Many eye infections are managed by the ophthalmolo- The surface of this transparent membrane is normally gist buy 200mg extra super viagra otc erectile dysfunction on molly, who possesses the specialized equipment and skills protected from infection by tears generic extra super viagra 200 mg on line best erectile dysfunction doctors nyc, which contain required for optimal diagnosis and treatment buy 200 mg extra super viagra amex erectile dysfunction causes in young men. However order 200 mg extra super viagra otc erectile dysfunction caused by vicodin, numerous antibacterial agents, including lysozyme and infectious disease consultants and primary care physicians immunoglobulins A and G. Patients with decreased tear need to be familiar with these forms of infection to be able production for example those, with scleroderma with to initiate preliminary empiric therapy pending referral. Usually responds rapidly to therapy and does not In addition to redness, pus formation accompanies con- threaten vision. Purulent discharge is commonly associated with swelling of the eyelids, pain, and itching. Upon awakening in the morning, the patient may nd that dried exudate has glued the eyelid shut. This form of conjunctivitis depend on the particular cause: is also common in neonates who pass through an infected birth canal. Candida con- ties of pus usually exude from the eye, and when pus junctivitis is usually associated with prolonged use is removed, it is quickly replaced by new exudate. The exudate in viral infection is less conjunctivitis that usually involves both eyes and is purulent and more serous in nature. Almost any topical solu- chlamydial, and toxic conjunctivitis, the lymphatic tion applied to the eye can also result in an allergic tissue in the conjunctiva can become hypertrophied, conjunctivitis. This form of conjunctivitis is highly contagious; the second eye conjunctivitis is usually accompanied by itching. Other clinical conditions in which conjunc- Unilateral involvement does not exclude the diag- tivitis is a component of the disease include Reiter s nosis, however. The infection is self-limiting, resolv- syndrome, keratoconjunctivitis sicca, graft-versus- ing over a period of 1 to 3 weeks. In the Diagnosis United States, this infection is most commonly seen in indigent Native Americans. In more severe cases, conjunctival scrapings transmitted to adults by genital secretions from an are obtained for culture and Gram stain. Any corneal inamma- tion must be considered sight-threatening and should About Conjunctivitis be treated promptly. Because of the potential subtleties of diagno- sis and treatment, and the potential consequences of 1. Tears contain antibacterial agents that protect misdiagnosis, all patients with signicant corneal lesions against conjunctivitis. Most common causes are Staphylo- coccus aureus, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus inuenzae,and Moraxella. Neisseria Predisposing Conditions gonorrhoeae causes a very severe conjunctivitis A small break in the cornea is usually required for bac- that can progress to keratitis. Viruses are the most common cause of conjunc- tive tear production can all result in damage to corneal tivitis. The dis- receiving respiratory support puts those patients at ease is self-limiting. Allergic conjunctivitis is usually bilateral and is betes mellitus also increase the risk of keratitis. Viral conjunc- A 28-year-old white man had been spending long hours tivitis usually results in a mononuclear cell exudate, and at work and was somewhat sleep deprived. Three days allergic conjunctivitis is associated with a predominance earlier he had gone to the beach for the afternoon. When he awoke in the morning,his left eye Treatment was glued shut with yellow exudate. On prying the lid open, he noted that the eye was extremely red and In severe bacterial and chlamydial conjunctivitis, sensitive to light. See color image on color plate 1 Note the large hypopyon that accompanies the severe corneal opacication in this patient who used tap water to wash hard contact lenses. William Driebe, These cells then settle by gravity at the bottom of the University of Florida College of Medicine. Erythema and a foreign body sensation associ- ndings, vary with the cause of the condition: ated with tearing are frequently noted. Several bacteria produce toxins and enzymes forms of viral keratitis are less common (Table 5. Corneal ulcers caused by hyphae-forming lium; most other bacteria require a break in the fungi such as Aspergillus most commonly follow an epithelial lining to invade the cornea. Gram-positive eye injury from organic material (such as a tree organisms are most frequently cultured, Staphylococ- branch). Use of chronic glucocorticoid eye drops cus aureus being the most common pathogen in this also increases the risk of fungal keratitis. However, a number of other gram-positive to be supercial and are often elevated above the cocci and bacilli have also been associated keratitis. The inltrate tends to be irregular, One of the most destructive bacteria is Pseudomonas and an immune ring is often apparent. Infection with this gram-negative rod is satellite lesions are commonly seen surrounding the commonly associated with hard contact lenses. A severe anterior-chamber reaction is severe, and the corneal ulcer spreads rapidly as a associated with a hypopyon is commonly observed. Yeast-like fungi such as Candida can also cause Development of a large hypopyon is the rule corneal ulcers. The exu- indolent, but they can have all the characteristics date is often greenish in color, and the inltrate described for hyphae-forming fungi. Acanthamoeba species most com- negative coccobacilli can also cause bacterial keratitis. Patients with a history of a recurrent red eye those that use unsterilized tap water in their cleaning most commonly have recurrent herpes simplex ker- solutions. Latent virus in the Vth cranial nerve reactivates slowly, and fail to respond to topical antibiotics. Ultraviolet light exposure, menstruation, fever, and Diagnosis and