By D. Ben. University of North Dakota.
Center Community Counseling Alcoholism and Drug Abuse Mental Health and Addiction Ctr Inc discount cipro 1000 mg otc antibiotic mnemonics. Hendry/Glades Mental Health 14527 7th Street 274 Wilshire Boulevard discount cipro 750 mg online antibiotic rash, Suite 253 Clinic buy cipro 250mg amex antibiotic poisoning, Inc buy 1000mg cipro with amex antibiotics for uti at cvs. Detox/Residential 880 State Road 434 East 400 East Sheridan Road Extended Care, Inc. Crossroads of Sanford Epic Community Services I 300 South Bay Avenue 8000 South U. Edwards Group Home Meridian Behavioral Health 310 South Osprey Street 3810 West Martin Luther King Jr. Adolescent Professional Educational 709 Executive Drive Adult Outpatient Consultants, Inc. Center Marine Corps Base Adolescent Residential Program Alcohol Rehab Services of Hawaii 1931 Baldwin Avenue Hawaii, Inc. Jefferson County Comp Services, 1621 Theodore Street 25480 West Cedarcrest Lane Inc. 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David R Rasse and Associates, SouthCentral Missouri Rehab 1101 South Jamison Street Inc. Wilson’s Halfway House 175 High Street Newark Renaissance House, 56 Mount Kemble Avenue Inc. Amethyst Addictions Services Alternatives Counseling Center, 112 Prospect Street 1409 Roberts Avenue Inc. Cibola Counseling Southwest Counseling Center, Mescalero Tribal Human 210 East Santa Fe Street Inc. Geriatric Alcohol Program Long Island Home at South Eight Twenty River Street, Inc. Conﬁdential Counseling and Family Consultation Service, Somerset House/Alcohol Evaluation Services Inc. Substance Abuse Outpatient Crossings Alcoholism Outpatient 30 Bank Street Renaissance Project, Inc. Family Renewal Medically Supervised Outpatient/ Block Center Drug Abuse Treatment Probation Assoc. SouthWoods Road Staten Island Children’s Alcoholism Outpatient Clinic Syosset HighSchool Council, Inc. Drop-In Center Haven House of Pickaway 2012 West 25thStreet, Suite 516 217 West 12 Street County, Inc. Air Force Hospital Altus Arbuckle Drug and Alcohol 817 SouthElm Place, Suite 105 Altus Air Force Base Information Center, Inc. Mon Valley Drug and Alcohol Program Northeast Counseling Services Gaudenzia Foundation Inc. Northeastern Pennsylvania Adams Hanover Counseling Counseling Services Services, Inc. Bucks County Deerﬁeld Behavioral Health 230 SouthFraser Street 225 Newtown Road Network, Inc. Home Prestera Center for Mental Wyoming County Ofﬁce/Mullens 72 South Stone Wall Street Health Services, Inc. Prestera Center for Mental Southern Highlands Community Rehabilitation Unit Health Services, Inc. Center Substance Abuse Abuse Treatment Council, 400 South Kendrick Avenue Services Inc. In a 1993 report entitled Drugs, Crime, and the Justice System, the bureau presented an overview of how the U. Here we present summarized data in easy to review format, with new, post–1990 information provided by Mark Kleiman and Thai Ishizuka-Capp, both from the Drug Policy Analysis Program, School of Public Policy and Social Research, University of California, Los Angeles. Much of the information offered here is fully discussed throughout the alphabetical entries of the encyclopedia—in Volumes 1, 2, and 3. Consult the Index at the end of this volume for references to items of further interest. Regulations specify the circumstances under which substances can be Prevention activities are educational efforts to inform legally distributed and used. Prescription potential drug users about the health, legal, and medications and alcohol are the substances most other risks associated with drug use. Demand reduction strategies attempt to decrease Taxation requires those who produce, distribute, or individuals’ tendency to use drugs. Efforts provide possess drugs to pay a fee based on the volume or information and education to potential and casual value of the drugs. Failure to pay subjects violators users about the risks and adverse consequences of to penalties for this violation, not for the drug drug use, and treatment to drug users who have activities themselves. Testing individuals for the presence of drugs is a tool Supply reduction focuses diplomatic, law in drug control that is used for safety and enforcement, military, and other resources on monitoring purposes and as an adjunct to eliminating or reducing the supply of drugs.
For instance buy discount cipro 250mg on-line infection during labor, plasma levels of indomethacin are increased approximately twofold upon coadministration of diflunisal 1000mg cipro visa infection hair follicle, and in vitro studies indicate that this interaction is due in part to inhibition of indomethacin glucuronidation in the intestine (203 cheap cipro 250 mg free shipping tween 80 antimicrobial activity,204) cipro 250 mg low cost antibiotic resistance from animals to humans. Correlation analyses with most of these probe substrates are somewhat limited by the fact that there is often only a three- to fivefold difference from the minimum to the maximum rate of reaction among samples of human microsomes. In vitro, the glucuronidation of xenobiotics by liver microsomes can be stimulated by detergents (e. Furthermore, in contrast to certain detergents, alamethicin appears to increase Vmax without affecting Km. The prediction of the in vivo clearance of drugs that are glucuronidated by hep- atocytes appears to be more accurate than for predictions made with microsomes, but underprediction is still the likely outcome. Some primary amines, or the demethylated metabolites of secondary and tertiary amines, such as carvedilol, sertraline, varenicline, mofegiline, garenox- acin, tocainide, and sibutramine, among others, have been reported to be con- verted to N-carbamoyl glucuronides (209–215). However, marked species difference have been found in the formation of N-carbamoyl glucuronides, and humans have only been found to produce these conjugates from even fewer drugs, including varenicline, sertraline, and mofegiline. Given that the in vitro formation of N-carbamoyl glucuronides occurs only under special incubation conditions