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By O. Peer. Ryokan College. 2019.

The success of this method is equivocal but suggests the need for General further study generic proscar 5 mg line prostate what is its function. Frequently safe proscar 5 mg prostate cancer prevention trial, the positive environmental factors that stimulate breeding and the negative factors that pre- In White-crowned Sparrows order 5mg proscar prostate cancer 4k score, consumption of green vent it cannot be discerned discount proscar 5 mg on line prostate 5x. It was found that cinogenic in large doses, proved in one experiment to changing from a low-quality to a high-quality diet be a safe, effective temporary chemosterilant when 128 was not necessary to elicit a strong reproductive fed to free-ranging male Red-winged Blackbirds. Of the remaining four factors it could not be determined if a non-stimulatory period was neces- Physical and Medical Characteristics sary or if the presence of any or all of the four factors was necessary to induce breeding. Adequate exercise is important to reproductive suc- cess and decreases the likelihood of reproductive dis- Free-ranging populations of budgerigars were found orders, such as egg-binding. Fertility Documenting if an egg is infertile or was fertile and Canaries respond principally to photoperiods, with died in early incubation is the first step in investigat- low ambient temperatures causing a delay in egg ing egg problems. Fresh, infertile eggs have a is not a prerequisite for ovulation and egg-laying in well organized small blastodisc, which in domestic canaries but improves egg production. Additionally, any Natural Incubation misshapen, mis-sized or otherwise abnormal eggs Natural incubation is a behavior under hormonal that are discarded should not be used in calculating control that can be externally affected by many fac- fertility rates. Improper parental incubation can lead to a include these eggs, as they can be fertile, or to calcu- complete lack of egg development, arrestment of em- late a separate fertlity rate for abnormal eggs. Hy- bryo development, late embryo death or abnormal or brid eggs should also be discounted, as they may have weak chicks at hatch. Fertility rates can be calculated such as macaws tend to be rather nervous in captiv- by finding what percentage of the total number of ity and are notorious for breaking eggs. Undetermined eggs should not tures and hairline cracks can cause the death of a be included. Foster parents or artificial incu- bation can be used in pairs with incubation problems. Fertility rates can be useful for discerning problems Failures in incubation can also originate from em- within a flock or individual pair. Factors that should be of the eggs and chick-raising did not occur until the considered include age of the birds, time the pair has diet contained 15% fat and 2. Studying enclosure type, enclosure location, production of eggs pertinent egg information and performing thorough in the past, past fertility and hatchability, hybrids, diagnostic procedures can help determine the cause inbreeding, date of lay, environmental parameters of some of these incubation failures. Fertility within Information Collection an aviary should be evaluated on an individual pair The attending veterinarian should review existing and species basis within an aviary. Fertility rates of records concerning the parent’s reproductive and free-ranging birds may vary among species due to medical history and fate of any eggs or chicks. Fertility is normally oping an accurate and consistent record-keeping sys- reduced in older birds, in younger birds and at the tem and regularly scheduling on-site visits will help beginning and end of a breeding season. Infertility in identify factors that could explain incubation failures these cases may be a natural occurrence and not an (see Chapter 2). Reproductive information from each pair including Domestic poultry have been genetically selected to numbers of eggs per clutch, number of clutches per produce high fertility rates of approximately 95%. Hatchability Immaturity, pair incompatibility, normal species differences, normal rates can be calculated for individual pairs, separate occurrence as part of clutch, sexual inexperience, lack of early clutches, different species, eggs incubated naturally, learning, aviary disturbances, lack of social interaction, excess eggs incubated artificially and eggs that had various social interaction, homosexual pairs, lack of pair-bonding, asynchro- nous breeding condition, improper imprinting, infrequent matings. The more precise the Environmental: hatchability statistic, the more diagnostic the infor- Incorrect photoperiod, incorrect nest box design or nesting mate- rials, incorrect enclosure design, lack of visual barriers, excessive mation that is provided (Figure 29. In domestic fowl, the hatchability of naturally and artificially incubated fertile eggs approaches 85 to Medical: 90%. With companion and aviary birds, this figure Obesity, age (young or old breeders), inbreeding, vent feathers, drug therapy (causing vitamin deficiency or direct, decreased may be much lower, and ranges from 8% to 100% fertility), previous hormonal therapy (testosterone injections), have been discussed. The number of lethal or chromosomal abnormalities reported in companion bird species is low when com- The fertility rates of most free-ranging companion pared to domestic species. Evaluating fertility and birds have not