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By S. Ben. Sonoma State University.

Based on the final score the grades are given according to the following table: Final score Grade 0 - 59 fail (1) 60-69 pass (2) 70-79 satisfactory (3) 80-89 good (4) 90-100 excellent (5) If the final score is below 60 indapamide 2.5 mg on-line arrhythmia update 2014, the student once can take an oral remedial exam covering the whole semester’s material discount 1.5 mg indapamide otc fetal arrhythmia 37 weeks. Consultation classes In each language course once a week students may attend a consultation class with one of the teachers of that subject in which they can ask their questions and ask for further explanations of the material covered in that week 1.5 mg indapamide with mastercard arteria ulnaris. Website: Audio files to the course book purchase indapamide 1.5mg mastercard blood pressure medication and adderall, oral exam topics and vocabulary minimum lists are available from the website of the Department of Foreign Languages: ilekt. Self Control Test (Thompson: Genetics in Medicine Ch Thompson: Genetics in Medicine; Ch. Dominant and recessive genes: a molecular Practical: Methods of study, required and advised view. Laboratory safety in biochemical and Thompson: Genetics in Medicine; Ch # 7 microbiological laboratories. Autosomal and X-linked genes 8th week: Thompson: Genetics in Medicine Ch 7; Lecture: 22. Human gene mapping and disease gene Self Control Test (Thompson: Genetics in Medicine, Ch identification I. Practical Requirements Conditions of signing the lecture book: Concerning attendance, the rules are set out in the Rules and Regulations of the University are clear. The presence of students at laboratory practices and seminars is obligatory and will be recorded. If the student is absent from more than two practices or seminars, the semester will be accepted only if he/she passes an examination based on the material covered by the laboratory classes of the semester (labtest). If 3 or more laboratory or seminar notes are missing, the student must take a labtest to qualify for the signature of the lecture book. Missed laboratory classes may only be made up for in the classes with other groups during the same week. For permission to make up a missed laboratory class please consult the academic advisor. If the student is absent from more than 4 practices and seminars, the signature will be denied and the student has to repeat the semester. During the semester there will be three self-control tests offered in the 4th, 9th and 13th weeks. The questions include multiple choice and short essay questions, figures, pedigrees, definitions, etc. Based on the % average of the three tests a final grade will be offered according to the next table: Percentage (%) Mark 60. Rules concerning repeaters: Attendance of labs and seminars for those repeaters who have a signed lecture book from the previous year (i. Students should register for the subject electronically during the first weeks of the semester. They can take the three midterm tests in order to qualify for an offered grade based on these tests, or they take the regular exam at the end of the semester. Students, who did not earn a signature in the previous year have to register and attend the labs and seminars. Exemption requests: Applications for exemption from the course (based on previous studies at other schools) should be submitted during the first two weeks of the semester. The examination questions include multiple choice and short essay questions, figures, definitions, etc. The bonus percentage is based on the average result of the three mid-semester tests. Further bonus points (1 points each) are given for the timely and correct completion of the following midterm home- works: Analysis of human karyograms. If you cannor answer correctly the required minimum number of questions your exam is considered unsuccessful. If you have to repeat the semester, you have to repeat the basic question exam , too. Year, Semester: 2nd year/1 semesterst Number of teaching hours: Lecture: 51 Practical: 130 1st week: Lecture: Topographical anatomy of the head and neck - 2nd week: part one. Cut the sternocleidomastoid projections and landmarks of the following structures on muscle. At the side of the intact parotid gland dissect the the cadaver: Head: cutaneous branches of the trigeminal structures which pierce the gland. Carotid triangle and the middle part Facial, superficial temporal and external carotid arteries. Repetition of the superficial regions of the head and Cutaneous branches of the cervical plexus. Tongue (filiform and fungiform papillae) sheath (vagina vasorum) and its structures. The incision of the facial skin has to be made Lecture: Clinical anatomy of the head and neck - part one. At the neck region a vertical incision has to Practical: Anatomy: Topographical anatomy of the head be made in the midline, from the base of the mandible to and the neck: V. Attention: Branches of nerve and artery from the mandibular canal and remove the supraclavicular nerves cross the clavicle! Face: middle meningeal artery, stylohyoid, styloglossus, Topography of the parotid gland. Remove