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This inhibitory response is slow in onset (up to 15 s) and long in duration (possibly minutes) buy suprax 200mg mastercard antibiotic nomogram. Generally these studies lacked specific agonists and antagonists used microintophoresis which is not really quantitative and with extracellular recording gave little information on the state of polarisation of the neuron effective suprax 200 mg infection nail bed. Stimulation of the substantia nigra invariably produces a monosynaptic depolarisation in them that is blocked by haloperidol discount suprax 200mg on line virus 50 nm microscope, but which may proceed to a hyperpolarisation buy suprax 100 mg without prescription bacteria article, if the stimulus is strong enough. By contrast, the D2 agonist quinpirol produced a less marked biphasic effect in which inhibition dominated. An observed D1-sensitive suppression of the sodium current and a shift of the inactivating voltage in a hyperpolarising direction, together with a depression of certain Ca2 currents, would make the neuron less excitable. Reproduced by permission from Dalley (1992) inactivation curves and an increased opening of a potassium conductance (see Calabresi et al. The D1 receptor is primarily linked to the activation of adenylate cyclase and then protein kinase A. The response to its activation will therefore depend on the ion channels and other proteins modulated by the kinase which can vary from one neuron to another. Since the D2 receptor is not so closely associated with just one G-protein, this gives it the potential for even more effects (see Greenhoff and Johnson 1997). They are also used to reduce the undesirable effects of prolactinaemia (high plasma prolactin), such as amenorrhoea and galactorrhoea. Some are used to control drug- and fever-induced vomiting and although any D2 antagonist is effective, proclorper- azine, metoclopramide and domperidone are more generally used. As a reasonably lipophilic compound amphetamine can enter the vesicles where being a weak base it takes up H ions. Its role in emesis and as the prolactin release inhibitory factor have been adequately covered above. Since the animal moves away from the dominating active side it induces ipsilateral rotation (i. Thus animals move away from the side with the most responsive and active striatum. It appears that stereotypy is due to activation of the nigrostriatal pathway as it is absent after lesion of the substantia nigra and follows apomorphine and amphetamine injection into the striatum, whereas locomotor responses to amphetamine are reduced by lesions to A10 and can be induced by its injection into the nucleus accumbens. Recordings from neurons so identified show that they have differing firing patterns. Reinforcement is the manner in which one event (stimulus) strengthens the likelihood of its repetition, i. Rats with electrodes implanted in certain brain regions appeared to find the stimulation mediated through them to be rewarding (pleasurable) and so would seek out whatever part of their surroundings they associated with it. Animals also learn to press a lever to initiate the administration (injection) of certain drugs in preference to obtaining food or water and will continue this to a point of intoxication. Rather it should be considered to mediate the higher-order motor and sensory processes that are important for the activation of aspects of motivation and responsiveness to conditioned stimuli. Thus only D2 antagonists have anti-emetic activity and only D2 agonists, like bromocriptine, reduce plasma prolactin levels. In this condition, however, some D1 stimulation may augment the effect of the D2 agonists (Chapter 14), suggesting a synergism between the two receptors. This synergism has been observed in both electophysiological studies on striatal neuron activity and some animal behaviours. The level of behavioural and motor response to dopamine agonists is shown by the extent of shading in the response box. By contrast, the D2 agonist bromocriptine produces a marked behavioural stereotypy during which animals move avidly around the cage sniffing, gnawing, digging and then rearing. Calabresi, P, Mercuri, N, Stanzione, P, Stefani, A and Bernard, G (1987) Intracellular studies on the dopamine-induced firing inhibition of neostriatal neurons in vivo: evidence for D1 receptor involvement. Cheramy, A, Leviel, V and Glowinski, J (1981) Dendritic release of dopamine in the substantia nigra. Dahlstrom, A and Fuxe, K (1964) Evidence for the existence of monoamines containing neurons in the central nervous system. Lindvall, O and Bjorkland, A (1978) Organisation of catecholamine neurons in the rat central nervous system. Momiyama, T, Naoyuki, T and Saso, M (1993) A mechanism underlying dopamine D1 and D2 receptor-mediated inhibition of dopaminergic neurons in the ventral tegmental area in vitro. This chapter will describe recent developments in our understanding of the neurochemistry and pharmacology of noradrenergic neurons and adrenoceptors as well as outlining theories to explain how changes in central noradrenergic transmission might influence behaviour. The locus coeruleus proper (nucleus A6) has attracted most interest because