that are not typically employed, it is possible that many other primary and secondary amines or their oxidative metabolites can be converted to such conjugates but have not been detected because of the unusual incubation conditions required to support their formation. If one or more N-carbamoyl glucuronide conjugates of a new drug candidate are discovered in vivo, it may be worthwhile to utilize incubation conditions that will support the formation of such glucuronides in vitro. Preliminary Concept Paper: Drug Interaction Studies—Study Design, Data Anal- ysis, and Implications for Dosing and Labeling. Preliminary Concept Paper: Office of Clinical Pharmacology and Biopharmaceutics, Center for Drug Evaluation and Research, United States Food and Drug Administration, 2004. Guidance for Industry: Drug Interaction Studies—Study Design, Data Analysis, and Implications for Dosing and Labeling. Optimizing drug development: strategies to assess drug metabolism/transporter interaction potential–toward a consensus. A case with severe rhabdomyolysis and renal failure associated with cerivastatin-gemfibrozil combination therapy–a case report. Differentiation of intestinal and hepatic cytochrome P450 3A activity with use of midazolam as an vivo probe: effect of ketoconazole. The effect of age, sex, and rifampin administration on intestinal and hepatic cytochrome P450 3A activity. Differential induction of prehepatic and hepatic metabolism of verapamil by rifampin. Pharmacokinetics of dextromethorphan after single or multiple dosing in combination with quinidine in extensive and poor metabolizers. The effect of echinacea (Echinacea purpurea root) on cytochrome P450 activity in vivo. Evaluation of cytochrome P450 probe substrates commonly used by the pharmaceutical industry to study in vitro drug interactions. Inhibition constants, inhibitor concentrations and the prediction of inhibitory drug drug interactions: pitfalls, progress and promise. Hepatic microsomal metabolism of montelukast, a potent leukotriene D4 receptor antagonist, in humans. Telithromycin, but not montelukast, increases the plasma concentrations and effects of the cytochrome P450 3A4 and 2C8 substrate repaglinide. Binding of drugs to hepatic microsomes: comment and assessment of current prediction methodology with recommendation for improve- ment. Effect of omeprazole treatment on diazepam plasma levels in slow versus normal rapid metabolizers of omeprazole. Impact of nonspecific binding to microsomes and phos- pholipid on the inhibition of cytochrome P4502D6: implications for relating in vitro inhibition data to in vivo drug interactions. In vitro metabolism of quinidine: the (3S)-3-hydroxylation of quinidine is a specific marker reaction for cytochrome P-4503A4 activity in human liver microsomes. Comparison of inhibitory effects of the proton pump-inhibiting drugs omeprazole, esomeprazole, lansoprazole, pan- toprazole, and rabeprazole on human cytochrome P450 activities. Cytochrome P450 enzymes mechanism based inhibitors: common sub-structures and reactivity. Substrate selectivity of human cytochrome P450 2C9: importance of residues 476, 365, and 114 in recognition of diclofenac and sulfaphenazole and in mechanism-based inactivation by tienilic acid. Thiophene derivatives as new mechanism- based inhibitors of cytochromes P-450: inactivation of yeast-expressed human liver cytochrome P-450 2C9 by tienilic acid. Both cytochrome P450 2C11 and 2C11-tienilic acid adducts are transported to the plasma membrane of rat hepatocytes and recognized by human sera. Mechanism-based inactivation and reversibility: is there a new trend in the inactivation of cytochrome P450 enzymes?. Formation of a metabolic intermediate complex of cytochrome P4502B1 by clorgyline. Paroxetine affects metoprolol pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics in healthy volunteers. Differential time course of cytochrome P450 2D6 enzyme inhibition by fluoxetine, sertraline, and paroxetine in healthy volunteers. Application of microtiter plate assay to evaluate inhibitory effects of various compounds on nine cytochrome P450 isoforms and to estimate their inhibition patterns. Rapid determination of enzyme activities of recombinant human cytochromes P450, human liver microsomes and hep- atocytes. High-throughput screening for stability and inhibitory activity of compounds toward cytochrome P450-mediated metabolism. Inhibition of human cytochrome P450 enzymes by 1,4-dihydropyridine calcium antagonists: prediction of in vivo drug- drug interactions. Roles of human hepatic cytochrome P450s 2C9 and 3A4 in the metabolic activation of diclofenac. Microtiter plate assays for inhibition of human, drug-metabolizing cytochromes P450. The use of heterologously expressed drug metabolizing enzymes state of the art and prospects for the future. Enhancement of cytochrome P-450 3A4 catalytic activities by cytochrome b(5) in bacterial membranes. Reconstitution of recombinant cyto- chrome P450 2C10(2C9) and comparison with cytochrome P450 3A4 and other forms: effects of cytochrome P450-P450 and cytochrome P450-b5 interactions. Rapid characterization of the major drug-metabolizing human hepatic cytochrome P-450 enzymes expressed in Escherichia coli. The effects of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and their metabolites on S-mephenytoin 4 -hydroxylase activity0 in human liver microsomes. Midazolam hydroxylation by human liver microsomes in vitro: inhibition by fluoxetine, norfluoxetine, and by azole antifungal agents. The effect of fluoxetine on the pharmacokinetics and psychomotor responses of diazepam. Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic evaluation of the inhibition of alprazolam by citalopram and fluoxetine. Inhibitory effects of amiodarone and its N-deethylated metabolite on human cytochrome P450 activities: prediction of in vivo drug interactions. In vitro forecasting of drugs which may interfere with the biotransformation of midazolam. Significance of metabolism in the disposition and action of the antidysrhythmic drug, dofetilide. Utility of in vitro drug metabolism data in predicting in vivo metabolic clearance. Effect of omeprazole on diazepam disposition in the rat: in vitro and in vivo studies.