the parotid gland only Remove the lateral plate of the pterygoid process of the one side by careful preparation of branches of the facial sphenoid bone. Dissection of the frontal and Dissection of the nucheal region from the external occipital temporal regions. Neck: dissection of the supraclavicular protuberance to the 7th thoracic vertebra. Blood smear (May-Grünwald- remains connected to the body only through the pharynx Giemsa stain) and esophagus. Open the posterior wall of the development), lymphatic tissue, skin, endocrine organs. Dissection of the larynx in situ: remove 7th week: the lamina of the thyroid cartilage the one side and dissect Lecture: Pleural sac. Repetition of the on the anterior surface of the right auricle and turn topographic anatomy of the head and neck. Make a hole on the left ventricle by cutting out a piece of its wall, and identify 6th week: its structures through the opening. Development of the heart - are studied at the aortic and pulmonary orifices after part one. Dissection of the structures of Practical: Anatomy: Dissection of the thoracic cavity I- the supracardiac mediastinum. Development of cardiovascular shadow, projections of the lungs, pleurae the primitive gut. Lymphatic segments (in one of the lungs) and bronchial arborization drainage of the breast. Topography of the thoracic cavity: exarticulate the sternoclavicular joint and intercostal space and the cupula pleurae. In the cadaver from which intestines reaction) were removed dissect the structures of the retroperitoneal region. Demarcate the regions of the abdominal wall and cavity and draw the 12th week: surface projections of abdominal organs on the cadaver. Lecture: Ductus deferens, spermatic cord, seminal vesicle, These drawings should be introduced in the body scheme prostate, scrotum. Presentation of Practical: Anatomy: Dissection of the abdominal cavity radiographs.

Similar differences are described with varying chlamydial strains in the same host spe- These interactions of the host immune system and cies order indapamide 2.5 mg with visa fetal arrhythmia 30 weeks. Macaws and Amazon parrots tion times effective 2.5 mg indapamide blood pressure medication kidney pain, clinical signs and pathology noted with chlamydial infections buy 2.5mg indapamide fast delivery heart attack kid lyrics. These are generalizations with many excep- adjacent serosal membranes can lead to polyserosi- tis order 1.5 mg indapamide blood pressure upper number, including pericarditis. Given the high number of birds with anti- often fatal illness in young birds or with nonhost- bodies to chlamydia, most primary infections must adapted chlamydial strains. The precondition for occur without the development of obvious clinical such an adaptation is a latent infection of some time signs. The amount of antitoxic strains can be most dramatic when they infect a 19,28 antibodies seems too low to induce some immunity. The surface of the elemen- tary bodies contains hepatotoxic and nephrotoxic components that disappear once the organism enters the host cell. The toxins are once again a factor following replication and release of progeny elemen- tary bodies from the host cell. These toxins present on the elementary bodies induce the production of antibodies that neutralize the toxins and destroy infectivity. These toxins have not been isolated and characterized, but they are believed to be related to the few proteinaceous-specific membrane antigens of the intact elementary body. If an elementary body is phagocytized and is not coated with opsonins, the organism can survive and replicate within the macro- phage. During persistent infection, chlamydia re- a 12-day history of progressive upper respiratory disease, polyuria (biliverdinuria), diarrhea and anorexia. On presentation, the bird main within a membrane-bound compartment and had a severe rhinitis, conjunctivitis, severe dyspnea and emacia- release infectious progeny and antigens via exocy- tion (275 g). Chlamydia antigen was 5 detected in the feces and on a pharyngeal swab by antigen-capture microorganisms from an infected cell. The client had an upper respiratory disease and flu-like exocytosed antigens released from the cells may not symptoms. African Grey Parrots are generally considered resistant to chlamydiosis, I-restricted cytotoxic T-lymphocytes. This allows in- but as indicated by this case, under some conditions they can fection, and probably reinfection, to occur and be become sick. The minimum incubation period for naturally Heterophils Normal infected Psittaciformes is 42 days. These infected birds Bile acids Elevated (> 2 times normal) may shed the organism for several months while remaining asymptomatic. Extreme environmental changes or concurrent infections may activate per- A distinct, sometimes recurrent, keratoconjunctivitis sistent infections, resulting in the occurrence of clini- with no other, or only subtle, signs has been de- cal disease. Epizooitologically, outbreaks in offspring scribed for small Australian parakeets (especially in from asymptomatically infected parents and young the genus Neophema), pigeons, ducks, and European birds to which they are exposed are