Treatment other acute stresses can induce viral reactivation. In the hospitalized patient with unilateral red eye, her- Slit-lamp examination is helpful in identifying the pes simplex keratitis should always be considered. A surgical blade is gently scraped therapy, broader antibiotic coverage is warranted. Antibi- across the surface of the ulcer, and the resulting samples otics are commonly given topically and, in some are inoculated onto solid media. Special pro- addition to topical therapy is recommended for patients cessing may be required if Acanthamoeba, a fungus, with imminent perforation. Topical regimens include bacitracin 5000 U/mL and Viral keratitis can usually be diagnosed by appearance gentamicin (13 mg/mL) for Streptococcus pneumoniae; and generally does not require culturing. In cases in which a cause is not clearly (5 to 8 mg/mL), plus pentamidine isethionate (0. When the inammation involves all of the ocular tissue layers About Keratitis (Corneal Infection) and chambers, the disease is called panophthalmitis. Condition needs to be treated quickly to pre- Predisposing Conditions and Causes vent blindness. Streptococcus pneumoniae causes a well-cir- Streptococcus species, and Bacillus species are the most cumscribed ulcer with sharp margins. Although Bacillus cereus is usu- ally a minimally invasive organism, this bacteria 4. It is very destructive and causes rapidly progressive endophthalmitis when it causes severe eye pain. Herpes simplex causes distinct dendritic lesions likelihood of infection is increased when a foreign that take up uorescein.
Fried and Luigi Ferrucci Contents 1 Premise Evolution of the Science of Chronic Diseases and Current State of the Field 37 1 purchase extra super viagra 200 mg free shipping impotence merriam webster. Ferrucci evidence - based practice by identifying risk factors for disease and targets for preventive healthcare purchase extra super viagra 200mg on-line impotence age 45. Consistent with this definition discount 200 mg extra super viagra overnight delivery top rated erectile dysfunction pills, over the last few decades order extra super viagra 200mg fast delivery impotence existing at the time of the marriage, epidemiological studies identified a number of genetic and environ- mental risk factors for the majority of chronic diseases. There is no doubt that epidemiology has contributed tremendously to both the science of understand- ing of disease and to the science of prevention, both of which are necessary to achieve population health. It is currently believed that the increased longevity in the population and the decline in cardiovascular morbidity and mortality resulted from interventions on risk targets that were first identified in epidemio- logical studies. Since age and sex were considered unchangeable risk factors, they were generally fac- tored out from all analyses as potential confounders. Indeed, age is by far the strongest and most pervasive risk factor for almost all chronic diseases and medical conditions. The idea of adjusting for age obscures consideration of the effect of age, and also overlooks the critical nuance that chronological age is a poor approximation of biological aging. There is increasing heterogeneity with age between individuals in the physical and func- tional consequences of the aging process, which probably results from differen- tials in exposures across the life course and the intrinsic rate of biological aging. Understanding how the intrinsic biological mechanisms of aging affect most aspects of health in humans is a fascinating scientic challenge that has captured the attention of the greatest scientic minds over the centuries. However, with the current aging of the population, estimating biological aging is now also recog- nized as important for practical clinical purposes. To some extent, geriatricians and gerontologists have approached this problem through the conceptualization and operational denition of frailty as a diagnosable clinical syndrome that is a hallmark of the aging process and is marked by susceptibility to stress, denable biology, underlying loss of resiliency and diminished functional reserve. However, as research on the biology of aging in animal models progresses, it complements the work on mechanisms of aging-related dysregulation in humans; the two lines of investigation together suggest that a core set of mechanisms may reside at the basis of aging and resulting frailty. These same mechanisms may also contribute to disease and may be modiable with appropriate interventions. We propose that this concept has enormous translational potential and is consistent with the new evidence emerging from the elds of Geroscience and Precision Medicine. Etiological Role of Aging in Chronic Diseases: From Epidemiological Evidence 39 1. Over the last 60 years, sci- ence has gone through a number of stages of such analysis and evidence. This progres- sion began with population-based epidemiological studies that described the prevalence and incidence of chronic diseases, identied their etiologic risk factors and mecha- nisms, and led to the development and evaluation of clinical and population-based interventions, from Coronary Care Units to behavioral and pharmacologic therapies and primary prevention initiatives. Further, epidemiologic investigation led to evi- dence that there were independent predictors, namely environmental and behavioral risk factors, for specic chronic diseases that were potentially modiable. Randomized controlled trials have shown that modication of such risk factors resulted in substan- tial primary prevention of morbidity and mortality. Clinical and community-based guidelines, as well as health policies, have gone on to implement these recommendations on a population scale. These advances in knowl- edge and delivery of public health and medical science have been followed by a dra- matic decline in cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Overall, much population-based and clinical research has demonstrated that sig- nicant portions of chronic disease mortality