Unlike succinylcholine order cipro 500 mg online antibiotics in poultry, which is a depolarizing agent discount 250 mg cipro with amex infection 10 days after surgery, these three neuromuscular blocking agents are nonpolarizing in action cipro 500mg low cost best antibiotic for sinus infection and sore throat. However discount cipro 750mg line antibiotics for sinus infection list, according to its manufacturer, atracurium is potentially teratogenic in animals. Neither ether nor cyclopropane is commonly used in present-day anesthetic techniques, and there have been no adequate human studies regarding potential teratogenicity of either of these agents (Friedman, 1988). Halothane and other halogenated agents Halogenated agents are often used to supplement the standard nitrous oxide, thiopental and muscle relaxant regimens for balanced general anesthesia. Use of halogenated agents decreases maternal awareness and recall, allows for a higher percentage of inspired oxy- gen, and results in higher fetal oxygen concentrations (Shnider and Levinson, 1979). The prototype halogenated anesthetic agent was not found to be associated with an increased risk of congenital malformations in children whose mothers received this agent during the first 4 months (Heinonen et al. Increased fetal loss, growth retardation, malformations, and behavioral abnor- malities have been reported with the use of halothane in animal studies (Friedman, 1988). No epidemiologic studies of congenital anomalies with the use of the other halo- genated agents (enflurane, methoxyflurane, isoflurane) have been published. These agents were reported to cause a variety of malformations in animal studies at doses many times those used in humans (Friedman, 1988). Placental transfer of enflurane and halothane in women who were delivered via Caesarean section had no apparent adverse effects on Apgar scores, newborn acid–base status, and early neonatal neurobehavioral scores. Significant levels of both of these agents were achieved in the fetus at about 50–60 percent of maternal concentrations (Abboud et al. Halogenated agents have also been reported to be associated with an increase in blood loss in the mother at the time of Caesarean section in some studies (Gilstrap et al. Increased blood loss from uterine relaxation may occur, especially in prolonged high- dose use. Otherwise, it seems apparent that halogenated agents are safe for both mother and fetus, although the data are not conclusive. Nitrous oxide Nitrous oxide is the most commonly used inhalation anesthetic agent in obstetrics, and is usually part of a balanced general anesthetic regimen that includes: a fast-acting 120 Anaesthetic agents and surgery during pregnancy barbiturate (e. The frequency of congenital anomalies was not increased among more than 500 infants exposed to nitrous oxide during the first trimester (Heinonen et al. As with many other agents, nitrous oxide has been reported to be associated with increased fetal resorption, growth retardation, and congenital anomalies in animal studies (Friedman, 1988; Mazze et al. Lower nitrous oxide concentrations (50 percent) have been used with higher oxygen concentrations (50 percent), responding primarily to concerns that higher nitrous oxide concentrations may be associated with neurobehavioral alterations. Altered neonatal neurobehavioral effects are associated with nitrous oxide and halothane and have been demonstrated in animal studies (Koeter and Rodier, 1986; Mullenix et al. Current recommendations are to use lower concentrations of nitrous oxide, higher concentrations of oxygen, and to add a halogenated agent to the regimen. Three very potent synthetic opioid analgesics (fentanyl, sufentanil, and alfe- tanil) (Box 6. Fentanyl is also used in combination with a neuroleptic agent (droperidol) for the same indica- tions. None of these narcotic agents has been shown to be teratogenic in a variety of ani- mal studies. First trimester exposure to meperidine was not associated with an increased frequency of congenital anomalies among 268 infants (Heinonen et al. Intravenous fentanyl was not asso- ciated with low Apgar scores or neonatal respiratory depression compared to controls (Rayburn et al. Three synthetic narcotic analgesics (fentanyl, sufentanil, and alfetanil) have been used as an adjunct to epidural analgesia during labor (Ross and Hughes, 1987). However, neonatal respiratory depression is a risk with use of these agents during labor. Maternal mortality nonobstetric surgery is no greater than mortality in the nonpregnant patient. Risks to the fetus from surgery are probably related more to the specific condition requiring the surgery than to the surgery itself. Among 2565 women who underwent surgery during the first or second trimester compared to controls, the frequency of spontaneous abortion in women undergoing surgery with general anesthesia was greater for gynecologic procedures compared to surgery in other anatomic regions (risk ratio of 2 versus 1. Cholecystitis and biliary tract disease are the most common surgical conditions fol- lowing appendicitis and occur in approximately 1–10 per 10 000 pregnancies (Affleck et al. Laparoscopic surgery morbidity and mortality was no dif- ferent from the open cholecystectomy (Affleck et al. Surgical procedures for intestinal obstruction, inflammatory bowel disease, breast dis- ease, and diseases of the ovary are also relatively common. Surgery for cardiovascular disease during pregnancy is less common, but procedures such as mitral valvotomy (el- Maraghy et al. Anesthesia for nonobstetrical surgery may be delivered via either general endotracheal or regional techniques. The choice depends on: (1) procedure to be performed; (2) emer- gent nature of the procedure; (3) length of time the patient has been fasting; and (4) pref- erences of the surgeon and the patient. General anesthesia should be accomplished through a balanced