common. Conjunctivitis and Clinical Signs nasal discharge are characteristic of chlamydiosis in Young birds exposed to high doses of a virulent strain domestic pigeons. Mortality rates of the ophthalmic develop acute systemic infections frequently result- form are about 10%, but can reach 100% if un- ing in death. Birds with persistent infections may not be recog- Subacute or protracted diseases are typical for all nized until they infect other animals or their caretak- avian species with a reduced susceptibility or for ers. The documentation of infections in nestlings those infected with a moderately virulent strain. Acute lesions are characterized by hepa- nic-tonic convulsions, tremors and opisthotonos. Un- tomegaly, fibrinous peritonitis, air sacculitis, perihe- treated birds die within a few weeks. In the cockatiel patitis, pericarditis, bronchopneumonia, enteritis and the Houbara Bustard, incapacitating flaccid pa- and nephrosis. Secondary bacterial, fungal or viral infections may alter lesions and confuse chlamydial changes. The more com- mon rule-outs include infections with herpesvirus, paramyxovirus, influenza A virus and Enterobacte- riaceae, particularly salmonellosis. A conjunctival and goslings from influenza A infections and myco- scraping revealed a mixed population of gram-positive cocci and a few gram-negative rods. Diagnosis of Chlamydiosis However, fibrinous air sacculitis is more indicative of chlamydiosis in Psittaciformes and pigeons (see Fig- ure 12. In sexually active males, chlamydial-induced or- Cytology chitis or epididymitis results in permanent infertil- Conjunctival smears of birds with conjunctivitis can ity. Prepara- and tissue deficiencies of heterophils and macro- tions containing numerous cells provide the greatest phages. Chronic cases are characterized by are difficult to detect, a positive test is confirmatory proliferation of connective tissue (up to cirrhosis) in while a negative smear does not rule out chlamy- the liver and kidney. Immunofluorescent methods using commer- described particularly in budgerigars and pigeons. Typical of more acute disease is the intras- Culture inusoidal proliferation of Kupffer’s star cells (pearl Culture of chlamydia is routinely performed in McCoy string-like appearance) in the liver. For isolation, parenchymal organs and pneumonia with proliferations of epithelial cells (liver, spleen, lungs, kidneys,) and feces should be in the air capillaries are common with chronic cases. The bird responded to oral doxycycline and improved 12-16 hours after the initial dose. Culture hours) and can be made noninfectious for laboratory is the only way to directly demonstrate Chlamydia staff by heating at 100°C for 15 minutes. An antigen test the physicochemical properties, antigenic composition, toxic kit developed for human C. Clinical disease is precipi- tated mainly by human-induced conditions and procedures. False-negative cell culture results oc- Antibody production with an active infection may be poor, and curred when chlamydial organisms were no longer birds that survive infection are fully susceptible to disease. Extremely high concentrations of avian Staphylococ- Unfortunately, it, like other antigen detection tests cus aureus (more than 108,51 or more than 1. Cross reactions were not found to occur with a icus, a non-avian staphylococcus, has also been im- variety of bacteria. In some cases, birds may the irregularity of antigen shedding in latently or have chlamydiosis and are shedding insufficient persistently infected birds. Sensitivity: The sensitivity of any chlamydia antigen test is affected by the samples. Antigen detection systems are used to document shedding in clinically affected birds. Moderate to high numbers of a mixed bacterial Antibody Tests flora, high numbers of Staphylococcus aureus, Pas- teurella multocida, and Sarcina sp. These findings were the species in question was necessary for serologic confirmed by other testing, and the Chlamydiazyme diagnosis of chlamydiosis in the class Aves. This finding sug- bial-induced damage that occurs to the reticulate and gests that the composition of the antibodies detected elementary bodies may be temporary, with the organ- varies49 and that only those antibodies detected by ism resuming normal replication within 5. A small number of birds with an extinction just beneath the cutoff and no demonstrable antibod- Tetracyclines are effective only against actively me- ies gave the reasons for a final correction of the cutoff tabolizing microorganisms, ie, during growth or fis- value. This drug is not effective in treating latently or birds, whether they excrete the agent or not. False-negative results may occur with this test kit in fresh infections (no antibody production as yet), fol- Strains of chlamydia that are resistant to tetracycli- lowing treatment (inhibition of antibody production nes are still rather rare (one strain from ducks > 75 µg tetracycline),35 but strains with reduced sensitiv- and no shedding of the agent), pre-test handling of ity continue to be recognized. Thus, psittaci antibodies are more widely distributed than the suggested blood level of >1 µg/ml cannot be previously thought.

