By P. Lukar. Carlow College.
It is likely that widespread use of antibiotics in livestock has helped increased prevalence of E lozol 2.5mg sale pulse blood pressure relationship. The excretion of antibiotics into the environment directly from farms or even through sewage farms purchase lozol 1.5mg with mastercard blood pressure medication kills, contributes to genetically determined resistance in these and other bacteria in the environment buy 2.5 mg lozol amex arrhythmia bigeminy. Infection occurs directly via contact with infected farm (or to a lesser extent wild) animals and their environments or from consumption of contaminated meat or unpasteurised milk purchase 1.5 mg lozol fast delivery blood pressure kit. Scientists are now finding strong evidence that a significant amount of antibiotic resistance in human E. Environment Wetlands inhabited by susceptible species, particularly domestic ruminants. Susceptible animals include those which are immunocompromised, stressed, young, old, breeding or with associated environmental pressures. Infected animals, in particular young animals, shed the bacteria in their faeces, thus leading to exposure of other animals. In humans, incubation period ranges from 1-8 days but the duration of the illness is usually approximately 3–5 days. However, the bacteria can continue to be passed in faeces for up to three weeks post infection. Symptoms vary from mild to severe and include diarrhoea, vomiting, stomach-ache and fever. Accepting that domestic ruminants pose the greatest risk of transmission of pathogenic strains of E. If appropriate, wildlife can be kept away from possible sources of contamination e. Wetland treatment systems can also be used to reduce the risk of infection [►Environment]. Hands should be frequently washed with soap after handling animals, or working in their environment, and disposable gloves should be worn if in contact with sick animals. Wildlife populations may be in danger of fatalities or morbidity particularly if there are con-current infections or other stressors present. This is a problem of developed intensive agricultural systems and there is no evidence of widespread infection from extensive rangeland systems and natural environments. Effect on livestock Whilst domestic mammals generally only serve as carriers (or reservoirs) of the bacteria, some strains of E. Colibacillosis in pigeons and poultry is usually secondary to stress or con-current viral infection. There is now compelling evidence that animals reared for food are a reservoir for both antibiotic-resistant pathogenic and commensal E. Causal agent Toxin-producing species of algae, including: Alexandrium fundyense, Dinophysis spp, Gambierdiscus toxicus, Gymnodinium catenatum, Karenia brevis, Karenia brevisulcatum, Karlodinium veneficum, Lyngbya, Pfiesteria piscicda, Pfiesteria, Prorocentrum lima, Protoperidinium crassipes, Pseudo- nitzchia and Pyrodinium bahamense var. Environment Occur in both saltwater and freshwater environments, particularly where there are high nutrient levels (in particular high levels of nitrogen and phosphorus) but can also occur frequently in low nutrient environments. Livestock may drink contaminated water or lick themselves after bodily exposure and become ill. Affecting water quality by causing oxygen depletion from respiration and bacterial degradation, and blocking of sunlight. This may appear in conjunction with occurrence of a marine reddish/orange tide or freshwater bloom (which initially appear green and may later turn blue sometimes forming a scum/foam in the water). Signs such as irritation of the skin, vomiting, paralysis, lethargy and loss of muscle co-ordination may be observed in birds. Not all toxic algal blooms are visibly noticeable and so a sample of organisms from the bloom may be useful or necessary for diagnosis. Recommended action if Contact and seek assistance from animal and human health professionals suspected immediately if there is any illness in birds, fish, marine mammals and/or people. Diagnosis Confirmative diagnosis is difficult and relies on circumstantial evidence and supportive clinical and pathologic findings. There are also currently no established toxic thresholds for wildlife species and even when these exist it may be difficult to assess their significance. Collect samples during the die-off event as soon as possible after carcases are found. Contact a diagnostic laboratory for advice on appropriate sample collection and transport. Plants such as reeds and willow, and constructed treatment wetland systems can remove sediments and pollutants especially in places which release high volumes of nutrients, such as animal and human sewage outlets. Monitoring and surveillance Careful monitoring and early detection of potentially toxic algal blooms could allow time to initiate actions to prevent or reduce harmful effects e. Monitor for changes in nutrient load of water discharges, particularly sewage discharges (including septic tanks and cesspits) and agriculture. Patrol to observe and map discoloured water or dead fish for early detection of potentially toxic algal blooms. Humans Do not fish in an algal bloom/discoloured water and never eat fish which are dead when caught. When swimming, look for warnings of algal blooms and avoid swimming if you cannot see your feet when the water level is at your knees. Ingestion of toxin may not cause mortality but have other less obvious physiological effects such as affecting immune, neurological and reproductive capability. Effect on livestock Mostly not harmful unless ingested through eating contaminated seafood/fish, drinking contaminated water or licking their coats following exposure to the skin. Effect on humans Mostly not harmful unless ingested through eating contaminated seafood/fish or drinking contaminated water. Some organisms irritate the skin and others release toxic compounds into the water and, if aerosolised by wave action, these compounds may cause problems when inhaled. Economic importance May have significant economic impacts on freshwater and marine aquaculture industries, fisheries and coastal tourism. In: Field manual of wildlife diseases: general field procedures and diseases of birds. Harmful