Antioxidant capacity of pummelo and navel oranges: Extraction efficiency of solvents in sequence discount hytrin 5mg otc blood pressure log chart pdf. Bioactive com pounds and antioxidant capacities of 18 non-traditional tropical fruits from Brazil cheap hytrin 2 mg online blood pressure examples. Antioxidant capacity discount hytrin 2mg line heart attack jack the darkness, phenolic content and vitamin C in pulp cheap hytrin 2mg on-line blood pressure is lowest in, peel and seed from 24 exotic fruits from Colombia. Antioxidant profile of red wines evaluated by total antioxidante capacity, scavenger activity, and bio markers of oxidative stress methodologies. Cocoa has more phenolic phyto chemicals and a higher antioxidant capacity than teas and red wine. Plant polyphenols in cancer an heart disease: implications as nutritional antioxidants. It has been shown that natural products play an important role in the discovery of com pounds for drug development to treat multiple diseases. In drug discovery, researchers around the world use plants as an essential route in the search for new drugs leaders. The search for active compounds in plants is an essential way for the development of new drugs, a process in which there is now more advanced and specific methodologies for the analysis of biolog ical activities in particular. Documentary research from 1981 to 2006 showed that natural products have been a source of 5. The derivatives of natural products are most of the times, chemical molecules synthetized from natural products and contributed to the 27. Characterization of Geranium genus Geranium genus is taxonomically classified within the family Geraniaceae Juss, which in cludes five to eleven genuses, and in total near to 750 species. The names of these genuses usually cause confusion because geranium, is the common name for certain species of Pelargonium. The names come from Greek and refer to the form that its fruits acquire, likes beaks. Thus, the word "Geranium" comes from geranos" meaning crane, and "Pelargonium" derived from "Pelargos" meaning stork . Subgenus Section Number of Species Erodioidea 3 Aculeolata 1 Erodioidea Subacaulia 15 Brasiliensia 3 Geranium 339 Dissecta 4 Tuberosa 19 Geranium Neurophyllodes 6 Paramensia 2 Azorelloida 1 Polyantha 7 Trilopha 5 Divaricata 2 Batrachioidea 4 Robertium Ungiculata 5 Lucida 1 Ruberta 4 Anemonifolia 2 Table 1. Geranium genus clasification Within the classification of Geranium genus are accepted 423 species, distributed in three subgenuses: Erodioidea, Geranium and Robertium. It is proba bly that the species of this genus that growing in the State of Hidalgo possess a similar biological activities and metabolites. Tannin-protein complexes in the gastrointestinal tract provide persistent antioxidant ac tivity. One of the major components in Geranium species isgeraniin (4)  described by its discov erer as a crystallizable tannin. The corilagin (5)  is a derivative of geraniin, which has presented antimicrobial activity among other activities . Different species of geraniums and its relevant compounds The specie Geranium macrorizum presented a significant hypotensive activity in anesthe tized cats , plus antioxidant activity. Of this specie germacrone (6) was isolated which is considered a precursor of pheromones. Also infusions and decoctions prepared from leaves of this geranium: Robert herb or red Robin, are described as anti-hyperglycae miant and commonly used in Portuguese herbal medicine . From flowers of Geranium sylvaticum was isolated 3-O-(6-O-acetyl--D-glucopyranoside)-5- O--D-glucopyranoside of malvidin (7) . The methanolic extract of Geranium pratense inhibited the action of the amylase enzyme in mouse plasma, isolated for first time the 3-O-(2-O-galloyl) --D-glucopyranoside myricetin(9) . Geranium pusillum, commonly known as Small-flowered Cranesbill or (in North America) small Geranium, contains1-O-galloyl-3,6-hexahidroxibifenil-D-galactopyranoside (11) (pusi lagin) a polyphenolic compound extracted from aerial parts . The aqueous ethanolic ex tract of Geranium wallichianum showed antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus  and the study of the chemical constituents of the whole plant has resulted in the isola tion and characterization of six compounds. Geranium caespitosum produces neohesperidoside (12) able to potentiate 10 to 100 times the action of drugs such as ciprofloxacin, norfloxacin, berberine and rhein, against bacterias such as S. It is clinically used to treat the arthralgia due to wind-dampness, anaesthetization and muscular constriction. Also, has shown that roots contain a substance that is extracted with water and can be a biological mechanism to control bacteria (Ralstonia solanacearum) which attacks potatoes . In Geranium mexicanum an antiprotozoal activity was assayed from its roots, where the most active compound founded was the flavan-3-ol-(-)-epicatechin (14), showing moderate activity (+)-catechin (14a), tyramine (15) and 3-O--D-glucopyranoside of -sitosterol . The use of other geranium species also has been reported a hypoglycemic, antihypertensive and cholesterol-lowering effect. However, scientific evidence does not exist in any literature to corroborate these targets or any other. Plant material Specimen of Geranium schiedeanum was collected at Epazoyucan Municipality, in Hidalgo State, Mxico, during June 2009. Extraction and purification Air-dried aerial parts (1 kg) were extracted acetone-H O 7:3 (20 L) by maceration for 7 days. Throughout these two weeks rats were supplied with food and water ad libitum, exposed to a 12 h light-dark cycle and giv en intraperitoneally a single necrogenic dose of thioacetamide (6. The dose of thioacetamide was chosen as the highest dose with survival above 90% [36,37]. Each experiment was performed in duplicate from four different animals and followed the international criteria for the use and care of experimental animals outlined in The Guiding Principles in the use of Animals in Toxicology adopted by the Society of Toxicology in 1989. Rats were sacrificed by cervical dislocation and samples of liver were obtained and processed as previously descri bed. Blood was collected from hearts and kept at 4 C for 24 h, centrifuged at 3000 rpm for 15 min, and serum was obtained as the supernatant. Liver damage induced by xenobiotics is characterized by the release in serum of hepatic en zymes due to necrosis of hepatocytes. Our results showed that Gs extract significantly reduced the level of liver injury. Effect of Gs pre-treatment on aspartate aminotransferase activity in serum of rats intoxicated with one sub lethal dose of thioacetamide. Differences against the respective control are expressed as (a) and differences due to Gs extract are expressed as (b) p<0. Conclusion There is evidence that free radicals play a critical role in certain pathological conditions such as some cancers, multiple sclerosis, inflammation, arthritis and arterosclerosis . For this reason, some research objectives directed toward the development or discovery of these compounds catchers of these radicals. The phytochemical study of Geranium shiedeanum led to the isolation of hydrolysable tannins, well known as potent antioxidants: gallic acid, acetonylgeraniin and ellagic acid and a lesser proportion of kaempferol glycoside flavonoid (3-O--L-arabinofura noside-7-O--D-rhamnoside de Kaempferol), notably is the first time discloses these com pounds in the genus. The pre-treatment with the crude extract in the model of thioacetamide-induced hepatotox icity in rats, decreased and delayed liver injury by 66% at 24 h. This result suggests that Gs extract may be used as an alternative for reduction of liver damage. However further investigation on the acute toxicity and on the mechanism of the hepatoprotective effect of the plant species needs to be carried out. Acknowledgements The authors would like to thank Teresa Vargas for her valuable technical Assistance. Lista Floristica Del Es a tado De Hidalgo Recopilacin Bibliografica, 1998, 1 edicin, Ed. In vitro antiprotozoal activity from the roots of Geranium mexicanum and its constituents on Entamoeba histolytica and Giardia lamblia. O-Galloyl flavo noids from Geranium pyreniacum and their in vitro antileishmanial activity. Estimation of antinociceptive and anti-in flammatory activity on Geranium pratense subsp.
This may be a light fruit meal; it may be best to put him on the juice diet of fresh purchase 1 mg hytrin visa hypertension workup, raw buy discount hytrin 5 mg line prehypertension - time to act, fruit and vegetable juices purchase 1mg hytrin fast delivery hypertension zinc deficiency. If he is in the midst of a healing crisis which frequently does not require more than 1-3 days before the fever breaks purchase 1 mg hytrin fast delivery hypertension nursing assessment, it is best to keep him on the water-lemon juice fast, with possible rotation back and forth to fruit and vegetable juice. Remember, if he can remain on the water-lemon fast during the crisis, he will recover more quickly. But if the crisis is extended longer than three days, you may need to give him a meal of rotational juice or food. The extremities (the feet and hands) generally get cold during the fasting period. It is therefore necessary to apply one or two electric pads, or an electric blanket, day and night in order to keep him comfortably warm. The avenues of elimination: At this juncture, we should consider another aspect of physiology. During natural healing, the system goes into high gear in its efforts to eliminate these poisons. We must "open all the organs of elimination"; that is, we must help the body throw off toxins through the four avenues by which it can do it: The bowels - Daily enemas or colonics must be given. Both the blood and lymphatic system carry waste away from the cells to the organs of elimination. The lymphatic system empties part of its load, through