it accounts for approximately 45% of all the noradrenergic neurons in the brain. In the rat, there are only about 1500 noradrenergic cell bodies in the locus coeruleus of each hemisphere but their neurons branch extensively and project throughout the neuraxis. Retrograde tracing has shown that over 50% of neurons within the locus coeruleus innervate both the cortex and the cerebellum, for instance. The majority, if not all, of these fibres are thought to be retained ipsilaterally. The density of innervation varies from brain region to brain region and this is reflected, to some extent, by regional variation in tissue noradrenaline content (Table 8. The cell bodies are clustered in nuclei (A1±A7) in the pons/medulla regions of the brainstem and their axons project both rostrally and caudally to most regions of the neuraxis. However, dendrites of neurons with cell bodies lying within the locus coeruleus can extend into the area surrounding the nucleus (the pericoerulear region) and could well be influenced by other neurotransmitters and neuromodulators. Many brain areas are innervated by neurons projecting from both the locus coeruleus and the lateral tegmental system but there are exceptions (Fig. The frontal cortex, hippocampus and olfactory bulb seem to be innervated entirely by neurons with cell bodies in the locus coeruleus whereas most hypothalamic nuclei are innervated almost exclusively by neurons projecting from the lateral tegmental system. The paraven- tricular nucleus (and possibly the suprachiasmatic nucleus, also) is an exception and receives an innervation from both systems. Most brain regions are innervated by neurons projecting from both the locus coeruleus and the lateral tegmental system. However, the frontal cortex, hippocampus and olfactory bulb are innervated exclusively by neurons with cell bodies in the locus coeruleus. This view was reinforced by an early report that few of these neurons formed specialised synaptic contacts. However, it is now known that, in the cortex at least, over 90% of the noradrenergic nerve terminals form specialised synaptic contacts with postsynaptic elements (Papadopoulos and Parnavelas 1991). There is also evidence that neurons in different zones of the locus coeruleus are morphologically distinct (at least six different types of noradrenaline- containing cells have been identified) and project to different brain regions or brain systems. In fact, neurons from different noradrenergic nuclei even innervate different types of neuron in the terminal field but, although it is certain that different noradrenergic nuclei have different functions, little is known about their physiological specialisations, largely because of their extensive reciprocal connections. All this evidence (reviewed in Stanford 1995) challenges the view that the central noradrenergic system operates in a non-selective manner. Dopamine is then transported into the storage vesicles where the vesicle-bound enzyme, dopamine-b-hydroxylase (DbH), converts it to noradrenaline (see also Fig. In all catecholamine-releasing neurons, transmitter synthesis in the terminals greatly exceeds that in the cell bodies or axons and so it can be inferred Figure 8. It is thought that DbH can also be rate-limiting during periods of intense or prolonged impulse-evoked release of noradrenaline. This is because a high release rate compromises the supply of vesicles that not only store and release noradrenaline but are also the site of its synthesis after uptake of dopamine from the cytosol. Evidence suggests that vesicular uptake of dopamine is reduced after periods of intense neurotransmission; this results in its accumulation in the cytosol until new vesicles are delivered to the terminals. The K of the enzyme for m its substrate is thought to be well below tissue concentrations of tyrosine and so the enzyme is probably normally about 80% saturated.
Administer in the lowest effective dose and observe the child (risk of anticholinergic effects buy 200 mg suprax visa antibiotic resistance animation ks4, e 100mg suprax otc bacteria with flagella. Remarks – Biperiden is also used in Parkinson’s disease: • as monotherapy early in the course of the disease; • in combination with levodopa in the most advanced stages order 100 mg suprax free shipping antibiotic 1. Tablets must be taken daily suprax 100mg discount antibiotic resistance public health, at night (bisacodyl is effective 6 to 12 hours after administration), until the end of the opioid treatment. Regular follow up (frequency/consistency of stools) is essential in order to adjust dosage correctly. Remarks – To prevent constipation in patients taking opioids, use lactulose if the patient’s stools are solid; use bisacodyl if the patient’s stools are soft. Dosage – When pyrimethamine is used as primary or secondary prophylaxis for toxoplasmosis Adult: 25 to 30 mg once weekly – During treatment of toxoplasmosis Adult: 10 to 25 mg once daily – During treatment of isosporiasis Adult: 5 to 15 mg once daily Duration – For the duration of the pyrimethamine treatment Contra-indications, adverse effects, precautions – Pregnancy: no contra-indication – Breast-feeding: no contra-indication Remarks – Folic acid cannot be used as an