technique using nitrous oxide, oxygen, thiopental, succinylcholine, and a halogenated agent. As surgical patients, pregnant women should receive antacid prophylaxis to prevent aspiration pneumonia. The patient should also fast for 10–12 h prior to anticipated surgery, but this may not be possible in all cases (e. Endotracheal intubation with timely extubation when reflexes have returned will help prevent aspiration complications. High-concentration oxygen should be used and hypotension should be avoided in the pregnant surgical patient. Choice of anesthetic depends on length of the procedure and preference of the anes- thesiologist. To prevent maternal hypotension and decreased uteroplacental blood flow, adequate preload with a balanced salt solution is recommended prior to initiation of the actual block. Anesthesia for Caesarean section: the uncomplicated patient Regional anesthesia is the preferred method of anesthesia for the uncomplicated patient undergoing Caesarean section. Subarachnoid (spinal) or epidural block, or a combina- tion, are suitable anesthetic techniques for these patients. Hypotension is the most common com- plication of these techniques and the one that has the greatest impact on the fetus (Box 6. Epidural veins are engorged and large during pregnancy, and may be punctured with a needle or catheter. The previously described balanced general technique of nitrous oxide, oxygen, thiopental, succinylcholine and a halogenated agent provides satisfactory anesthesia for uncomplicated Caesarean sec- tions. Patients should be preoxygenated and placed in the lateral position with left lat- eral uterine displacement. While avoiding hypotension, general anesthesia provides reli- able and expeditious anesthesia. Aspiration pneumonitis is the major maternal risk and neonatal cardiorespiratory depression is the major fetal risk. As a precautionary rule, all pregnant women undergoing Caesarean section should be treated as if they have ‘full stomachs,’ hence the importance of endotracheal intubation. It is, therefore, imperative for the obstetrician and anesthesiologist to communicate. Importantly, this is the critical path where com- munication frequently breaks down (Shroff et al.
When given during embryogenesis order 1000 mg cipro with visa antibiotics for sinusitis, cytarabine was associated with an increased fre- quency of congenital anomalies in two rodent teratology studies (Chaube and Murphy purchase cipro 250 mg on-line infection the invasion begins, 1965; Percy buy cipro 250 mg online antimicrobial quizlet, 1975) generic 250mg cipro with mastercard virus band. Other uses include bladder, cervix, endometrium, esophagus, head and neck, liver, lung, ovary, prostate, and skin cancers. Among 24 infants whose mothers were treated with intravenous fluorouracil in com- bination with doxorubicin and cyclophosphamide for breast cancer during the second and third trimesters of pregnancy, no congenital anomalies occurred (Berry et al. However, it must be noted that these exposures occurred outside the period of embryo- genesis, and do not indicate anything about the risk of birth defects that may be related to first trimester exposure to the drug. However, the patient had also undergone bowel resec- tion and multiple diagnostic X-ray procedures during late embryogenesis. Malformations included bilateral radial aplasia, absent thumbs, abnormal fingers, a sin- gle umbilical artery, hypoplastic aorta, and esophageal atresia, imperforate anus, and renal dysplasia. These anomalies were probably not related to fluorouracil because of the gestational timing of the exposure (i. Two normal infants were born following first-trimester maternal treatment with intravaginal 5-fluorouracil (Odom et al. Skeletal and other major anomalies (cleft palate, central nervous system) were increased in frequency among offspring of several species of pregnant nonprimate animals born to mothers exposed to this antineoplastic during pregnancy (Chaube and Murphy, 1968; Dagg, 1960; Shah and Mackay, 1978; Wilson et al. No reports regarding the use of bleomycin monotherapy during organogenesis have been published. One newborn infant had profound but transient neonatal leukopenia (resolved by day of life 13) following maternal therapy for metastatic adenocarcinoma that was initiated very early in the third trimester with bleomycin in combination with etoposide and cisplatin (Raffles et al. Limb and tail anomalies were reported in nine rat teratology studies involving bleomycin (Nishimura and Tanimura, 1976). Antibiotics 137 Dactinomycin Dactinomycin (Cosmegen), also known as actinomycin-D, is one of a group of antibi- otics produced by various species of streptomyces called the actinomycins. Primary indication for dactinomycin in obstetrics is to treat gestational trophoblastic tumors. Four normal infants (one set of twins) were born to mothers who received dactinomycin in the second and/or third trimesters of pregnancy as part of com- bination therapy in two pregnancies (Gililland and Weinstein, 1983), but there was no exposure during embryogenesis. The manufacturer of dactinomycin reported that mal- formations were increased in frequency in various animals whose mothers were given doses of the drug several times those normally used in humans, but the information is unpublished and no details were provided. It is isolated from the broth of Streptomyces caespitosus, similar to dactinomycin. No reports have been published regarding the use of mitomycin during pregnancy and infant outcome. Congenital anomalies were increased in several mouse teratology studies that employed several times the usual human therapeutic dose of the drug during preg- nancy (Friji and Nahatsuka, 1983; Gregg and Snow, 1983; Snow and Tam, 1979). In an experimental animal model, approximately 6 percent of mitomycin crossed the placenta in pregnant rats (Boike et al. Anthracycline antibiotics Anthracycline antibiotic antineoplastics (daunorubicin or Cerubidine; doxorubicin or Adriamycin, Rubex) are potent inhibitors of nucleic acid synthesis and are nonspecific