the right thoracic duct, into the back of the mouth, so the phlegm can be spit out. At a time when your body is trying so hard to cleanse itself, do not endlessly recycle phlegm! Apply it internally, by drinking water, diluted fruit juices, and raw fruit and vegetable juices. Drinking fluids to cleanse: In order to cleanse the blood and lymph of impurities, one has to drink fluids. This consists of water-lemon fasts or fresh fruit or vegetable juices; never a water fast alone. Keep in mind that water alone does not cleanse as well when it is not accompanied by juice. The vitamins and minerals in the juices aid directly in the cleansing and rebuilding process. Enemas and colonics to cleanse: During a fasting period, two daily enemas (or colonics) should be given. Up to 3 pints should be given to the person as a matter of routine while he is fasting. At any other time in the healing process that he is not having proper bowel movements, he should also be given enemas or colonics. Medical knowledge has it that a person does not need a bowel movement when he is not eating. They need to be eliminated from the body, and this cannot be fully done by the kidneys, lungs, and bathing. If this is not done, wastes are absorbed into the blood stream and carried throughout the body. Baths to cleanse: If the person is in the healing crisis, give him a sponge bath once or twice a day while he is in bed. However, tub baths are often too taxing and may cause fainting or weakening of the one who is quite ill. As a rule, water placed on the skin enables the skin to throw off more poisons than it would otherwise do. Yet water on the skin also has other uses: If a person is in a fever, you will need to cool his body with sponging or other methods. Light exercises: When a sick person is in bed, he is obtaining the extra rest he so much needs. But a little movement is also required from time to time, to help his lymphatic elimination. If the person is on a lengthy program of overcoming a chronic disorder, he needs to taught to regularly extend, flex, and rotate each muscle every so often. If the illness is not severe, you may omit the fast and only place him on the juice diet. Let us consider that next: Light meals: Sometimes a light meal is given alternately with a juice diet (a day of one, followed by a day of the other, etc. Such foods should include some solid fruits, raw rather than cooked; raw vegetables in the form of a salad once a day; and steamed vegetables once a day. The kind of protein food will depend on the type of ailment, the age of the person, his weight, and other factors. For example, one who has hardening of the arteries should necessarily be fed a lighter protein diet than one who is suffering from a milder problem. People with a tendency to malignancy or actual malignancies must not be given any eggs. Eggs have a sulphur-containing protein, so they cannot be given to anyone with a degenerative disease. Every public health officer knows that meat and milk are two of the most dangerous foods. Yet for those who feel they need milk, it is more easily handled by those convalescing from chronic diseases than by those who are very ill. Starchy foods and sweet foods are handled much better by the chronically sick than are protein foods. The invalid needs first to have been prepared for a mixed (building-up) diet by having undergone an initial fast, followed by a juice diet. Then he will be able to properly digest starches and sugars to gradually gain body weight and energy. Zwieback ("twice-toasted" in German) is made by taking whole-grain bread; and, after it has been baked, toasting the slices in the oven until it is firm throughout. A certain amount of fat (in the form of unhydrogenated vegetable oil) can be added to the starchy foods to make them more palatable; but this must be added, not to the cooking, but to the food on the plate as it is served. Thousands could be helped who would follow this healing procedure of water-lemon fasting; fresh, raw, fruit and vegetable juice fasting; and the above light meals for a time. Pointers to keep in mind: Fasting removes cellular wastes from the skin and mucous membranes. A sufferer from the irritation and inflammation of hay fever or asthma can get great relief by a properly managed fast of 7-10 days, followed by a correct diet. Individuals with poor kidney elimination may be troubled by mild or severe symptoms of uremic poisoning during a stringent fast, because urinary wastes thrown off by the tissues are more poisonous than bowel wastes. Adding colonic irrigation to the water- lemon juice intake, helps eliminate those toxins more rapidly. In the hands of a person skilled in caring for people, using these methods and obtaining the full cooperation of their patients, here are some of the things which have repeatedly been done: Placed on a natural healing program, a drug taker can generally stop his medicines and tobacco/alcohol users can be released from those addictions. After several days of fasting, the tobacco user loses his taste for the tobacco and the coffee drinker loses the craving for caffeine. The alcoholic can lose the craving more quickly and thoroughly by means of fasting than in any other way. Yet any other approach would require many years of treatment with drugs, as the condition keeps getting worse.