algal blooms in coastal waters: options for prevention, control, and mitigation. Instituto Español de Oceanografía, Centro Oceanografico de Vigo, Cabo Estay-Canido, 36390 Vigo, Spain. Lead poisoning arises through the absorption of hazardous levels of lead in body tissues. Lead is a highly toxic poison which can cause morbidity and mortality in humans, livestock and wildlife. Waterfowl, birds of prey and scavenging birds are at greater risk of exposure to lead than other bird species and mammals due to feeding habits that involve ingesting lead gunshot as grit or consuming prey animals that have been shot with lead ammunition. Lead poisoning in waterbirds is a very serious and large-scale environmental problem. Birds can die from lead poisoning throughout the year but mortality is more likely after waterfowl hunting seasons. Lead exposure may also cause a variety of health effects in humans, particularly for children, foetuses and pregnant women. Species affected Many species of birds, particularly waterbirds, birds of prey, scavenging birds, and mammals. Any species using an area where shooting with lead ammunition occurs or has occurred previously is at some risk of exposure and, potentially, poisoning. Lead-based paint, mine wastes, lead contaminated industrial effluents and other objects provide additional sources of contamination. How are animals exposed Waterfowl usually become poisoned after ingesting spent lead shot, mistaking to lead? Predators or scavengers may become poisoned after consuming animals that have been shot with lead ammunition. Lead from ammunition and fishing weights may slowly dissolve and enter groundwater, making it potentially harmful for plants, animals and perhaps humans if it enters water bodies or is taken up in plants.
Temporal relationship The next characteristic that should be considered is the temporal relationship between the purported cause and effect 2.5 mg lozol with visa heart attack blood pressure. In order to have a temporal relationship buy generic lozol 1.5 mg online blood pressure entry chart, there should be an appropriate chronological sequence of events found by the study 1.5 mg lozol for sale hypertension 4 mg. The disease progression should follow a predictable path from risk-factor exposure to the outcome and that pattern should be reproducible from study to study generic lozol 1.5 mg on-line blood pressure medication headache. For example, some smokers quit smoking just prior to getting sick with lung cancer. While they may attribute their illness to quitting, the illness was present long before they ﬁnally decided to quit. In this case, the cancer may appear to be the cause and the cessation of smoking the effect. The causality may be difﬁcult to determine in many cases, especially with slowly progressive and chronic diseases. Dose–response The dose–response gradient can help deﬁne cause and effect if there are varying concentrations of the cause and varying degrees of association with the effect. Usually, the association becomes stronger with increasing amounts of exposure Applicability and strength of evidence 195 to the cause. However, some cause-and-effect relationships show the opposite correlation, with increasing strength of association when exposure decreases. An example of this inverse relationship is the connection between vitamin intake and birth defects. As the consumption of folic acid increases in a population, the incidence of neural tube birth defects decreases. The direction and magnitude of the effect should also show a consistent dose–response gradient. This gradient can be demonstrated in randomized clinical trials and cohort studies but not in case–control or descriptive studies. In general, we would expect that an increased dose or duration of the cause would produce an increased risk or severity of the effect. The risk of lung cancer decreases among former smokers as the time from giving up smoking increases. In these cases, the risk is highest at both increased and decreased rates of exposure while it is lowest in the middle. For example, a recent study of the effect of obesity on mor- tality showed a higher mortality among patients with the highest and lowest body mass index with the lowest mortality among people with the mid-range levels of body mass index. Biological plausibility When trying to decide on applicability of study results, biological plausibility should be considered. The results of the study should be consistent with what we know about the biology of the body, cells, tissues, and organs, and with data from various branches of biological sciences. There should be some basic science in- vitro bench or animal studies to support the conclusions and previously known biologic mechanisms should be able to explain the results. Is there a reason in biology that men and women smokers will have different rates of lung cancer? For some medical issues, gender, ethnicity, or cultural background has a huge inﬂuence while for other medical issues the inﬂuence is very little. To determine which areas fall into each category, more studies of gender and other differences for medical interventions are required. Coherence of the evidence over time In order to have strong evidence, there should be consistency of the evidence over varying types of studies. The results of a cohort study should be similar to those of case–control or cross-sectional studies done on the same cause-and- effect relationship. Studies that show consistency with previously known epi- demiological data are said to evidence epidemiological consistency. Also, results should agree with previously discovered relationships between the presumed cause and effect in studies done on other populations around the world. An 196 Essential Evidence-Based Medicine association of high cholesterol with increased deaths due to myocardial infarc- tion was noted in several epidemiological studies in Scandinavian countries. Analogy Reasoning by analogy is one of the weakest criteria allowing generalization. Knowing that a certain vitamin deﬁciency predisposes women to deliver babies with certain birth defects will marginally strengthen the evidence that another vitamin or nutritional factor has a similar