been determined, although in some hatchability statistics from parents and sisters of species studies have indicated that fertility can be breeding males may help identify lethal or semi-le- quite high. Breeding tests may the potential for similar fertility rates but more commonly the rates are lower, probably due to a combina- tion of environmental and dietary factors. This cyclic produc- tion is probably related to environ- mental factors and not due to disease-related infertility. Avicultur- ists should establish their own fertil- ity rates and standardize data so that comparisons can be made among similar aviaries. Hatchability Hatchability rates are determined from eggs that were known to be fer- tile. The egg on the left was from a are calculated by finding the percent- normal unassisted hatch, and the chick from this egg was strong and developed normally post-hatching. Exposure to toxic compounds, either directly – Cooling after development has begun or in the food or water, should be considered. Behav- – Suffocation due to incorrect ventilation Inbreeding ioral problems including lack of pair-bonding, incon- Chromosome abnormalities sistent parental incubation and egg trauma in the Egg-transmitted infectious diseases nest may also cause hatchability problems. Total caloric intake and food selection – Riboflavin, vitamin B12, folic acid, biotin, manganese, behavior for each individual bird should be evalu- pyridoxine, pantothenic acid, phosphorous, boron, li- ated. Nutritionally deficient hens can produce eggs, noleic acid, vitamin K, vitamin D Secondary vitamin deficiencies but the low level of nutrients may prevent the eggs – Antibiotic therapy destroying vitamin-producing flora from hatching. The age of embryonic mortality will – Diet imbalances, inadequate food intake usually depend on the degree and type of deficiency Viral diseases Bacterial infections or toxicity. Fungal infections Egg jarring or shaking in the first trimester Severe hypovitaminosis A causes a complete cessa- Incubator faults tion of egg production. Vita- Malpositions min E deficiencies can cause lethal rings in which the – Inadequate or incorrect turning embryo is seen surrounded by a ring of separated – Abnormal egg size or shape – Incorrect incubator temperature tissue. Vitamin D3 deficiencies can cause small eggs Incubator faults with poorly calcified shells. Ultraviolet light expo- – Poor incubator ventilation sure may improve hatchability in these cases while – Egg cooling early in incubation – Inadequate or incorrect turning excess D3 may lead to a complete cessation of egg – Incorrect temperature production. Embryonic hemorrhage is common with – Incorrect humidity deficiencies in vitamins E and K. Vitamin K is also Incorrect hatcher temperature or humidity Long storage time pre-incubation involved with calcium transport, and vitamin K defi- Infectious disease ciencies can mimic the clinical signs associated with Nutritional deficiencies hypocalcemia. The calcium/manganese ratio regulates the rate of be required to establish whether such genes are sex- hatching, and imbalances of these minerals may linked or autosomal, dominant or recessive. Given the wide variabil- ity in the types of food (and thus the composition of Parental Factors these foods) consumed by free-ranging birds of differ- The medical history of each parent should be exam- ent species, it is not surprising that a single commer- ined to identify factors that may affect fertility and cially available diet cannot meet the needs of all hatchability. It is specu- eggs that are artificially incubated for the entire lated that breeding third and fourth generations of developmental period (Figure 29. The fact that companion bird species will result in higher fertility different hatchability rates exist between natural and hatchability rates in birds fed commonly avail- and artificially incubated eggs highlights the need able commercial diets (see Chapters 3 and 31). The microclimate of ents must exhibit broodiness and be accepting of the the nesting area, including temperature and humid- shape, size and color of the foster eggs (see Chapter ity, is important for proper incubation and is ad- 6). Bantam and Silkie chickens have been used suc- versely affected by soiled bedding and improper nest cessfully to foster eggs from many psittacine species. Cultures from bedding material may help The number of eggs under each foster parent should identify infectious agents. Ambient temperature, hu- not exceed the number that the hen can adequately midity and to a lesser degree rainfall, wind and incubate. Incubation Requirements Pre-incubation Factors Important incubation factors include temperature, Non-incubated, fertile eggs will not develop if held at humidity, air flow in the incubator and hatcher, egg 55°F to 75°F. Cockatiel eggs stored at 55°F and 60% position during incubation, the angle for egg turning relative humidity did not show decreased hatchabil- and the number of times per day the egg is turned. These temperature manipu- stantial research is necessary to establish the optimal lations are convenient for shipping eggs and for syn- incubator parameters for companion bird species. Under natural conditions, the failure of a parent to incubate the first egg when tempera- tures are not within safe preincubation ranges can result in the death of the egg. Exposure of eggs to temperatures that are higher than 55 to 75°F but below optimal incubation temperatures can cause death of the embryo.

