddy fields and destroyed. Spraying and dusting Blast disease can be controlled effectively by spraying the fungicide, Bordeaux mixture at least 4 times before and after flowering of the crop. Groundnut or peanut - Arachis hypogea Tikka disease of groundnut Pathogen Disease incited by a fungus Cercospora personata. Symptoms Lesions appear on the leaves, when the plants are atleast two months old. The spread of the disease takes place by means of conidia which are dispersed by wind. All green parts and maturing fruits become more or less covered with brown scabby spots surrounded by dark brown glossy margins. The lesions may enlarge to a diameter of 3 or 4 mm become raised and rough and turn brown. The bacteria enter through the stomata and wounds and multiply in the cortex to which they are confined. Transmission of virus The leafhopper retains infectivity for a short period only and transmits the virus to another plant immediately after feeding on an infected plant. Biopesticides Biological agents that are used for control of insects, weeds and pathogens produced from living organisms are called biopesticides. Micro- organisms such as viruses, bacteria, fungi, protozoa and mites may be used as biopesticides. Many of the chemical pesticides, which are used to control several crop pests also affects the beneficial organisms. They also bring about considerable damages to living organisms because of their hazardous effects in the environment. Majority of microorganisms such as viruses, bacteria, fungi, protozoa and mycoplasma are known to kill insect pests. The suitable preparations of such microorganisms for control of insects are called as microbial insecticides. The most frequently used bio-control agent is Bacillus thuringiensis and Pyrethrum extracted from the inflorescence of Chrysanthemum belonging to Asteraceae. It is a saprophytic bacterium and can be isolated from soils, litters and dead insects. It is a spore-forming bacterium and produces several toxins such as exotoxins and endotoxins in crystallized forms. After infection of spore, larvae are damaged due to the secretion of a single large crystal in the cell. Genetically modified food The greater concern in food biotechnology is the integration of both modern biological knowledge and techniques and current bioengineering principles in food processing and preservation. Every year more than a million children die and another 3,50,000 go blind from the effects of vitamin A deficiency. Employing genetic engineering techniques, Potrykus of Switzerland and Peter Beyer of Germany transferred genes that make carotene in daffodils into Oryza sativa. Extracting carotene genes from daffodils, Potrykus and Beyer had introduced these genes into the soil bacterium. Agrobacterium tumefaciens, the transgenic agrobacteria were then incubated with rice embryos in plant tissue culture medium. As the bacterium infects the rice cells, they also transfer the genes for making beta carotene. A number of examples are available where transgenic plants suitable for food processing have been developed. Edible vaccine Acute watery diarrhoea is caused by Escherichia coli and Vibrio cholerae that colonize the small intestine and produce enterotoxin. Attempts were made to produce transgenic potato tubers that they could still retain vaccines in their tubers, even after the tubers had become 5 per cent soft after boiling. Edible antibodies Transgenic plants are being looked upon as a source of antibodies. Edible interferons Interferons are the substances made of proteins and are anti-viral in nature. Scientists have successfully produced transgenic tobacco and maize plants that secrete human interferons. For instance, a single gram of the most virulent strains of weaponized smallpox or anthrax could contain 250 million infectious doses.