and even the incidence of morbidity and resulting disability are either preventable, or can be delayed in onset. Following this line of research, geriatricians and gerontologists hypothesized that interven- tions could be developed to promote healthy and active aging, and that those inter- ventions would include but not be limited to the primary and secondary prevention of chronic diseases . The ultimate aim of those interventions is the compression of morbidity to the latest years in the human life span, including the delay of chronic disease morbidity and the onset of physical and cognitive disabil- ity. There is now a substantial literature to support the effectiveness of prevention of chronic diseases into the oldest ages , while the possibility to ultimately prevent physical and cognitive disability is still unanswered. The many decades of science briey summarized above have followed two path- ways of reasoning. The traditional medical approach to chronic disease is to accom- plish a diagnostic classication that is as precise as possible, based on symptoms, signs, clinical tests and other clinical elements. A correct and precise diagnosis allows access to the wealth of experience acquired in clinical medicine, including prognosis, and effective disease-modifying and symptomatic treatment of a specic disease. Physicians tend to work backwards in the etiologic pathway from making a disease diagnosis based on external clinical elements to generating hypotheses about patho- 40 L. Treatments aimed at prevention and cure are then administered that work forward in the etiologic pathway, thereby cor- recting the clinical manifestation of diseases. A corollary of this method is the assump- tion that each syndromic manifestation has an underlying specic pathophysiology. The traditional medical approach to human diseases has been quite successful in the care of young and middle-aged patients and prevention in these age groups. However, it has substantial limitations in the care of older patients for several rea- sons. For example, in older persons episodes of hypogly- cemia are often asymptomatic and signs of a previous acute myocardial infarction are often found in people with no history of symptoms. Second, the high likelihood of geriatric conditions and multimorbidity in older ages blurs diagnostic boundaries between diseases and complicates treatment choices. Third, in many older adults, the manifestations and clinical course of diseases are strongly affected by the under- lying status of the host as well as by other coexisting diseases. Because of these reasons, considering aging as a confounder in the study of chronic diseases ignores the complexity of the interactions between aging, disease and frailty. We now know that aging plays a central role in the pathogenesis, clinical presentation and response to treatment of many chronic diseases. Therefore, the patient s age (both biological and chronological) should be a primary clinical element that should affect choices of diagnostic, preventing and therapeutic interventions. Emerging evidence on multi-morbidity and the frailty syndrome lays out the basis for making substantial progress in translating these concepts into improved care of older patients. Promising developments are coming, as well, from the rising interest in Geroscience and Precision Medicine . The convergence of these scientic disci- plines can be transformative in our understanding of the interplay between aging, frailty and disease, with the potential of producing dramatic improvements in public health. In this chapter, we explore the evolution and current state of the science pertain- ing to possible links between aging and chronic disease(s), with a specic focus on the epidemiological evidence that such association is robust and not exclusively explained or sustained by a stochastic process. We seek to link together the mount- ing evidence that biological mechanisms that underlie aging lead to dysregulation of multiple physiological systems, loss of homeostatic capabilities and increased sus- ceptibility to stress, and that these changes facilitate the emergence of both multi- morbidity and clinically apparent frailty. Then, we consider whether the epidemiological literature is consistent with the stated hypothesis. Finally, we examine our current understanding of the biology of frailty as a basis for generating hypotheses about the biological mechanisms that link aging and chronic diseases. This approach led to the development of a number of classication systems, some relatively simple (such as Etiological Role of Aging in Chronic Diseases: From Epidemiological Evidence 41 the now disproven distinction between inammatory and degenerative diseases) and some extremely precise and sophisticated (such as classication of lymphomas based on histological characteristics). While the ability to recognize specic dis- eases and to treat them successfully has increased tremendously, the limitations of these approaches have also become apparent. Biomarker studies perhaps better than any other scientic approaches have offered evidence that, in many cases, diseases that are driven by different mecha- nisms converge into the same pathological and clinical manifestations. For example, it is now widely accepted that under the label of Alzheimer s disease exist a num- ber of conditions with different underlying mechanisms . Conversely, diseases that appear quite different from the perspective of phenotypic and end-organ mani- festations are now known to have shared etiologic biomarkers (e. Interestingly, such biomarkers are often also related to aging itself and predict the development of frailty, a major adverse health outcome associated with aging. This is consistent with evidence that the biology of aging is associated with chronic dis- ease development through mechanisms beyond the length of time for exposure and cumulative risk from external risk factors; rather, the evidence actually points to aging as playing a powerful causal role in development of chronic diseases.
L. Mitch. Cottey College.