Any external (sanitary napkins or pads) or internal (tampons) sanitary wear is collected and submitted for analysis with a note about whether the item was in place during the sexual act and whether other sanitary wear has been in place but discarded since the incident purchase 5mg proscar with amex androgen hormone x for hair. Even though traditionally these swabs have been labeled “external vaginal swab 5 mg proscar amex mens health aus,” they should be labeled as “vulval swab” to clearly indicate the site of sampling discount proscar 5mg with visa prostate warmer. However proscar 5mg sale prostate exam, if the vulval area or any visible staining appears dry, the double-swab technique should be used (28) (see Subheading 4. The labia are then separated, and two sequential dry swabs are used to compre- hensively sample the lower vagina. An appropriately sized transparent speculum is then gently passed approximately two-thirds of the way into the vagina; the speculum is opened, and any foreign bodies (e. Then, 88 Rogers and Newton two dry swabs are used to comprehensively sample the vagina beyond the end of the speculum (particularly the posterior fornix where any fluid may collect). At this point, the speculum may be manipulated within the vagina to locate the cervix. If doctors decide for clinical reasons to use a lubricant, then they should take care to apply the lubricant (from a single use sachet or tube) sparingly and must note its use on the forms returned to the forensic scientist. In the process of sampling the vagina, the speculum may accumulate body fluids and trace evidence. Therefore, the used speculum should be retained, pack- aged separately, and stored in accordance with local policy. If the speculum is visibly wet on removal, swabbing may be undertaken to retrieve visible material. In some centers, additional methods of semen collection are employed (5,63,103) in the form of aspiration of any pools of fluid in the high vagina and/or placing 2–10 mL of saline or sterile water in the vagina and then aspi- rating the vaginal washings. However, vaginal aspirates should not be neces- sary if dry swabs are used to sample the vagina in the manner described. Furthermore, there are no data to confirm that vaginal washings retrieve sper- matozoa more effectively than vaginal swabs. On these occasions, two dry swabs should be inserted sequentially into the vagina under direct vision, avoiding contact with the ves- tibule and hymen. An attempt should then be made to comprehensively sample the vagina by gently rotating and moving each swab backward and forward. Unfortunately, in such cir- cumstances, it is impossible to be certain that the high vaginal swab was not contaminated from semen in the low vagina, which could be there because of drainage from external ejaculation. Spermatozoa Some guidelines recommend that the forensic practitioner perform an immediate microscopic examination of a wet mount of the material obtained Sexual Assualt Examination 89 from the vaginal fornices to identify motile spermatozoa on the basis that the presence and motility of spermatozoa may help determine whether recent vagi- nal ejaculation had occurred. Forensic science laboratories have specialist extraction procedures, staining techniques, and microscopic equipment to maximize spermatozoa recovery and facilitate identification. A survey of 300 cases in which spermatozoa were eventually identified found that they were only detected in four of the cases in the native preparation (before the applica- tion of specialist stains) (105). Seminal Fluid If no spermatozoa are detected, an attempt is made to corroborate the allegation by the microscopic identification of seminal choline crystals. Semi- nal choline is present in high concentrations in seminal fluid, and the choline crystals can be precipitated by the addition of reagents (106). There are also electrophoretic techniques by which seminal fluid can be identified (107). This will be useful where the offender is suspected to be oligospermic or aspermic or when only minimal amounts of male epithelial cells have been deposited; Y chromosome-positive cells have been isolated from vaginal swabs taken immediately after intercourse where no ejaculation had occurred. Whenever bleeding is noted during the medical examination, the forensic practitioner should communi- cate to the scientist any possible source for the bleeding. In these cases, the presence of blood must be interpreted with caution, particularly if in small quantity, 90 Rogers and Newton because traces of uterine blood may be present at any time of the cycle (7) and, currently, there is no accepted method of differentiating between traumatic or uterine blood (111). Furthermore, even traumatic bleeding may result from con- sensual sexual acts (see Subheading 8. On rare occasions assailants injure their penises during a sexual act, and this may be the source of blood found in the vagina. The quantity of semen in the vagina will diminish progressively with time, usually as a result of drainage. The posture and activity of