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It is therefore basically a property of the anti­ serum but order indapamide 1.5 mg amex heart attack risk calculator, as described above order 1.5 mg indapamide otc blood pressure recommendations, it can be limited by inadequacies in the labeled hormone or in the diluent used as the assay medium indapamide 1.5 mg mastercard pulse pressure 31. While the degree of sensitivity required is determined by the con­ centrations of antigen found in samples of diseased patients discount indapamide 1.5mg mastercard hypertension types, it is always helpful to have sensitivity beyond the minimum required for detection. Because non-specific interference in the antigen-antibody reaction can be produced by non-antigenic constituents in unknown samples, it is always desirable to assay unknowns in the highest dilution possible. As a rule artifact is likely to be introduced when plasma samples are assayed in less than a 1:10 dilution in the final assay incubate. Gastric and duodenal fluids, as well as bile and stool contain acids, enzymes, and salts which can be productive of artifact if they are not denatured, neutralized, removed, or diluted out. The minimal detection limit can be defined as that concentration of antigen which results in a lowering of the B/F of at least 10%. Minimal deflections of the B/F ratio can frequently be attributable to random binding of labeled antigen or to other non-specific effects. While the re­ markable therapeutic advances of the past two decades have allowed physicians to treat tuberculosis in a fashion similar to other bacterial infections, the requirement for isolation and culture of mycobacteria from relatively inaccessible organs, coupled with the slow multiplication rate of the tubercle bacillus, present major problems for diagnosis. According to the World Health Organization [6] there are approximately 20 million people with active tuberculosis who annually infect from 50 to 100 million people. The death rate attributable to this disease remains high — about 3 million people per year. Ready detection and earlier treatment are required to reduce the death rate from this disease in the developing nations with the highest infection rates. This process renders samples safe, dis­ sociates antigen-antibody complexes and denatures endogenous anti­ body. That the final product is not homogeneous is evidenced by our observation that doubling the antibody concentration did not result in doubling the bound/free ratio. The concentration of immunoreactive material detected in culture media is expressed in terms of the protein concentration of a stan­ dard that is known to be impure; therefore, the true concentrations are lower than those shown. Nonetheless, it did seem reasonable to expect that measurement of a secretory protein which accumulates in a culture medium might be satisfactory. Also shown are the cross-reactivities of similar preparations derived from other mycobacterial species. Concentrations of secretory tuberculoprotein in aliquots o f Middlebrook 7H9 culture of Sutum Specimen No. These data are consistent with our finding that dilutions of immunoreactive material in culture filtrates of M. The serial production of immunoreactivity by positive sputum samples incubated in Middlebrook 7H9 medium is shown in Figs. The liquid culture medium contained 100 ng of tuberculoprotein per m L as early as day 4 (Fig. However it was not until a week later that a rapid increase in the production of immunoreactive tuberculoprotein was initiated. After 48 hours the tuberculoprotein concentration in the constantly agitated culture was 840 ng per m L while that in the more stationary cul­ ture medium was only 135 ng per mL. By day 7 the concentration in the agitated culture had peaked at 1500 ng per m L while more stationary cultures contained 240 ng per mL. In a similar experiment initial cultures were more concen­ trated, allowing the determination of the number of organisms and the level of immunoreactivity in the initial cultures (Fig. Concentration of secretory tuberculoprotein in aliquots o f Middlebrook 7H9 culture o f Sputum Specimen No. T h e p a r t i a l c r o s s - r e a c t iv i t y o f s e c r e to r y tu b e r c u lo p r o te in d e r iv e d fro m M. In a s e r ie s o f r e c e n t s tu d ie s im m u n o re a c tiv e t u b e r c u lo p r o te in h a s b e e n d e te c te d in sp u tu m and p la s m a o f p a t ie n t s w it h p u lm o n a ry tu b e r c u lo s is an d in c e r e b r o s p in a l an d a c e t ic f l u i d s fro m p a t ie n t s w it h tu b e r c u lo u s m e n in g it is and p e r i t o n i t i s. T h e im