cell cycle-phase agents. No studies are available of either of these agents during pregnancy, but there are a num- ber of case reports. In reviews from 18 reports of 28 pregnancies that were exposed to one of the anthracyclines at various stages of gestation, eight of the pregnancies were at 16 weeks’ gestational age or less at exposure. There were 24 normal infants (one set of twins), two spontaneous abortions, one thera- peutic abortion, and two fetal deaths (Turchi and Villasis, 1988; Wiebe and Sipila, 1994). One infant was reported with multiple 138 Antineoplastic drugs during pregnancy abnormalities, similar to Baller–Gerold syndrome; was exposed in utero at conception to combination therapy containing doxorubicin and daunorubicin (Artlich et al. Among 43 infants published in 26 reports, the frequency of birth defects was not increased, with two malformed infants (Friedman and Polifka, 2006). The cytotoxic nature of these drugs suggests that embryonic exposure may not be without risk, depending upon the timing of the exposure. The manufacturer of daunorubicin reported multiple defects in rabbits; pre- maturity and low birth weight was found in mice exposed to the drug in utero, but this infor- mation has not been published. A review from five separate reports of pregnant women with Hodgkin’s disease gave details of 13 normal infants following maternal vinblastine ther- apy. Eleven of these infants had first-trimester exposure and two had second-trimester exposure. Among the offspring of five pregnant women who used vinblastine during the first trimester, congenital anomalies were observed in two infants, there was one spon- taneous abortion and two normal neonates (Metz et al. No anomalies were reported in 27 infants, 17 of whom were exposed during the first trimester (Aviles and Neri, 2001; Wiebe and Sipila, 1994). One normal infant was reported who was exposed following maternal vinblastine, bleomycin, and cisplatin therapy for a malignant ter- atoma during the second trimester (Christman et al. It should be noted that there is considerable overlap in the published reports included in the different reviews. Vinblastine was associated with an increased frequency of congenital anomalies in rats, mice, hamsters, and rabbits exposed during embryogenesis. It is also used to treat Miscellaneous agents 139 melanoma, trophoblastic tumors, and some carcinomas (breast, cervical, ovarian, and lung). The cytotoxic nature of vincristine suggests high potential to cause birth defects in exposed embryos, although no published studies document this. Among 35 infants born to women who received vincristine as part of polydrug antineoplastic regimens at various stages of gestation, there were two spontaneous and three therapeutic abortions, two intrauterine deaths (without anomalies), and 29 live-born infants with no gross anomalies (Caliguri and Mayer, 1989). It is important to note that only 11 of 29 infants were exposed to vincristine in the first trimester, and none were malformed. However, all vincristine- polytherapy-exposed newborns had significant transient pancytopenia, and one infant had polydactyly (most probably not drug-related). Among 31 infants exposed to antineoplas- tic agents during gestation in another review, two major birth defects occurred among those exposed to vincristine polytherapy regimens (Wiebe and Sipila, 1994). Of five infants born to women who sustained exposure to the drug during the first trimester, one had a major congenital anomaly (Metz et al. Vincristine and vinblastine were associated with an increased frequency of congenital anomalies in nonhuman primates and in rat studies (Courtney and Valenio, 1968; Demeyer, 1964, 1965). Acute leukemia, lymphomas, gestational trophoblastic tumors, and a variety of carcinomas are also treated with etoposide. No anomalies were reported in one infant exposed whose mother was treated with an etoposide-containing polytherapy during pregnancy (Rodriguez and Haggag, 1995). One infant was born with cerebral atrophy following first trimester expo- sure to etoposide (Elit et al. According to the manufacturer of the drug, this agent was teratogenic in animals, but these studies have not been subjected to peer review. No studies have been published regarding use of this drug dur- ing the first trimester of pregnancy. Treatment during the second and third trimesters was associated with pancytopenia. In a review of seven infants whose mothers were given L-asparaginase as part of polydrug therapy for leukemia, all were live-born and none had congenital anomalies (Caliguri and Mayer, 1989). Importantly, only one of these infants was exposed to the drug during the first trimester. Asparaginase was associated with an increased frequency of congenital anomalies in the offspring of pregnant rats, rabbits, and mice (Adamson and Fabro, 1970; Lorke and Tettenborn, 1970; Ohguro et al. Cisplatin is also used to treat a number of carcino- mas: adrenal, head and neck, lung, neuroblastoma, osteosarcoma, prostate, stomach, cervical, endometrial, and breast. A review of case reports suggested that cisplatin has been administered in the second and third trimesters without untoward fetal effects (Christman et al. Caution is recommended for its use in the first trimester because platinol interferes with neurolation (complete development of the neural tube) in experimental animals.