effect. When using analogy, the pro- posed cause-and-effect relationship is supported by ﬁndings from studies using the same methods but different variables. From this, one could infer that a potent anticoagulant like warfarin ought to have the same effect. However, warfarin may increase mortality because of the side effect of causing increased bleeding. Again, although it is suggested by an initial study, the proposed new intervention may not prove beneﬁcial when studied alone. Common sense Finally, in order to consider applying a study result to a patient, the association should make sense and competing explanations associating risk and outcome should be ruled out. For instance, very sick patients are likely to have a poor out- come even if given a very good drug, thus making the drug look less efﬁcacious than it truly is. Conversely, if most patients with a disease do well without any therapy, it may be very difﬁcult to prove that one drug is better than another for that disease. When dealing with this effect, an inordinately large number of patients would be necessary to prove a beneﬁcial effect of a medication. It may lead to the overselling of potent drugs, and may result in clinical researchers neglecting more common, cheaper, and better forms of therapy. Similarly, patients thinking that a new wonder drug will cure them may delay seeking care at a time when a potentially serious problem is easily treated and complications averted. Finally, it is up to the individual physician to determine how a particular piece of evidence should be used in a particular patient. As stated earlier, this is the art Applicability and strength of evidence 197 Fig. We must learn to use the best evi- dence in the most appropriate situations and communicate this effectively to our patients. There is a real need for more high-quality evidence for the practice of medicine, however, we must treat our patients now with the highest-quality evidence available. Pathman’s Pipeline The Pathman ‘leaky’ pipeline is a model of knowledge transfer, taking the best evidence from the research arena into everyday practice. This model considers the ways that evidence will be lost in the process of diffusion into the everyday practice of medicine. Pathman, a family physician in the 1970s, to model the reasons why physicians did not vaccinate children with routine vaccinations. It has been expanded to model the reasons that physicians don’t use the best evidence (Fig. They must then accept the evidence as being legitimate 198 Essential Evidence-Based Medicine and useful. This follows a bell-shaped curve with the innovators followed by the early adopters, early majority, late majority, and ﬁnally the laggards. Providers must believe that the evidence is applicable to their patients, speciﬁcally the one in their clinic at that time. However, it is still up to the patient to agree to accept the evidence and ﬁnally be com- pliant and adhere to the evidence. The next chapter will discuss the process of communication of the best evidence to patients. William Butler Yeats (1865–1939) Learning objectives In this chapter you will learn: r when to communicate evidence with a patient r ﬁve steps to communicating evidence r how health literacy affects the communication of evidence r common pitfalls to communicating evidence and their solutions When a patient asks a question, the health-care provider may need to review evidence or evidence-based recommendations to best answer that question.
Variability in the trans fatty acid content of foods within a food category: Implications for estimation of dietary trans fatty acid intakes purchase lozol 2.5 mg with mastercard blood pressure question. Absorption of individual fatty acids from long chain or medium chain triglycerides in very small infants buy lozol 2.5 mg on line blood pressure understanding. Effect of dietary linoleic/alpha-linolenic acid ratio on growth and visual function of term infants buy 2.5 mg lozol with mastercard pulse pressure variation values. Deficiencies of essential fatty acids buy discount lozol 2.5mg on-line blood pressure kit walgreens, vitamin A and E and changes in plasma lipoproteins in patients with reduced fat absorption or intestinal failure. Effect of formula supplemented with docosahexaenoic acid and γ-linolenic acid on fatty acid status and visual acuity in term infants. Dietary trans fatty acids: Effects on plasma lipids and lipoproteins of healthy men and women. Effects of marga- rine compared with those of butter on blood lipid profiles related to cardio- vascular disease risk factors in normolipemic adults fed controlled diets. Serum cholesterol and mortality in a Japanese-American population: The Honolulu Heart Program. Docosahexaenoic acid ingestion inhibits natural killer cell activity and production of inflammatory mediators in young healthy men. A stearic acid- rich diet improves thrombogenic and atherogenic risk factor profiles in healthy males. Dietary n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and amelioration of cardiovascular disease: Possible mechanisms. Fatty acids and eicosanoids regulate gene expression through direct interactions with peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors α and γ. Fatty acid composition of breast milk from three racial groups from Penang, Malaysia. Adipose tissue trans fatty acids and breast cancer in the European Community Multicenter Study on Antioxidants, Myocardial Infarction, and Breast Cancer. Trans fatty acids may impair biosynthesis of long-chain poly- unsaturates and growth in man. The role of fatty acid saturation on plasma lipids, lipoproteins, and apolipoproteins: I. Effects of whole food diets high in cocoa butter, olive oil, soybean oil, dairy butter, and milk chocolate on the plasma lipids of young men. Diet, prevalence and 10-year mortality from coronary heart disease in 871 middle-aged men. The inverse relation between fish consumption and 20-year mortality from coronary heart disease. Dietary saturated and trans fatty acids and cholesterol and 25-year mortality from coronary heart disease: The Seven Countries Study. Influence of dietary fat on the nutrient intake and growth of children from 1 to 5 y of age: The Special