Population surveys to estimate trends in risk factors were carried out in men and women ages 35-64 years  hytrin 5 mg low cost pulse pressure is considered. From that time 5 mg hytrin mastercard pulse pressure 61, a community-based approach based on interventions not only at individual level but also at population level effective hytrin 1 mg heart attack quiz questions, promoting community changes for health buy discount hytrin 5 mg online arteria testicularis, was implemented and produced control of chronic diseases . Table 1 provides estimated prevalence of hypertension in 22 countries for men and women of 21 different age ranges for the last year available. Prevalence, although defined with different diagnostic criteria (total cholesterol5. On average, prevalence of smoking in women is lower except in Sweden but in several countries this trend is going to change. It is worth noting that in some countries the last available data go back to several years ago. Prevalence of smoking in men is generally higher in Central, Eastern and Southern Europe than in Northern Europe; in women is generally higher in Northern and Southern Europe than in Central and Eastern Europe. Nowadays, due to the increasing trend in adult and children, obesity (Table 4) has become a key issue. Trends data show a decrease in systolic blood pressure in all participating countries and also in cholesterol in many of them. In fact, the number of first events (fatal and non fatal), whereas coronary event rate includes first and recurrent events. These data, although collected several years ago and not necessarily representative of the countries, were all collected and validated through the same standardized methodology, therefore they are comparable and still today are considered a gold standard. Incidence was falling rapidly in most of the populations in Northern Europe, not falling as fast in the populations in Southern, Central and Eastern Europe. Case fatality was higher in many populations in Central and Eastern Europe than in Northern and Southern Europe. In populations in which mortality decreased, coronary event rates contributed two third and case fatality one third . After that period, some countries continued to collect data simplifying some procedures but ensuring events validation. Problems of temporal and geographic comparisons derive from different coding practices in each country. However, when comparing data from different countries, it is important to highlight differences in event definition as this may help identify in the future standardized procedures and methods for event definition and validation. These data are scarce and not validated, therefore analysis of temporal trends is not possible and comparison among countries not completely reliable. Moreover, their interpretation is difficult due to different hospital admission policies, different coding practices and multiple hospital admissions for the same patient. Contrary to common belief that most hospitalizations are for myocardial infarction and stroke, in almost all countries more than half of hospitalizations are not for these diseases. In recent years, there has been a notable increase in the number of hospitalizations for heart failure and arrhythmias, which are common complications of myocardial infarction and require frequent hospitalizations. Availability of data on hospital discharges for these conditions could improve understanding of the patterns of morbidity and future trends in medical care. Hospitalization rates in Northern, Central and Eastern Europe are higher than in Southern Europe. In addition, although prevention benefits all age groups, the most effective preventive measures usually target individuals under 75 years. Therefore it is highly recommended to investigate differences among middle age adults in the various countries in order to implement appropriate preventive actions. Age-standardized (35-74 years) mortality rates were calculated for the last ten years (1994- 2003) to estimate trends. Malta was included among Northern Europe countries because mortality rates are higher compared to those of the Mediterranean countries and the population has similar characteristics to those of populations of Northern Europe. Their interpretation is difficult due to various factors such as multiple hospital admissions for the same patient (sequelae of stroke) and different hospital admission policies and coding practices. Nevertheless, data on hospital discharges for ischemic and haemorrhagic stroke separately are still not available. Table 11 Age-standardized (standard European population) hospital