Nitrofurantoin has been reported to cause hemolytic anemia in women with glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency (Powell et al cheap cipro 500 mg mastercard antibiotic resistance vertical horizontal. However cheap cipro 750 mg free shipping antibiotic resistance update, in the authors’ experience of approximately 1000 pregnant women receiving this medication for urinary tract infections purchase cipro 750mg on-line antibiotics poop, hemolytic anemia has not occurred in either the mother or the fetus discount 250mg cipro antibiotic resistance pbs. Vancomycin Vancomycin is an antibiotic which does not belong to any other class of antimicrobial agents. It is both bactericidal and bacteriostatic, and is effective against a wide variety of Gram-positive organisms, including the Enterococci (Hermans and Wilhelm, 1987). It is the drug of choice for Clostridium-difficile-associated pseudomembranous colitis. It is also used in penicillin-allergic pregnant women for bacterial endocarditis prophylaxis. There is no available scientific information linking this agent with adverse pregnancy outcomes, including congenital malformations. However, vancomycin may be associ- ated with significant maternal side effects, such as nephrotoxicity and ototoxicity. Although there are no such reports, vancomycin could theoretically result in the same toxicity in the fetus, since this drug readily crosses the placenta. Aztreonam Aztreonam belongs to a relatively new class of antibiotics: the monobactams. It is effec- tive against most of the aerobic Gram-negative rods or Enterobacteriaceae, and is used as an alternative to the aminoglycosides. However, according to its manufacturer, aztreonam has not been shown to be teratogenic in several animal models given several times the human dose. Moreover, a particular advantage of this antibiotic over the aminoglycosides is that it is not associated with either nephrotoxicity or ototoxicity in either the mother or the fetus. It is presently combined with cilastatin, which inhibits the renal metabolism of imipenem. Imipenem is effective against a wide variety of 34 Antimicrobials during pregnancy Gram-positive and Gram-negative aerobic and anaerobic organisms. It has the potential to be very effective as single-agent therapy for polymicrobial pelvic infections in women. There are no available human reproductive studies, but the imipenem–cilastatin combi- nation has not been shown to be teratogenic in rats or rabbits, according to its manu- facturer. There are few indications for the use of this very ‘potent’ antibiotic in pregnant women. Potential maternal side effects include hypersensitivity, central nervous system toxicity, and pseudomembranous colitis. Quinolones Ciprofloxacin, norfloxacin, and ofloxacin belong to the fluoroquinolone group of antibi- otics. They are very effective against the aerobic Gram-negative bacilli, and hence are espe- cially useful for the treatment of urinary tract infections. They also exhibit good activity against a variety of aerobic Gram-positive organisms, although most anaerobes are resistant to both antibiotics. Among 549 pregnancies that were exposed to quinolones during the first trimester, there were the following exposures: 318 norfloxacin, 93 oflaxacin, 70 ciprofloxacin, and 57 pefloxacin (Schaefer et al. Analyses controlled for various confounding factors, and it was found that the frequency of congenital anomalies was not increased above back- ground (3. However, two of the defects associated with ofloxacin exposure were secondary to prematurity (undescended testicle and inguinal hernia). When these two infants were excluded from the analysis, the frequency of congenital anomalies was not increased above background. Norfloxacin was not found to be teratogenic when given to monkeys during the critical period of organogenesis (Cukierski et al. However, according to the manufac- turer, quinolones may cause lameness or irreversible arthropathy in immature dogs Box 2. It should be noted that approximately 2 percent of women taking these drugs experienced a reversible skin rash and photosensitivity (Christian, 1996). Naldixic acid, another quinolone, was associated with pyloric stenosis but the rela- tionship is apparently not causal. Although data are not adequate to exclude a risk of birth defects following exposure during the first trimester, it seems unlikely that naldixic acid poses a substantial risk of birth defects (Friedman and Polifka, 2006). Other quinolones have not been investigated for use during pregnancy: moxifloxacin (Avalox), gatifloxacin (Tequin), levofloxacin (Levaquin), garebixacin, and gemifloxacin. Azithromycin No epidemiological studies of azithromycin use during pregnancy have been published. Although, it does not seem to be associated with a high risk of congenital anomalies follow- ing first-trimester exposure, a small risk cannot be excluded (Friedman and Polifka, 2006). In a review of 15 studies involving 446 pregnancies exposed to rifampin, Snider and coworkers (1980) reported a malformation rate of 3–4 percent, similar to that of the general population. There were also over 600 pregnancies exposed to ethanbutol and almost 1500 exposed to isoniazid without evidence of an increase in congenital malfor- mations (Snider et al. This most potent teratogen should obviously be avoided in pregnant women or those likely to become pregnant. Nystatin, clotrimazole, and miconazole These agents are utilized primarily for the treatment of candidiasis. In at least two recent reports there were no increases in malformations from their use (Jick et al. Butoconazole, terconazole, and ketoconazole There are no large studies of the use of these three antifungal agents during pregnancy. Butoconazole is a category B drug, and the other two are listed as category C by their 36 Antimicrobials during pregnancy Box 2. It seems unlikely that these agents would have significant, if any, terato- genic risks. Fluconazole Fluconazole is an azole antifungal similar to ketoconazole and is utilized for both local and systemic fungal infections (Hollier and Cox, 1995). It is useful in the treatment of vaginal, oral, and systemic candidiasis, as well as for prophylaxis and treatment of cryp- tococcal infections in immunocompromised patients (i. Among 239 women who took single low doses of fluconazole, 60 took it during the first trimester of pregnancy. Antifungals 37 However, four cases of craniosynostosis with radial-humeral bowing and tetrology of Fallot have occurred following repeated high-dose fluconazole for cocci meningitis (Aleck and Bartley, 1996; Lee et al. In one study of 226 pregnancies exposed to fluconazole during the first trimester, the frequency of congenital anomalies was not increased (Mastroiacovo et al. Maternal side effects may include headache, dizziness, or gastroin- testinal upset. Ciclopirox This is a relatively new, topical antifungal agent effective against various dermatophytes such as Trichophyton species and Candida albicans. There is little, if any, information regarding its use during pregnancy but, according to its manufacturer, it was not terato- genic in various animal studies. Tolnaftate, undecylenic, and terbinafine Both tolnaftate (Tinactin) and undecylenic acid (Desenex) are utilized for dermatophyte infections such as tinea pedis and tinea corporis, but are not effective against yeast (Davis, 1995). There are no reports of these agents being teratogenic, and it would seem reasonable to classify them as category B agents at the present time. Amphotericin B Amphotericin B is an antifungal agent that is used primarily to treat systemic mycotic infections.