the complain- ant subsequent to the act are likely to affect this. Drainage of semen from the vagina may also result in soiling of intimate clothing items worn at the time, and these can prove valuable sources of body fluids. It has been observed that spermatozoa can be isolated for longer periods in the endocervix. Studies that compared paired swabs from the vagina and cervix have found that 2 days or more after vaginal ejaculation there is a larger quantity of spermatozoa on endocervical swabs compared with the vaginal swabs (115). Therefore, it is recommended that if a complainant presents 48 hours or more after alleged vaginal intercourse, an endocervical swab be taken in addition to the swabs from the vagina. There is interest in the possibility of determining the timing of inter- course by changes in spermatozoa. Spermatozoa may remain motile in the vagina for up to 24 hours and longer in the cervical mucosa (50,118,119), but the periods for persistence are extremely variable. For example, Rupp (120) observed that motile spermatozoa persisted longer in menstruating women but added that identification is hindered by the presence of red blood cells, and Paul (121) reported that the period of spermatozoa motility ranged Sexual Assualt Examination 91 from 1–2 hours at the end of the menstrual cycle to as long as 72 hours at the time of ovulation. However, the morphology of the spermatozoa does show more consis- tent temporal changes. In particular, the presence of large numbers of sperma- tozoa with tails is indicative of recent intercourse. The longest time after intercourse that spermatozoa with tails have been found on external vaginal swabs is 33 hours and 120 hours on internal vaginal swabs (122). Examination Methods The forensic practitioner should inspect the mons pubis and note the color, coarseness, and distribution (Tanner stages 1–5) of any pubic hair. A note should also be made if the pubic hair appears to have been plucked (including bleeding hair follicles), shaved, cut, or dyed. Then the vulval area must be carefully inspected before the insertion of a speculum, because even gentle traction on the posterior fourchette or fossa navicularis during a medical examination can cause a superficial laceration at these sites. Whenever possible, the vagina and cervix should be inspected via the transparent speculum after the high vaginal samples have been ob- tained. Colposcopy and the application of toluidine blue dye are two special- ist techniques used by some forensic practitioners during female genitalia examinations. Colposcopy A colposcope is a free-standing, binocular microscope on wheels that is most commonly used for direct visualization of the cervix (using a bivalve speculum) after the detection of abnormal cervical cytology. Many centers, particularly those in the United States, advocate the use of the colposcope for external and, where relevant, internal genital and/or anal assessments of com- plainants of sexual assault. The colposcope undoubtedly provides considerable advantages over gross visualization. First, it provides magnification (5–30 times) and greater illumi- nation, enabling detection of more abnormalities. Slaughter and Brown (123) demonstrated positive colposcopic findings in 87% of female complainants of nonconsensual penile penetration within the previous 48 h, whereas gross 92 Rogers and Newton visualization has historically identified positive genital findings in only 10– 40% of cases (37–39,124,125). Second, with the attachment of a still or video camera, the colposcope allows for a truly contemporaneous, permanent video/photographic record of the genital/anal findings without resorting to simultaneous dictation, which has the potential to distress the complainant. If a video is used, it will docu- ment the entire genital examination and will show any dynamic changes, such as reflex anal dilatation. If appropriate, the medical findings can be demon- strated to the complainant and carer; some teenagers have apparently appreci- ated the opportunity to have any fears of genital disfigurement allayed by the use of this equipment. Finally, if a remote monitor is used, the whole examination can be viewed by another doctor for corroboration or teaching purposes without additional parties having to be present during the intimate examination. Obviously, it is important that in all cases the colposcopic evidence be interpreted in the context of the limited information that is currently available regarding colposcopic assessments after consensual sexual acts (90,126,127). Toluidine Blue Toluidine blue stains nuclei and has been used on the posterior fourchette to identify lacerations of the keratinized squamous epithelium that were not apparent on gross visualization (128,129). Use of toluidine blue increased the detection rate of posterior fourchette lacerations from 4 to 58% in adult (older than 19 years) complainants of nonconsensual vaginal intercourse, from 4 to 28% in sexually abused adolescents (11–18 years old), and from 16.

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