discharge per 100,000 inhabitants Cerebrovascular disease - Men and women aged 35-84 years - year 2003 Men Women Men+Women Belgium 113. Despite the decline in mortality, the annual number of cases of stroke is expected to increase within the next few decades, mainly due to a growth in the elderly population, which will lead to an increase in the health burden of stroke and consequent increase in economic costs . In women it varies from 36 deaths per 100,000 in France to 297 deaths in Bulgaria, being then almost eight times higher. In the age range 75-84 years stroke events doubled in both men and women: this demonstrates that stroke is a disease which mainly affects the elderly. In the age-range 35-84 years, all cardiovascular disease accounted for 40% of total mortality and stroke accounted for 10%. In this age range, mortality rates are higher in men than in women and percentages increase with age. Mortality rates increased by 10% in Balkan Eastern Europe (from 324 to 357 per 100,000). In 2003, mortality rates in Central Europe were almost seven times lower than in Balkan Eastern Europe. In 2003, mortality rates in Southern Europe were more than four times lower than in Balkan Eastern Europe. Mortality rates increased by 21% in Balkan Eastern Europe (from 203 to 246 per 100,000). Another important argument for this choice was the dramatic decline of infant mortality in Europe; in all European countries, including Eastern Europe, death before 20 (proportional mortality) became very rare (only few percent of Europeans are dying before this age). In men that contribution averaged 40% of the life expectancy difference in the age group 20-64, what constituted 1. Predominant cause of premature adult death for women has been cancer, which is slowly declining over the whole studied period. Mortality time trends from selected causes in Europe (standardized rates per 100,000 population). In Greece there was plateau oscillating at the level of 100/100,000 for the whole period of observation. The pace of that decline is similar or even faster than the one observed in Western Europe. In men decline was observed in all countries around 1990s, it was slightly delayed in Hungary and began favorably earlier in Slovenia. In women generally there was a plateau observed until mid 1980s and then the decline was observed. Generally comparing the year 1990 with 2002 we observe decline in all countries except in Bulgaria in both genders, and Romania in men only (what contrasts with situation development in Russia). On the contrary, most data on hospital discharges are not validated, therefore they are not completely reliable; moreover hospital admission policies vary over time and space. Innovations in diagnostic technologies have facilitated diagnosis at earlier phases in the course of the natural history of disease or in presence of less severe tissue damage. All these factors may have an influence in producing spurious trends of disease frequency, severity, prognosis and variations in medical practice, leading to wrong conclusions and decisions if not properly controlled with the adoption of updated and valid epidemiological methods . The declining trends of mortality during the late 1970s and 1980s suggest that acute stroke events have become milder and that the prevalence of stroke survivors is increasing. This decline is only partly attributed to an improvement in the control of hypertension. There is evidence suggesting that a decrease in the prevalence of some environmental factors (dietary salt intake and saturated fat) has contributed more than pharmacological treatment . Falling mortality rates have resulted in longer life spans; however, it is recognized that trends do not change equally across countries.
Not all blame for failure to detect estrus accrues to A study from the 1970s revealed that at that time ap- labor discount hytrin 5 mg with visa pulmonary hypertension 50 mmhg, however buy hytrin 2 mg overnight delivery blood pressure 300. High-producing cows consume more proximately 50% of estrus periods went undetected on dry matter to sustain the high yield order 2mg hytrin fast delivery arrhythmia lidocaine. High dry matter the average dairy farm in the United States; current biol- intake buy cheap hytrin 1 mg arrhythmia high blood pressure, in turn, stimulates increased liver blood ow ogy and management of high-yielding cows mean that and liver size, both of which result in increased metabo- far fewer estrus periods are detected now. These cows have lower circu- insist that cows do not show heats are reluctant to ac- lating concentrations of progesterone and estrogens, cept rectal palpation ndings that suggest normal cyclic which undoubtedly contributes to reduced intensity of activity in their cows. Veterinarians who have grown up estrus expression, and potentially to pregnancy recogni- or worked on dairy farms know all too well the reasons tion and failure. When the labor force is spread too