He indeed retained consciousness purchase 250 mg cipro with visa antibiotic for uti gram negative rods, but there always followed heaviness of the head and a drunken stupor cipro 250mg visa antibiotics for uti urinary tract infection. Her menses became irregular buy cheap cipro 750 mg on line antibiotics for sinus infection uk, and were often interrupted for ten or even fifteen weeks; she was at the same time constipated order cipro 250mg line bacteria 4 living conditions. Four years ago during pregnancy she was seized with vertigo, and she would suddenly fall down while standing or walking. While sitting she would retain her senses during the vertigo and could speak, eat and drink. At her first attack she felt in her left foot, as it were, a crawling sensation and formication, which terminated in a violent jerking up and down of the feet. In time these attacks took away consciousness, and afterwards in travelling in a carriage there came an attack of real epilepsy which returned thrice in the following winter. During these attacks she could not speak; she did not indeed turn her thumbs inward, but yet there was foam at her month. The sensation of formication in the left foot announced the attack, and when this sensation reached the pit of the stomach it suddenly brought on the fit. This epilepsy was removed by a woman with five powders, but instead of it her vertigo reappeared, but much more violently than before. It also commenced with a crawling sensation in the left foot, which rose up to the heart; this was attended with great anxiety and fear, as if she were falling down from a height, and while supposing that she had fallen she lost consciousness and speech; at the same time her limbs moved convulsively. But also outside of these attacks the least touch of her feet caused her the most intense pain as if from a boil. She sometimes suddenly started up as if from fright, and while awake she was seized with convulsive motions of the limbs, especially of the arms and hands, as also with oppression in the pit of the stomach as if her breast was laced together; with moaning; then her limbs would jerk convulsively and she would start up. He was thereupon seized with great lassitude and red patches without heat broke out on his body. The tremor passed over into convulsive shaking, bloody matter was discharged from his nose and his ears, he also coughed up blood, and he died on the 23d day amidst convulsions. The fourth day he was seized with epilepsy, foaming at the mouth, while the limbs were strangely contorted. But when the physician enquired more particularly, the mother confessed that the little boy had some vesicles of itch on the sole of the foot, which had soon yielded to lead ointment; the child, as she said, had no other sign of the itch. Another surgeon, through frequent blood-lettings and many medicines, effected that he remained free from epilepsy for four weeks, but soon afterwards the epilepsy returned while he was taking his noonday nap, and the patient had two or three fits in the nights; at the same time he was attacked with a very severe cough and suffocating catarrh, especially during the nights, when he expectorated a very fetid fluid. At last, after much medicine, the disease increased so much that he had ten fits at night and eight during the day. Nevertheless he never in these fits either clenched his thumbs or had foam at his mouth. During his nightly attacks he remains in the deepest sleep without awaking, but in the morning he feels as if bruised all over. The only warning of a fit consists in his rubbing his nose and drawing up his left foot, but then he suddenly falls down. In the same place the author mentions also a woman whose fingers contracted from an itch driven out by external means; she suffered of them a long time. He became insane, sang or laughed where it was unbecoming, and ran until he sank to the ground from exhaustion. From day to day he became more sick in soul and in body, until at last hemiplegy came on and he died. The intestines were found grown together into a firm mass, studded with little ulcers full of protuberances, some of the size of walnuts, which were filled ,with a substance resembling gypsum. Artificial irritants applied to the skin and a strong emetic brought back the itch again; when the eruption extended over the whole body all the former accidents disappeared. Who, after reading even the few cases described, would hesitate to acknowledge that the Psora, as already stated, is the most destructive of all chronic miasmas? Who would be so stolid as to declare, with, the later allopathic physicians, that the itch-eruption, tinea and tetters are only situated superficially upon the skin and may, therefore, without fear, be driven out through external means since the internal of the body has no part in it and retains its health? If the examples here adduced by me from both the older and from modern non-Homoeopathic writings have not yet enough convincing proof, I should like to know what other examples (even my own not excepted) could be conceived of as more striking proofs? How often (and I might say almost always) have opponents of the old school refused all credence to the