m u n o r e a c tiv ity i n sp utu m and c e r e b r o s p in a l h a s b e e n shown to b e s u p e rp o s a b le on P P D -C T -6 8 s ta n d a rd c u rv e s , an d to h a v e p h y s ic o c h e m ic a l p r o p e r t ie s s im ila r to th e im m u n o re a c tiv e m a t e r ia l in s ta n d a rd s an d c u lt u r e m e d ia [9]. I t is a n t i ­ c ip a te d t h a t th e s e m eth o d s w i l l b e m ade a p p lic a b le to th e d ia g n o s is an d m anagem ent o f h ig h ly p r e v a le n t co m m u n ic a b le d is e a s e s , su ch as t u b e r c u lo s is , f o r w h ic h c u r r e n t m eth o d s a r e tim e -c o n s u m in g and c o s t ly. In particular, while he and his colleagues had used *Ag in their studies on tuberculosis, he could not say whether *Ag or *Ab methods would prove superior. In response to questions, he indicated that he had not presented data on the direct measurement of the organism in sputum; these were in course of publication. Such measurements were performed on autoclaved samples which were perfectly safe to handle. He and his colleagues had performed measurements on plasma as well as on sputum, but Ag concentrations in plasma were lower and non-specific effects more pronounced, necessitating the use of a more sensitive assay. He was uncertain whether the tuberculoprotein involved was actively secreted or shed by the organism. The material was not highly antigenic; this minimized problems with endogenous Ab, but made the generation of high-titre antisera difficult. Studies to compare the diagnostic efficiency of the assay with those of conventional diagnostic techniques were under way. Ab levels in plasma had been high, however, even in control subjects, making Ag measurements difficult. Immunoassays for parasitic diseases are usually used in three situations, (a) for diagnosis, (b) for epidemiology, and (c) in the research laboratory. Radioimmunoassay, especially using 125I as a label has been more or less exclusively confined to the research laboratory. It has proved to be extremely valuable in the detection of low levels of particular antigens or antibodies in complex mixtures but it is not convenient for most field uses. These assays, especially the indirect method using enzyme-labelled anti-species globulin, have been employed to detect antibodies in virtually all parasitic diseases. The only requirement is that a suitable soluble antigen be available for attachment to the solid-phase surface. The merits of simplicity and sensitivity and ease of mass processing of samples is the reason for this. These tests have also been shown to be useful immunodiagnostic methods for toxocariasis, echinococcus, leishmaniasis, trypanosomiasis, toxoplasmosis and amoebiasis. It is especially suitable for rapid diagnosis where only a few samples are to be tested. This brief review indicates the wide potential of labelled reagent immunoassays which currently dominate the immunodiagnosis and sero-epidemiology of parasitic diseases. It is clear that these methods are contributing greatly to the rapid detection and changes in parasitic disease patterns, information which is vital to the control of these scourges of the third world. Indeed many doubted if there were such responses and based their opinions on the longevity of the infections and on their high prevalence in many tropical populations. It is now known that this viewpoint was erroneous [ 1], the effective survival of parasites often being due to efficient mechanisms which enable them to evade the host’s immune responses. Both cell-mediated and humoral immunity are now well documented for many parasitic infections. The present paper deals with the detection and measurement of parasite antigens, and antibodies to them, by the group of tests known collectively as labelled reagent methods. In all of these an immunological reagent is linked to a ‘marker’ or ‘label’ which can be detected and measured at very low levels. The immunological reactant governs the specificity of the test and the label gives the sensitivity to the system. Immunoassay in the developing countries, where parasitic diseases are most prevalent, poses particular problems in terms of limited availability of funds and trained personnel, shortage of equipment and inadequate servicing, supply of reagents etc. All these must be considered seriously when a particular immunoassay is being considered for use in this context. Antibody assay provides evidence for present or past infection by a particular parasite. This information can be particularly valuable for epidemiological studies since it can often be interpreted in terms of period prevalence of the disease.