thin, assigned to eld or mechanical chores, or fails Time of Insemination to turn out conned cows, heat detection will be com- promised. Some dairy farm workers and owners simply Once heat is detected, the next problem is deciding are poor observers, are impatient, or only check cows when to breed the cow. Veterinarians 30 hours after the onset of estrus or 12 hours after the must understand owner limitations but must not rein- end of estrus. Much debate exists regarding the appropri- force bad habits by agreeing that all cows have had ate time for insemination. Owners who refuse to heat that morning are bred, and cows in heat that after- turn cows out or only do so once a day for a short time noon are bred the next day. It always is ing of insemination frequently are raised for repeat useful to attempt to back-rake cervical and vaginal dis- breeder cows or cows that seem to have heats that are charges forcefully per rectum during routine evaluations prolonged or persist for 2 consecutive days. Cattle having mul- Each farm must have an established set of goals for tiple ovulations may ovulate those follicles at different reproductive performance. Each farm will and subsequent pregnancies occur in the right ovary have strengths, weaknesses, and different goals. Therefore a more prolonged calving inter- quickly in some cows than others, and persisting uterine val of 15 to 18 months may be acceptable especially tonus accompanying a small corpus luteum can cause if the cow will be culled at the end of protable produc- confusion between a preheat and postheat palpation tion levels in that lactation. Although higher services per conception rate because many cows suggestive that ovulation has successfully occurred, this have not fully involuted or have residual problems such bleeding has nothing to do with conception or lack as low grade endometritis at the time of rst service. Regardless of goals, the reproductive program should Rectal palpation following recent ovulation may reveal emphasize routine diagnosis and treatment of postpar- uterine edema and reducing tone for up to 7 days, after tum conditions that may have a negative impact on which time a mature corpus luteum and normal mid- conception. Increased uterine tone re- problem cows, and the use of prostaglandin to force turns as the next heat approaches and is more obvious in cyclicity and aid uterine evacuation and involution all young cows than in older ones. In addition to treatment of endometritis ducing estrus, thereby enhancing uterine defense mech- and pyometra, these drugs are used to force cows into anisms as discussed in the section on endometritis. Many management programs Targeting breeding strategies involving repeated admin- have been and will continue to be devised for wholesale istration of prostaglandin alone followed by either use of prostaglandin treatment of open cows to improve timed insemination or insemination to observed estrus reproductive efciency. Herd veterinarians must involve have been largely superceded by modied targeted themselves in recommendations for, and evaluation of, breeding protocols, the Ovsynch and Ovsynch/Presynch prostaglandin-dependent breeding programs. Several for decient management, poor heat detection, and in- studies have demonstrated that fertility in dairy cows adequate labor efforts as regards reproductive health. Large herds only) presynchronizing prostaglandin injection is ad- may be forced to implement these programs, but it takes ministered 12 days before Ovsynch is begun. Further- Ovsynch/Presynch programs, but it is sobering to real- more, prostaglandin-induced heats are only an aid to ize that in multiple studies, 5 to 8 week pregnancy rates conception when adequate heat detection exists on that rarely exceed 35% to 40% with these programs. Managers who do a poor job of heat detection will course, this is offset by the 100% submission rate. These facts should ing, for example, at 80 hours after prostaglandin dosing be discussed openly with clients, alongside the eco- is not highly efcient in adult dairy cattle. For practical pur- The preceding section discussed reproductive monitor- poses there is little value in distinguishing between ing and briey reviewed current practices for cycling these. A complete listing and discussion of causes of in- pora lutea are normal structures that do not alter either fertility or reduced reproductive performance is beyond cyclicity or pregnancy. Cystic corpora lutea have uid the scope of this textbook, but several major causes of cavities, usually 7 to 10 mm in diameter, surrounded by reduced herd fertility deserve mention. They will are directed to discussions in this chapter of specic in- not be discussed further in this chapter. Despite a pal- pator s condence or experience, it appears that rectal palpation is a poor means of differentiating follicular Cystic Ovaries and luteal cysts. Ultrasonography and plasma progester- Cystic ovaries (cystic ovarian