Turku Coronary Risk Factor Intervention Project. Maintenance of lower proportions of (n-6) eicosanoid precursors in phospholipids of human plasma in response to added dietary (n-3) fatty acids. Lapinleimu H, Viikari J, Jokinen E, Salo P, Routi T, Leino A, Rönnemaa R, Seppänen R, Välimäki I, Simell O. Prospective randomised trial in 1062 infants of diet low in saturated fat and cholesterol. Dietary fat in relation to body fat and intraabdominal adipose tissue: A cross- sectional analysis. Effect of dietary enrichment with eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids on in vitro neutrophil and monocyte leukotriene generation and neutrophil function. Energy intake required to main- tain body weight is not affected by wide variation in diet composition. Lipid peroxidation in rat tissue slices: Effect of dietary vitamin E, corn oil-lard and mehaden oil. Assessment of trans-fatty acid intake with a food frequency questionnaire and validation with adipose tissue levels of trans-fatty acids. Effects of different forms of dietary hydrogenated fats on serum lipoprotein cholesterol levels. Platelet function, thromboxane formation and blood pressure control during supplementation of the Western diet with cod liver oil. A high-steric acid diet does not impair glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity in healthy women. Randomised con- trolled trial of a synthetic triglyceride milk formula for preterm infants. Lucas A, Stafford M, Morley R, Abbott R, Stephenson T, MacFadyen U, Elias-Jones A, Clements H. Efficacy and safety of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation of infant-formula milk: A randomised trial. Dietary fiber, weight gain, and cardiovascular disease risk factors in young adults. Fatty acid composition of brain, retina, and erythrocytes in breast- and formula-fed infants. A randomized trial of different ratios of linoleic to α-linolenic acid in the diet of term infants: Effects on visual function and growth. A critical appraisal of the role of dietary long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids on neural indices of term infants: A randomized controlled trial. High saturated fat and low starch and fibre are associated with hyperinsulinemia in a non-diabetic population: The San Luis Valley Diabetes Study. Serum choles- terol, blood pressure, and mortality: Implications from a cohort of 361,662 men. Total fatty acids, plasmalogens, and fatty acid composition of ethanolamine and choline phosphoglycerides. Effect of total parenteral nutrition with cycling on essential fatty acid deficiency. The proportion of trans monounsaturated fatty acids in serum triacylglycerols or platelet phospholipids as an objective indicator of their short-term intake in healthy men. Effect of dietary trans fatty acids on high-density and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in healthy subjects. Effect of dietary cis and trans fatty acids on serum lipoprotein[a] levels in humans. Oral (n-3) fatty acid supplementation suppresses cytokine production and lymphocyte proliferation: Comparison between young and older women. Immunologic effects of National Cholesterol Education Panel Step-2 Diets with and without fish-derived n-3 fatty acid enrichment. The effect of dose level of essential fatty acids upon fatty acid composition of the rat liver. Dietary supple- mentation with ω-3-polyunsaturated fatty acids decreases mononuclear cell proliferation and interleukin-1β content but not monokine secretion in healthy and insulin-dependent diabetic individuals. Astrocytes, not neurons, produce docosahexaenoic acid (22:6ω-3) and arachidonic acid (20:4ω-6). The effect of n-6 and n-3 fatty acids on hemostasis, blood lipids and blood pressure. Effect on plasma lipids and lipoproteins of replacing partially hydrogenated fish oil with vegetable fat in margarine. Alcohol and the regulation of energy balance: Overnight effects on diet-induced thermogenesis and fuel storage. Coagulation and fibrinolysis factors in healthy subjects consuming high stearic or trans fatty acid diets. Serum cholesterol, blood pressure, cigarette smoking, and death from coronary heart disease.
It is estimated of healthcare providers such as nephrologists purchase 1.5mg lozol amex pulse pressure physiology, car- that by 2030 cheap lozol 1.5 mg arrhythmia kamaliya, the population of individuals over 65 diologists order 1.5 mg lozol with mastercard blood pressure chart stage 2, general practitioners discount 2.5 mg lozol with visa 2014 2014, and pharmacists yr of age will increase by four-fold, and this age and may lack good continuity of care. Failure to disclose a and strengthen the economic tsunami that our complete list of current medications taken to each country is facing today. Proven therapies is three- to ten-fold higher in older adults with kid- are often underused in the geriatric population. The overall size, part, because of a high risk of drug–drug interac- mass, and effective area of filtration decreases with tions, adverse drug reactions, and lack of clinical increasing age. Monitoring the medica- crease the risk for drug and/or active metabolite ac- tions used in older adults and identifying drug in- cumulation in older patients with kidney disease. Drug ther- After the age of 50, the number of nephrons pro- apy management in older adults is challenging, and gressively declines from approximately 1,000,000 many factors related to normal aging, disease states, and lifestyle should be considered before initiation Correspondence: Ali J. Phone: 503-494-8007; Fax: 503-494- 91% of older adults regularly use one prescription 2994; E-mail: olyaeia@ohsu. Estimated population of individuals (%) over 65 yr of age by 2100 in the United States. In addition, up to 35% of nephrons show clini- cally important evidence of sclerosis. Older adults are in general underrepresented in alized nations and may further distress renal function. Most studies exclude patients over 65 yr Unites States, approximately 65% of older adults have a diag- of age, and few studies allow the inclusion of nursing home nosis of hypertension. To avoid toxicity in older renal blood flow can happen independent of cardiac output or patients with kidney disease, the