Bact- associated with a heterophilic or mixed-cell inflam- erial infections show the typical septic inflammatory mation proven indapamide 1.5 mg pulse pressure calculator. Chlamydial and mycotic lesions demon- squamous epithelial cells buy indapamide 1.5mg low price blood pressure printable chart, debris and extracellular strate mixed-cell or macrophagic inflammation with bacteria indapamide 1.5mg with amex blood pressure up at night. Therefore purchase 1.5mg indapamide mastercard hypertension guideline update jnc 8, bacterial phagocytosis must be the presence of chlamydial inclusions or fungal ele- demonstrated to detect a septic inflammatory lesion. Foreign bodies typically create a macrophagic in- Neoplastic lesions of the respiratory tract of birds are flammatory response with multinucleated giant cell rare; however, they can occur. If a secondary bacterial infection has been malignant neoplasia is the presence of cells showing established, lesions caused by foreign bodies may features of malignant cells. Finding these fragments may be helpful in birds caused by an excessive accumulation of lipids the cytologic identification of lymphoid tissue. A macrophagic inflamma- tory response with multinucleated giant cells and Cutaneous melanosarcomas have also been found in cholesterol crystals is observed on the cytologic speci- birds. Cholesterol crystals appear mesenchymal cells that contain few cytoplasmic as angular, translucent crystals that vary in size and melanin granules. The malignant Skin affected with xanthomatosis is thickened, yel- cells usually exfoliate as single cells, and the back- low and friable. It is often found in areas where ground may contain melanin granules from ruptured previous hemorrhage (eg, feather cysts and skin cells. The round melanin granules vary from black to trauma) or pressure from underlying tumors (eg, dark brown to golden in color. Avian poxvirus lesions reveal clusters of squamous Subcutaneous lipomas produce a cytologic specimen epithelial cells that contain large cytoplasmic vacu- that appears “greasy” on the unstained slide. The large cytoplasmic vacuoles cytology reveals numerous lipocytes, which vary in found in the affected squamous cell push the cell size (Color 10. These vacuoles represent cytoplasmic vacuoles in association with clusters of the ballooning degeneration of the squamous epithe- small vacuoles. These cytoplasmic vacu- cell nucleus appears pyknotic and pushed to one edge oles often contain small, pale eosinophilic inclusions of the cell, often appearing as if pushed beyond the with oil immersion examination of Wright’s stained cell margin. A secondary septic inflammatory response is lipomas resembles the cytoplasm of the lipocytes and often associated with ulcerated pox lesions. These clear, round, fat droplets usually partially dissolve in the alcohol- Cytology of the Cornea and Conjunctiva based stains (eg, Wright’s stain) but are easily seen in the water-soluble stains such as new methylene Normal conjunctival scrapings provide poorly cellu- blue. The nor- The cytology of feather cysts varies, depending upon mal cytology of the cornea is also poorly cellular and the chronicity of the lesion (see Color 24). Early consists of occasional noncornified squamous epithel- stages of feather cyst development reveal a marked ial cells. Inflammatory lesions involving the cornea number of red blood cells in the sample. Often and conjunctiva reveal inflammatory cells and in- erythrophagocytosis can be found. The comes more chronic and caseous exudation develops, epithelial cells often demonstrate degenerative the cytology resembles that of mixed-cell inflamma- changes, such as cytoplasmic vacuolation, karyolysis tion with a marked amount of background debris and or karyorrhexis. Chronic lesions may also reveal the presence of cornified squamous epi- Cutaneous and subcutaneous malignant neoplasms thelial cells that are not normally found in the con- are rare in birds, but can be detected on cytologic junctiva or cornea (Figure 10. Lymphoid neoplasia produces a highly cellular sample of immature lymphocytes (Color 10. These lymphoblasts and prolymphocytes are Cytology of Synovial Fluid large, round cells that exfoliate as single cells. They The amount of fluid in synovial joints of most birds is have large nuclei with fine chromatin and multiple normally too small for sampling; however, an abnor- or large prominent nucleoli. The cytoplasm stains mal accumulation of joint fluid may provide enough