disease, cysts ) are one of one levels are much more accurate except in those cases the most common causes of infertility in dairy cattle. It is more difcult to identify luteal cysts than fol- licles larger than 25 mm diameter that persist for 10 days licular cysts accurately by palpation. This deni- experience seems to be directly proportional to accuracy tion no longer holds for all cases of cystic ovaries cur- of differentiation of the two types. During the past 10 years, treme variability in progesterone levels and sensitivities it has been increasingly obvious to many veterinarians of many milk progesterone tests, it appears that ultraso- that a percentage of cystic ovary cows have anovulatory nography is the most accurate means of clinically dif- follicles much smaller than 25 mm and that anestrus is ferentiating luteal and follicular cysts. Cysts may also The causes of cystic ovaries are likely multifactorial coexist with a corpus luteum in some cows. However, several rary ultrasound studies have shown that in many cases factors require consideration and have been reviewed cysts are dynamic, with a new cyst replacing a receding recently. Nutritional and hormonal inuences have been one with each succeeding follicular cohort. Compared suggested, but absolute cause and effect relationships are with 20 years ago, routine rectal palpation performed on scarce or largely theoretical. Highly estrogenic feeds or high-producing herds currently identies more cystic estrogenic drugs may contribute to ovarian cysts. Stress that causes cortisol elevations may represent danger to themselves and herdmates. If this theory holds, it helps explain cysts in early mates, and they spend a great deal of time and effort in lactation but is less tenable in cows in mid-lactation chasing other cows in the herd. Cystic ovarian disease in high-producing cause estrogen-induced physical alterations in confor- cows may also be associated with hypoinsulinemia. Further questions are and overcondition or steerlike appearance may eventu- raised because high milk production has been blamed ally be seen in cattle affected by chronic (months) cystic for increased incidence of cystic ovaries, but epidemio- ovaries. The Pathologic ovarian cysts may be follicular or luteal interaction between a healthy uterine endometrium and and may be single or multiple on one or both ovaries. Field work often cysts are partially luteinized uid-lled structures that identies problem cows greater than 90 days into lacta- result in higher plasma progesterone levels. Both types tion that have poor fertility as a result of both recurrent are thought to represent the same disease, may persist, cystic ovaries and low grade endometritis. Second, because the prod- conditioned at dry off also are more prone to develop- uct contains foreign proteins (from another species), re- ment of cystic ovaries in the next lactation. Therefore treatment at the time of diagnosis has than in a normal corpus luteum, usually responds to been shown to be the best decision. Because clinical differentiation of indicated because the success of this treatment is limited follicular versus luteal cysts is difcult by palpation (probably one third of cases or less), and direct or indirect alone, ultrasonography or progesterone levels may be damage to the ovary or uterine tube is a potential risk. These Fibrosis, adhesions, and hemorrhage associated with man- ancillary aids add further expense to therapy and are ual rupture of cysts are specic possibilities. Although 100 g is the usual recom- may not, however, be as successful as progesterone de- mended dose, better response in repeat cystic ovary pa- termined treatments. Therefore some additional expense (as in milk thirds to three quarters of cystic ovary patients respond progesterone test) may be justied. In an effort to speed return to es- productive tract abnormalities such as endometritis trus in treated cows, rectal examination may be perfor- should be treated. More potent analogues including nona- has been used as a preventive by administration to all peptides should be used according to manufacturer s cows approximately 2 weeks following parturition; this recommendations. In practice, it is most convenient to treat cows with cystic ovaries by submitting them to the routine Ovarian Tumors OvSynch protocol. Ex- are rarely diagnosed clinically, they are not uncommon cessive urea or ammonia levels resulting from excessive in slaughterhouse surveys, suggesting that some cases dietary protein may affect spermatozoa or early em- dismissed as intractable cystic ovaries are actually granu- bryos, but the exact mechanism of infertility is un- losa cell tumors. Discrepancies in the results of various studies the ovary of cattle, and the lesion usually represents just on excessive protein levels in the diet of dairy cows may one of many anatomic areas affected by multicentric be explained somewhat by the variations in protein lymphosarcoma.