alternative to folinic acid for the treatment of toxoplasmosis: folic acid reduces the antiprotozoal activity of pyrimethamine. Do not stop treatment abruptly, even if changing treatment to another antiepileptic. Contra-indications, adverse effects, precautions – Do not administer to patients with atrioventricular block, history of bone marrow depression. However, if treatment has been started before the pregnancy, do not stop treatment and use the minimal effective dose. Due to the risk of haemorrhagic disease of the newborn, administer vitamin K to the mother and the newborn infant. The administration of folic acid during the first trimester may reduce the risk of neural tube defects. CefIxIme 1 Prescription under medical supervision Therapeutic action – Third-generation cephalosporin antibacterial Indications – Typhoid fever in children – Acute cystitis in girls over 2 years, pregnant women and lactating women – Acute pyelonephritis in adults – Cervicitis and urethritis due to Neisseria gonorrhoeae (in combination with a treatment for chlamydia) Presentation – 200 mg tablet – 100 mg/5 ml powder for oral suspension, to be reconstituted with filtered water Dosage – Typhoid fever in children Child over 3 months: 20 mg/kg/day in 2 divided doses – Acute cystitis in girls over 2 years 8 mg/kg once daily – Acute cystitis in pregnant and lactating women, acute pyelonephritis in adult 400 mg/day in 2 divided doses – Cervicitis and urethritis due to Neisseria gonorrhoeae Child: 8 mg/kg as a single dose Adult: 400 mg as a single dose Duration – Typhoid fever: 7 days; acute cystitis: 3 days for girls and 5 days for adults; acute pyelonephritis: 10 to 14 days Contra-indications, adverse effects, precautions – Do not administer to patients with allergy to cephalosporins. Contra-indications, adverse effects, precautions – Do not administer in case of poisoning by caustic or foaming products, or hydrocarbons: risk of aggravation of lesions during vomiting (caustic products), aspiration pneumonia (foaming products, hydrocarbons), and airway obstruction due to foaming when vomiting (foaming products). Therapeutic action – Phenicol antibacterial Indications – Alternative to first-line treatments of bubonic plague – Alternative to first-line treatments of typhoid fever – Completion treatment following parenteral therapy with chloramphenicol Presentation – 250 mg capsule Dosage – Child from 1 year to less than 13 years: 50 mg/kg/day in 3 to 4 divided doses; 100 mg/kg/day in severe infection (max. In these events, stop treatment immediately; • gastrointestinal disturbances, peripheral and optic neuropathies. If used during the 3rd trimester, risk of grey syndrome in the newborn infant (vomiting, hypothermia, blue-grey skin colour and cardiovascular depression). In areas where resistance to chloroquine is high, chloroquine must be replaced by another effective antimalarial suitable for prophylactic use. Contra-indications, adverse effects, precautions – Do not administer to patients with retinopathy. Dosage – Child from 1 to 2 years: 1 mg 2 times daily – Child from 2 to 6 years: 1 mg 4 to 6 times daily (max. Contra-indications, adverse effects, precautions – Administer with caution and monitor use in patients with prostate disorders or closed-angle glaucoma, patients > 60 years and children (risk of agitation, excitability). Dosage – Acute or chronic psychosis Adult: initial dose of 75 mg/day in 3 divided doses; if necessary, the dose may be gradually increased up to 300 mg/day in 3 divided doses (max. Once the patient is stable, the maintenance dose is administered once daily in the evening. Duration – Acute psychosis: minimum 3 months; chronic psychosis: minimum one year. Contra-indications, adverse effects, precautions – Do not administer to patients with closed-angle glaucoma, prostate disorders; to elderly patients with dementia (e. Dosage and duration – Adult: 200 to 400 mg as a single dose if possible one hour before anaesthetic induction Contra-indications, adverse effects, precautions – May cause: diarrhoea, headache, dizziness, skin rash, fever. Remarks – Effervescent cimetidine can be replaced by effervescent ranitidine, another H2-receptor antagonist, as a single dose of 150 mg. The effervescent tablets containing sodium citrate have a more rapid onset of action, and can thus be used for emergency surgery. In the event of allergic reaction, severe neurological disorders, peripheral neuropathy or tendinitis, stop treatment immediately. Remarks – Capsules are not suitable for children under 6 years (risk of aspiration). Open the capsule and mix the content into a spoon with food or fruit juice to mask the unpleasant taste. Dosage – Adult: initial dose of 25 mg once daily at bedtime, then increase gradually over one week to 75 mg once daily at bedtime (max. Contra-indications, adverse effects, precautions – Do not administer to patients with recent myocardial infarction, arrhythmia, closed-angle glaucoma, prostate disorders. Treatment should be discontinued in the event of severe reactions (mental confusion, urinary retention, cardiac rhythm disorders); • psychic disorders: exacerbation of anxiety, possibility of a suicide attempt at the beginning of therapy, manic episode during