drug dosage should be ad- Prevalence of Polypharmacy for Prescription Medications 69% 57-64 19% 2% 82% Men 65-74 28% 6% 88% 75-85 36% 4% 81% 57-64 27% 5% 87% Women 65-74 33% 5% 92% 75-85 37% 4% 0. Percent of polypharmacy at different age 1+ 5+ 10+ groups: 1 drug, 5 drugs, and 10 drugs. There are a both prescription and nonprescription, should be obtained to number of methods to estimate creatinine clearance; however, identify potential nephrotoxins or interacting medications. A the most commonly used method is the Cockcroft-Gault thorough medication history should be obtained to identify method. There are a number of limitations when using the drug allergies or intolerances and previous adverse drug reac- Cockcroft-Gault method in older patients. Some drugs may increase the metabolic load by in- Volume status, both intracellular and extracellular, should creasing creatinine production and/or urea production (e. Ketosis, hyperbilirubinemia, and some cephalo- older adults, total body volume decreases by 10 to 15%. Muscle sporins may influence the measurement of plasma creatinine atrophy, reduced tissue perfusion, and increase in fat content and cause renal function assessment inaccurate when serum change the volume of distribution of most hydrophilic agents. The plasma concentration of drugs with a narrow therapeutic Considering these limitations, estimating renal function is window and small volume of distribution (aminoglycosides, difficult in the elderly population. However, the use of the lithium) may alter considerably with any change in extracellu- Cockcroft-Gault method is the safest and most effective ap- lar fluids. Coexisting hepatic dysfunction may alter protein proach for dosage adjustments in patients with renal impair- binding, volume of distribution, and intravascular volume and ment. In patients with acute kid- dations provide a simple approach for healthcare providers ney injury, rising serum creatinine, and low urine output, cre- and attempt to reduce the risk of drug toxicity and improve atinine clearance should be assumed to be generally 10 ml/ pharmacotherapeutic efficacy. Io- A complete medical history should be obtained, and a physical hexol provides a more accurate measurement of renal function exam should be performed. The etiology and duration of renal without exposing the patient to radiolabeled material. This method provides a more accurate estima- American Society of Nephrology American Society of Nephrology 3 Table 2. Therapeutic drug monitoring Drug Name Therapeutic Range When to Draw Sample How Often to Draw Levels Aminoglycosides Gentamicin and Trough: immediately before Check peak and trough with third dose (conventional dosing) tobramycin: dose Trough: 0. Repeat drug level in 1 wk or if dosing) gentamicin, 12 h after dose renal function changes tobramycin, amikacin Carbamazepine 4–12 g/ml Trough: immediately before Check 2–4 days after first dose or change in dosing dose Cyclosporin 150–400 ng/ml Trough: immediately before Daily for first week and then weekly. Repeat drug levels if renal function changes Peak: 25–40 mg/L Peak: 60 min after a 60-min infusion 4 American Society of Nephrology American Society of Nephrology tion of renal function in patients with low muscle mass, high portant to know the exact dose given, the route of administra- protein intake, or geriatric populations and is subject to less tion, time of administration, and time since the last dose. In dialysis patients, with a residual renal levels are meaningful for only few drugs. Peak drug levels rep- function, the residual renal function may to a large extent con- resent the highest drug concentration achieved after initial tribute to the elimination of drugs and their active metabolites. For most drugs, trough levels are obtained The effect of residual renal function on drug elimination in immediately before the next dose, represent the lowest serum dialysis patients with urine output 500 ml/d is very difficult concentration, and predict drug toxicity. In ample, aminoglycoside antibiotics can accumulate in tissues patients with normal renal function, steady-state drug concen- such as the inner ear and renal tubules. The half- ity can occur after a single dose or in some cases without asso- life of drugs that are excreted renally may be significantly pro- ciated high plasma concentrations. For example, in dialysis patients, the loading dose of binding is altered significantly. For highly protein-bound digoxin should be reduced by 25 to 50% to avoid toxicity. An increase in unbound drug is plasma concentration should be monitored very closely. Free phenytoin levels provide better therapeutic drug Step 4: Maintenance Dose Determination monitoring in older patients with renal impairment. In general, cording to the renal function for most drugs, a combined approach using both the dose re- • Dosage modification can be accomplished by dose reduction, dosing interval prolongation, or both methods duction and interval prolongation methods is often used. Am Fam Physician 75: 1487–1496, 2007 supplements among older adults in the United States. Pollock B, Forsyth C, Bies R: The critical role of clinical pharmacology 1999 in geriatric psychopharmacology. All of the above American Society of Nephrology American Society of Nephrology 7 . Until now, Life Extension could cite only isolated statistics to make its case about the dangers of conventional medicine. A group of researchers meticulously reviewed the statistical evidence and their findings are absolutely shocking. This fully referenced report shows the number of people having in-hospital, adverse reactions to prescribed drugs to be 2. The number of unnecessary antibiotics prescribed annually for viral infections is 20 million per year. The number of unnecessary medical and surgical procedures performed annually is 7. The most stunning statistic, however, is that the total number of deaths caused by conventional medicine is an astounding 783,936 per year. The article uncovered so many problems with conventional medicine however, that it became too long to fit within these pages. We placed this article on our website to memorialize the failure of the American medical system. By exposing these gruesome statistics in painstaking detail, we provide a basis for competent and compassionate medical professionals to recognize the inadequacies of today’s system and at least attempt to institute meaningful reforms. Natural medicine is under siege, as pharmaceutical company lobbyists urge lawmakers to deprive Americans of the benefits of dietary supplements. Drug-company front groups have launched slanderous media campaigns to discredit the value of healthy lifestyles. These attacks against natural medicine obscure a lethal problem that until now was buried in thousands of pages of scientific text. In response to these baseless challenges to natural medicine, the Nutrition Institute of America commissioned an independent review of the quality of “government-approved” medicine.