basophilic. The cells are mononuclear cells, rep- lymphoid tissue, such as lymphoid neoplasms, typi- resenting either synovial lining cells or mononuclear cally contains small, irregular, blue cytoplasmic frag- leukocytes. Cytologic evaluation should also be performed whenever lesions involving these organs are found on postmortem examinations. Avian lymphoid tissue appears as lym- phoid aggregates in the walls of the intestines, inter- nal organs (especially the spleen and liver) and skin. The cloacal bursa of young birds is a sac-like lym- phoid nodule found in the dorsal wall of the proc- todeum of the cloaca (see Figure 5. Cytologic evaluation of conjunctiva scrap- ings may have been helpful in determining an etiology for this lymphocytes, lymphoblasts and plasma cells nor- bird’s problems. Lymphoid hyper- An increase in the inflammatory cells and change in plasia causes an increase in the lymphoid tissue the color, clarity, and viscosity of the fluid is indica- mass; however, the cytology appears normal with the tive of inflammatory joint lesions (see Figure 12. Lymphoid neoplasia produces a background material, suggesting a decrease in mucin marked increase in the number of immature lympho- content. Erosion of the articular cartilage may result cytes, especially lymphoblasts, in the cytologic speci- in the presence of multinucleated osteoclasts in the men. An increase in the number of inflammatory cells, Cytologic samples of the liver are usually highly especially heterophils, is also seen with traumatic cellular with a predominance of hepatocytes, eryth- arthritis. Depending upon the location phagocytosis is supportive of a cytodiagnosis of hem- of sampling, there may be numerous lymphocytes arthrosis. Hepatocytes are large epithelial cells that occur in sheets or clusters or as single cells. Normal Articular gout produces a cream-to-yellow-colored hepatic cytology reveals uniform-appearing hepato- deposit in affected joints (see Color 21). These cells have an abundant, basophilic, of this material reveals numerous, needle-shaped finely granular cytoplasm and a round-to-oval, crystals (monosodium urate) (Color 10. Hepatocytes are easily ruptured during occasionally stain eosinophilic with Wright’s stain. Normal hematopoiesis is occasionally found because the liver is a common location for ectopic hematopoi- esis. It is are schizogony of Haemoproteus and Leukocytozoon, important not to confuse normal ectopic granulopoi- sporozoites of Atoxoplasma and microfilaria. If developing stages of the heterophils can be found, the cytology is Normally, cytology of the spleen shows a marked representative of granulocytopoiesis (see Chapter 9). The hepatocytes also present and occasionally contain iron pigment may demonstrate degenerative changes in the pres- from erythrophagocytosis of senescent red cells. The tions often cause a marked increase in the number of cytology reveals numerous macrophages and mult- splenic plasma cells. De- nowsky stain, the background of the smear contains velopmental stages of blood parasites may also be numerous large bacterial rods that do not stain. Systemic bac- Likewise, macrophages may contain numerous bact- terial or fungal infections may result in an increase erial rods that do not stain (Color 10. Because in the number of inflammatory cells, especially ma- mycobacterium have a waxy cell wall, they do not ture heterophils, in the spleen. Therefore, an acid- agent can be found either within the leukocytes or in fast stain is required to demonstrate the tubercle the noncellular background. However, the presence of a macrophagic inflammation with mult- The normal kidney produces a highly cellular sample inucleated giant cells and “ghost-like” bacterial rods that contains numerous epithelial cells with an provides a presumptive diagnosis for tuberculosis. Numerous erythro- Avian chlamydiosis often results in a mixed-cell or cytes and free cell nuclei are usually present. Urate macrophagic inflammation in the spleen or liver with crystals are also common. Abnormal cytology in- a marked increase in the number of plasma cells cludes an increase in the number of inflammatory (Color 10. Small, blue-to-purple, intracytoplas- cells or the presence of cells having features of neo- mic inclusions suggestive of chlamydial elementary plasia. Epithelial cells from renal adenomas show and initial bodies may be seen in macrophages (Color increased cytoplasmic basophilia, slight pleomor- 10.

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