treatment. Contra-indications, adverse effects, precautions – Do not administer to patients with acute respiratory depression or asthma attack. The newborn infant may develop withdrawal symptoms, respiratory depression and drowsiness in the event of prolonged administration of large doses at the end of the 3rd trimester. Monitor the mother and the infant: in the event of excessive drowsiness, stop treatment. In these cases, stop treatment immediately; • megaloblastic anaemia due to folinic acid deficiency in patients receiving prolonged treatment (in this event, administer calcium folinate). However, avoid using during the last month of pregnancy (risk of jaundice and haemolytic anaemia in the newborn infant). Remarks – Storage: below 5°C Once the bottle has been opened, the oral suspension keeps for 20 days at ambient temperature or 40 days refrigerated (between 2°C and 8°C). It is also possible to start at any moment of the cycle (if the woman is not pregnant). Contra-indications, adverse effects, precautions – Do not administer to women with breast cancer, severe or recent liver disease, unexplained vaginal bleeding, current thromboembolic disorders. However, if it is the only contraceptive method available or acceptable, it can be started 3 weeks after childbirth. Remarks – Desogestrel is a possible alternative when estroprogestogens are contra-indicated or poorly tolerated. It is preferred to levonorgestrel as its contraceptive efficacy is similar to that of estroprogestogens. It is therefore recommended to use an additional contraceptive method: condoms for 7 days and, if she has had sexual intercourse within 5 days before forgetting the tablet, emergency contraception. Dosage – Adult: 5 to 15 mg/day in 3 divided doses – Do not exceed indicated doses. Contra-indications, adverse effects, precautions – Do not administer to patients with severe respiratory insufficiency or severe hepatic impairment. At the end of treatment, reduce doses gradually to avoid withdrawal syndrome or rebound effect; • in the event of overdose: ataxia, muscular weakness, hypotension, confusion, lethargy, respiratory depression, coma. This regimen is only suitable for countries that are free from Onchocerca volvulus and/or Loa loa. Duration – According to clinical response Contra-indications, adverse effects, precautions – Do not administer to patients with bradycardia, ill defined arrhythmia, coronary artery disease. Contra-indications, adverse effects, precautions – Do not administer in the event of cardiac disorders (bradycardia, heart rhythm disorders, congestive heart failure). Contra-indications, adverse effects, precautions – Do not administer to patients with allergy to cyclines and to children under 8 years (may damage teeth) except for single dose treatment. Contra-indications, adverse effects, precautions – Do not administer to children under 3 years.
This mechanism is ideally suited to efficiently eject a large volume of blood against the low pressure system found in the pulmonary artery generic suprax 100mg with visa virus in jamaica. The left ventricle is a thick- walled pressure pump which ejects blood primarily by overall constriction of the chamber although there is some shortening of the apex to base buy discount suprax 100 mg line virus 4 year old dies. Thus buy suprax 200 mg with visa antibiotics for acne oral, the left ventricle is well-adapted to eject blood against the high pressure found in the aorta order 100 mg suprax with mastercard antibiotic 8 month old. The microscopic structure of the myocardium is illustrated in the syllabus section on Excitation-Contraction coupling and is schematized in Figure 2. A myocardial cell or fiber is bounded by intercalated discs and has a single, centrally placed nucleus. Numerous mitochondria exist in cardiac muscle because of the continual requirement for oxygen and oxidative phosphorylation. A transverse tubular system (T system) represents an invagination of the sarcolemma (membrane surrounding the cell) and transmits the electrical signal on the surface into the cell. A longitudinal tubular system (sarcoplasmic reticulum) is involved in calcium release and uptake with each contraction. Cross-bridges between actin and myosin filaments are formed with each contraction. On light microscopy, the A band refers to the myosin bands, whereas the I band refers to the region of actin filaments between two A bands. The M line is a specialized thickening of the myosin filaments at the center of the sarcomere, which helps maintain the hexagonal lattice arrangement of the myosin. The thin actin filaments have an attachment site for the myosin cross-bridge, thus activating myosin activity. The troponin-tropomyosin complex on the actin filament inhibits actin-myosin interaction. Calcium binds to troponin C to release this inhibition, uncovering the cross-bridge on the actin filament and initiating contraction (Figure 3). Several structural differences between skeletal and cardiac muscle are listed in Table l and relate to physiological differences in their function, as discussed below. Because the heart depends on the availability of oxygen from beat to beat, it has far more mitochondria than skeletal muscle, which can develop an oxygen debt. On