Communication skills: Students should be able to: • Communicate the diagnosis buy discount lozol 1.5 mg online blood pressure 3060, treatment plan order lozol 1.5 mg on-line heart attack humor, and subsequent follow-up to patients quality 2.5 mg lozol blood pressure video. Appreciate the importance of encouraging patients to assume responsibility for modifying their diet and increasing their exercise level lozol 1.5mg overnight delivery blood pressure is lowest in. Appreciate the difficulties and frustrations that patients and health care providers face with recommended dietary changes. Demonstrate commitment to using risk-benefit, cost-benefit, and evidence- based considerations in the selection diagnostic and therapeutic interventions for dyslipidemia. Recognize the importance of patient preferences when selecting among diagnostic and therapeutic options for dyslipidemia. Respond appropriately to patients who are nonadherent to treatment for dyslipidemia. Recognize the importance of and demonstrate a commitment to the utilization of other healthcare professionals in the treatment of dyslipidemia. Compensatory mechanisms of heart failure including cardiac remodeling and activation of endogenous neurohormonal systems. Role of critical pathways or practice guidelines in delivering high-quality, cost effective care for patients presenting with new or recurrent heart failure. History-taking skills: Students should be able to obtain, document, and present an age-appropriate medical history, including: • Differentiating between various etiologies of heart failure (answers the question: Why is the patient in heart failure? Differential diagnosis: Students should be able to generate a prioritized differential diagnosis and recognize specific history, physical exam and/or laboratory findings that: • Help support or refute a clinical diagnosis of heart failure. Laboratory interpretation: Students should be able interpret specific diagnostic tests and procedures that are commonly ordered to evaluate patients who present with heart failure. Communication skills: Students should be able to: • Communicate the diagnosis, prognosis and treatment plan to the patient and his or her family. Management skills: Students should be able to develop an appropriate evaluation and treatment plan for patients that includes: • Recognize the importance of early detection and treatment of risk factors that may lead to the development of heart failure. Recognize the importance and demonstrate a commitment to the utilization of other healthcare professions in the treatment of heart failure. Does this dyspneic patient in the emergency department have congestive heart failure? A systematic review of the diagnostic accuracy of natriuretic peptides for heart failure. Narrative review: pharmacotherapy for chronic heart failure: evidence from recent clinical trials. Given that there is no proven cure, this remains an important training problem for third year medical students. The enormous and continuously evolving complexities of antiretroviral treatment are generally beyond the level of the third year medical student and for that matter most general internists. The marked importance of antiretroviral medication adherence and the potential consequences of erratic or poor adherence. Physical exam skills: Students should be able to perform a physical exam to establish the diagnosis and severity of disease, including: • General appearance regarding atrophy/wasting/cachexia. Laboratory interpretation: Students should be able to recommend when to order diagnostic and laboratory tests and be able to interpret them, both prior to and after initiating treatment based on the differential diagnosis, including consideration of test cost and performance characteristics as well as patient preferences. Communication skills: Students should be able to: • Communicate the diagnosis, treatment plan, and subsequent follow-up to the patient and his or her family. Basic and advanced procedural skills: Students should be able to: • Obtain blood cultures. Management skills: Students should able to develop an appropriate evaluation and treatment plan for patients that includes: • Ordering appropriate laboratory tests. Respond appropriately to patients who are nonadherent to antiretroviral treatment. These relationships are strong, continuous, independent, predictive and etiologically significant, and indicate that reduction of blood pressure reduces these risks. Symptoms and signs of the following disorders associated with secondary hypertension: • Renovascular hypertension. Basic approaches to the pharmacological management of acute and chronic hypertension, including the physiologic basis and scientific evidence supporting these approaches, and causes for lack of responsiveness to therapy. Prevention strategies for reducing hypertension (including lifestyle factors, such as dietary intake of sodium, weight, and exercise level), and explain the physiologic basis and/or scientific evidence supporting each strategy. History-taking skills: Students should be able to obtain, document, and present an age-appropriate medical history that differentiates among etiologies of disease, including: • Duration and levels of elevated blood pressure. Physical exam skills: Students should be able to perform a physical exam to establish the diagnosis and severity of disease, including: • Blood pressure measurements to detect and confirm the