observations of honorable Homoeopathic physicians, because they were not made before their own eyes and because the names of the patients were only indicated with a letter; as if private patients would allow their names to be used! And do I not prove my point in a manner most indubitable and most free from partisanship through the experience of so many other honest practitioners? The man who, from the examples given and from innumerable others of a like nature, is not willing to see the exact opposite of that assertion blinds himself on purpose and works intentionally for the destruction of mankind. Or are they so little instructed as to the nature of all the miasmatic maladies connected with diseases of the skin that they do not know that they all take a similar course in their origin? And that all such miasmas become first internal maladies of the whole system before their external assuaging symptom appears on the skin? We shall more closely elucidate this process, and in consequence we shall see that all miasmatic maladies which show peculiar local ailments on the skin are always present as internal maladies in the system before they show their local symptom externally upon the skin; but that only in acute diseases, after taking their course through a certain number of days, the local symptom, together with the internal disease, is wont to disappear, which then leaves the body free from both. In chronic miasmas, however, the outer local symptom may either be driven from the skin or may disappear of itself, while the internal disease, if uncured, neither wholly nor in part ever leaves the system; on the contrary, it continually increases with the years, unless healed by art. I must here dwell the more circumstantially on this process of nature, because the common physicians, especially of modem days, are so deficient in vision; or, more correctly stated, so blind that although they could, as it were, handle and feel this process in the origin and development of acute miasmatic eruptional diseases, they nevertheless neither surmised nor observed the like process in chronic diseases, and therefore declared their local symptoms as secondary growths and impurities existing merely externally on the skin, without any internal fundamental disease, and this as well with the chancre and the fig-wart as with the eruption of itch, and fore - since they overlooked the chief disease or perhaps even boldly denied it - by a mere external treatment and destruction of these local ailments they have brought unspeakable misfortunes on suffering humanity. With respect to the origin of these three chronic maladies, as in the acute, miasmatic eruptional diseases, three different important moments are to be more attentively considered than has hitherto been done: First, the time of infection; secondly, the period of time during which the whole organism is being penetrated by the disease infused, until it has developed within; and thirdly, the breaking out of the external ailment, whereby nature externally demonstrates the completion of the internal, development of the miasmatic malady throughout the whole organism. When the smallpox or the cowpox catches, this happens in the moment when in vaccination the morbid fluid in the bloody scratch of the skin comes in contact with the exposed nerve, which then, irrevocably, dynamically communicates the disease to the vital force (to the whole nervous system) in the same moment. After this moment of infection no ablution, cauterizing or burning, not even the cutting off of the part which has caught and received the infection, can again destroy or undo the development of the disease within. The same is the case, not to mention several other acute miasmas, also when the skin of man is contaminated with the blood of cattle affected with anthrax. If, as is frequently the case, the anthrax has infected and caught on, all ablutions of the skin are in vain; the black or gangrenous blister, nearly always fatal, nevertheless, always comes out after four or five days (usually in the affected spot); i. Does it not take three, four or five days after vaccination is effected, before the vaccinated spot becomes inflamed? Does not the sort of fever developed - the sign of the completion of the disease-appear even later, when the protecting pock has been fully formed; i. Does it not take ten to twelve days after infection with smallpox, before the inflammatory fever and the outbreak of the smallpox on the skin take place? What has nature been doing with the infection received in these ten or twelve days? Was it not necessary to first embody the disease in the whole organism before nature was enabled to kindle the fever, and to bring out the emption on the skin? Measles also require ten or twelve days after infection or inoculation before this eruption with its fever appears. After infection with scarlet fever seven days usually pass before the scarlet fever, with the redness of the skin, breaks out. What else but to incorporate the whole disease of measles or scarlet fever in the entire living organism before she had completed the work, so as to be enabled to produce the measles and the scarlet fever with their eruption. Among many persons bitten by mad dogs - thanks to the benign ruler of the world only few are infected, rarely the twelfth; often, as I myself have observed, only one out of twenty or thirty persons bitten. The others, even if ever so badly mangled by the mad dog, usually all recover, even if they are not treated by a physician or surgeon. Now if the venomous spittle of the mad dog has really taken effect, the infection usually has taken place irrevocably in the moment of contagion, for experience shows that even the immediate excision and amputation of the infected part does not protect from the progression of the disease within, nor from the breaking out of the hydrophobia - therefore, also, the many hundreds, of other much lauded external means for cleansing, cauterizing and suppurating the wound of the bite can protect just as little from the breaking out of the hydrophobia.