presence of high blood pressure. Differential diagnosis: Students should be able to generate a prioritized differential diagnosis recognizing specific history, physical exam, and laboratory findings that suggest a specific etiology of hypertension. Laboratory interpretation: Students should be able to recommend and interpret diagnostic and laboratory tests, both prior to and after initiating treatment based on the differential diagnosis, including consideration of test cost and performance characteristics as well as patient preferences. Communication skills: Students should be able to: • Communicate the diagnosis, treatment plan and prognosis of the disease to the patient and his or her family, taking into account the patient’s knowledge of hypertension and his or her preferences regarding treatment options. Management skills: Students should be able to develop an appropriate evaluation and treatment plan for patients that includes: • Treating acute and chronic hypertension. Appreciate the importance of patient preferences and adherence with management plans for those with hypertension. Respond appropriately to patients who are non-adherent to treatment for hypertension. Appreciate the importance of side effects of medications and their impact on quality of life and adherence (including those side effects to which the geriatric population may be more prone) and demonstrate a commitment to limiting the whenever possible. Demonstrate commitment to using risk-benefit, cost-benefit, and evidence- based considerations in the selection of diagnostic and therapeutic interventions for hypertension. Appreciate the impact hypertension has on a patient’s quality of life, well- being, ability to work, and the family. Recognize the importance and demonstrate a commitment to the utilization of other healthcare professions in the treatment of hypertension. A comparison of outcomes with angiotensin- converting--enzyme inhibitors and diuretics for hypertension in the elderly. Effect of ramipril vs amlodipine on renal outcomes in hypertensive nephrosclerosis: a randomized controlled trial. Effects of losartan on renal and cardiovascular outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetes and nephropathy. Renoprotective effect of the angiotensin-receptor antagonist irbesartan in patients with nephropathy due to type 2 diabetes. Effects of calcium- channel blockade in older patients with diabetes and systolic hypertension. Effects of an angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitor, ramipril, on cardiovascular events in high-risk patients. A thorough understanding of a systematic approach to hyperbilirubinemia/jaundice is by far preferable to random knowledge of highly specific etiologies. The liver responds pathologically to injury in characteristic ways and knowledge of these patterns can also be very useful in differential diagnosis. Several etiologies of liver disease such as acute/chronic viral hepatitis and alcohol-induced liver disease are sufficiently common as to require specific attention. In addition, many liver diseases can result in cirrhosis and its complications and, therefore, understanding this end-stage development is important. The biochemical/physiologic/mechanistic approach to hyperbilirubinemia, including: • Increased production.
Alacris is making it possible for individualized cancer treatment rather than continuing with the sometime ineffective treatments of cancer used today buy 1.5 mg lozol with amex blood pressure unit of measure. Bacterium discount lozol 1.5 mg with mastercard arteria zarzad, as stated before purchase lozol 1.5mg online blood pressure chart systolic diastolic, can be replicated in large amounts in very short periods of time cheap lozol 1.5 mg visa blood pressure cuff walgreens. Therefore when researchers find bacterium which provides medically important macromolecules such as proteins the production of a mass amount of said protein does not take an extensive amount of time. With current advances such as Voight’s synthetic biology this process may even take less time. One bacterial protein which is of use to the medical community is the Botulinum toxin. Produced by the bacterium Clostridium Botulinum, the neurotoxin is commonly used by physicians in Botox treatments for cosmetic procedure. Botulinum toxin type A, the first microbial toxin ever used for human medical treatment, serves as a treatment for a variety of strabismus (lazy-eye), blepharospasm (eyelid spasm), and hemifacial spasm (Erbguth,2004). By injecting the neurotoxin directly into the muscle, Botulinum toxin type A blocks the release of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine at myoneural junctions chemically suppressing hyperactive muscle disorders. Historical notes on botulism, Clostridium botulinum, botulinum toxin, and the idea of the therapeutic use of the toxin. Programming cells: towards an automated ‘Genetic Compiler’, Current Opinion in Biotechnology, Volume 21, Issue 4, August 2010, Pages 572-581 10 Chapter 3: Fungi in Modern Medicine Everyone has heard of penicillin, the fungal mold which can treat all sorts of infections, but this is simply a snowflake on the tip of the iceberg that is the modern day use of fungi in medicine. Though not as useful as bacteria in regards to modification of structural characteristics and their use as entire organisms, the large focus of Fungi in medicine is the molecules which fungi naturally produce are vast and effective in fighting diseases. Molecules such as polysaccharides and complexes formed with polysaccharides have been found to exhibit antitumor and immunostimulating properties. The mushroom Trametes versicolor (Figure 3) produces a polysaccharide called polysaccharide-K and is known to act in a variety of anti-cancer mechanisms (Suto, 1994). Polysaccharide-K acts by a variety of mechanisms including the suppression of tumor detachment, cell matrix degrading enzymes, tumor growth by inhibition of angiogenesis, expression of oncogenes, and the reduction of free radicals. Animal research conducted with polysaccharide-K has shown that it has the ability to increase the survival time in test subjects with spontaneous metastasis lung cancer, and it suppresses lesion growth of liver cancer in test subjects. Paclitaxel acts by stabilizing the microtubule of the mitotic spindle and prevents the movement of chromosomes to the metaphase plate which occurs in normal mitosis (Zhao, 2004). The mitotic block caused by Paclitaxel eventually leads to the apoptosis of the cell and thus the eradication of cancer cells. Through chemical synthesis researchers were able to produce the immunosuppressive drug fingolimod. Fingolimod was a milestone drug because it was the first disease modifying drug designed to be taken orally which was approved by the Food and Drug Administration (Horga, 2008). Fingolimod is used to reduce relapse and delay the progression of relapsing multiple sclerosis. The synthetic drug acts by building up stores of lymphocytes in lymph nodes and preventing the lymphocytes from interacting with the central nervous system and causing the auto-immune responses present in patients with multiple sclerosis. Patients taking Fingolimod was found to reduce patient relapse rates to less than 50% of those taking the placebo. According to the Center for Disease Control malaria infects between 300-500 million people each and every year, resulting in more than 1 million fatalities. Professor Angray Kang uses the fungus Metarhizium Anisopliae to kill the malaria parasite in the mosquito before it can be passed on to humans (Fang, 2011). Contact between the mosquito and the fungus causes the fungus to bore into the mosquito through the cuticle. Through genetic engineering, the fungus releases an antibody into the hemolymph which attacks the malarial parasite, causing the malarial spores clump together preventing them from entering the mosquito’s salivary glands. If the spores cannot reach the salivary glands they cannot be passed on to infect humans. In laboratory testing, mosquitos exposed to the mutated Metarhizium Anisopliae were found to have levels of malarial infection 85% lower than normal. Even more promising results were found when the fungus was mixed with a scorpion toxin, with infection levels 97% lower than normal. Since the method of transmission between the fungus and the mosquito results from a simple touch by the mosquito, a mixture of the fungus and the scorpion toxin can be spread on mosquito nets and will protect the user from malarial infection. This approach may also offer solutions to a variety of other vector-borne diseases such as lyme disease, dengue infection, and yellow fever to name a few. Boletus Edulis, a mushroom found throughout the northern hemisphere shows promise in inhibiting the spread of the human immunodeficiency virus-1 (Zheng, 2007). For both recently infected patients and long-term patients the reverse transcriptase inhibition will inhibit the spread of the infection providing a means of early treatment of the infection. The comb tooth mushroom Hericium coralloides is a colorless fungi which grows on dead hardwood trees and creates a substance which erinacin E can be isolated from. At the department of Neuropsychopharmacology and Hospital Pharmacy at Nagoya University School of Medicine, research shows that erinacin E acts as an effective nerve growth factor stimulator (Yamada, 1997). This ability is especially useful as a potential suppressor of the effects of degenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s disease. Patients suffering from Alzheimer’s have degenerating cholinergic neurons in their central nervous system. Cholinergic neurons are those which have acetylcholine neurotransmitters, and include neuromuscular junctions, preganglionic neurons, and brain stem complexes. By increasing the amount of nerve growth factors in the patients’ circulatory system, researchers restored the amount of nerve growth factors in the frontal cortex and the parietal cortex using erinacin E. Clinical study of biological response modifiers as maintenance therapy for hepatocellular carcinoma. Yamada K, Nitta A, Hasegawa T, Fuji K, Hiramatsu M, Kameyama T, Furukawa Y, Hayashi K, Nabeshima T. Process Biochemistry 42 (12): 1620–24 15 Chapter 4: Other Uses of Microorganisms in Modern Medicine Though not necessarily a microbe, virus-like particles have become very popular in the formation of modern vaccines. Virus-like particles are non-infections cells because they lack any form of viral genetic material, but may contain the envelope, capsid, or both. In a 2009 randomized, blind, placebo-controlled trial the virus –like particle vaccine groups displayed statistically higher immune responses than the placebo immune response (Lopez-Macias, 2011). The reason why virus-like particles are so effective in their use as vaccines is because the human body responds to the virus-like particle as if it were a pathogenic virus. By presenting viral antigens on virus-like particles, the individual’s immune response is boosted against a specific antigen, leading to a stronger immune response if infection were to occur. This same process is used against norovirus, which is the most common cause of acute gastroenteritis within the United States. Ligocyte Pharmaceutical Inc, is currently testing a virus-like particle which is aimed at enhancing the immune response against the norovirus (Ligocyte, 2011). Beta-glucans, which are not specifically tied to one type of microbe but rather are the polysaccharides of D-glucose monomers linked by Beta-glycosidic bonds, are used in medicine. Whole glycan particles, when ingested give immune enhancement to the user and has even been shown to decrease the infectivity of infectious organisms such as anthrax (Ostroff 2004). Even more promising, Beta-glucans seem to increase the efficacy of antibiotics and vaccines through similar mechanisms. Ifat Rubin-Bejerano started a company named ImmuneXcite which seeks to develop a cancer therapy. By creating cancer-specific antibodies which conjugate to polysaccharides, Rubin- Bejerano plans to trick the immune system’s neutrophils into believing that the tumor cells are actually invading fungi. Since neutrophils aggressively attack bacteria and fungi, target cells such as cancer cells 16 or simply pathogenic cells will be more aggressively attacked by the immune system than without the conjugate (Dedesma, 2010).