the other hand, skeletal muscle contraction depends Muscle Mechanics - Robert Turcott, M. Experimentally, if one removes the source of external calcium from skeletal muscle, contraction is little affected. On the other hand, removing the external source of calcium from cardiac muscle reduces contractile function rapidly. The passive length- tension properties of skeletal muscle are less stiff than cardiac muscle. Since the length of skeletal muscle is usually fixed in the body by attachment to bone, they cannot be stretched out beyond their optimum length. Thus, they do not require a stiff passive length tension relation to prevent overstretching. In in vitro experiments, however, it is easier to passively stretch skeletal muscle than cardiac muscle. Stretching heart muscle, however, does not stretch sarcomeres much beyond about 2. This increased stiffness of cardiac muscle presumably relates to an increased collagen content. Skeletal Heart Mitochondria + ++ Sarcoplasmic Reticulum ++ + Resting Force at L max Low High Number of Sarcomeres in >2. Skeletal muscle contraction can be tetanic and sustained when stimulated by a train of electrical stimuli. On the other hand, cardiac muscle responds only to a single stimulus and has a long refractory period before it responds again to another stimulus. Thus, cardiac muscle is characterized by a twitch contraction, whereas skeletal muscle can contract tetanically. Furthermore, cardiac muscle contraction is all or none and cannot be graded (by recruitment of additional motor units) as can skeletal muscle. There is a predictable relationship between sarcomere length at the onset of contraction and the amount of force developed by the muscle. Classical studies in skeletal muscle suggest that the developed force is related to the degree of overlap of thin and thick filaments (Figure 4). As muscle is stretched beyond this point, there is less overlap between thin and thick filaments and thus less opportunity for crossbridges to form. This has been postulated as the primary mechanism for the reduction in force at shorter muscle lengths. Figure 4: Classical relation between the force of development of skeletal muscle and the overlap of thin and thick filaments. Figure 5: Representative series of isometric contractions in a cat papillary muscle studied in vitro in a muscle bath. Contractions are superimposed on a memory oscilloscope and then photographed with a Polaroid picture. The lower line represents the passive length-tension curve of the muscle at that length. Cardiac muscle is relatively stiff as one tries to stretch it out to longer muscle lengths. The resting and developed force at a series of muscle lengths are shown in Figure 5 in a representative experiment. At longer lengths, the resting force (bottom line) rises abruptly because of the stiffness of the muscle. Note that as length increases, the force developed by the muscle (height of vertical lines) progressively increases until one reaches the L max point, Muscle Mechanics - Robert Turcott, M. Figure 6 plots representative resting and developed length-force relations of cardiac muscle. The developed force rises to a peak at the length designated L max and then declines. The resting force rises relatively slowly at shorter lengths but as one approaches and passes L max, there is an abrupt rise in resting force along its exponential passive length-force curve. The simple addition of resting and developed force is the total force which is a relatively straight line over much of its course. Figure 6: Resting and developed force-length curves as obtained in isolated heart muscle. The relation between myocardial and sarcomere lengths and the passive and active length-force curves of cardiac muscle are illustrated in Figure 7. There are few cross-bridges at the center of the myosin filament in the vicinity of the M line so that the ends of the opposite actin filaments are slightly separated. At longer lengths in skeletal muscle the sarcomeres are pulled out slightly and force is reduced due to fewer cross-bridges formed. Because the passive length-tension relation is so stiff, however, it is difficult to pull cardiac muscle sarcomeres out much beyond 2. The reduction in force at small sarcomere lengths presumably relates to the cross-over of actin filaments through the middle of the sarcomere, which interfere with each other. Although classical studies have suggested that the active length- tension curve of cardiac muscle is due entirely to the changing relationship of cross-bridge overlap, some studies have suggested that another factor (length-dependent activation) may be important. If one plots the relative force development of both skeletal and cardiac muscle, one might expect that they would be identical curves since the overlap of thin and thick filaments would be the same at different muscle lengths. The cardiac muscle curve, however, falls far inside the skeletal muscle curve at shorter muscle lengths. One interpretation of this data is that there is decreasing activation of the twitch contraction of cardiac muscle at shorter lengths, as compared to the tetanic contraction of skeletal muscle.
In tetany this should be followed by 9mmol (40mL of 10% injection) in 500mL NaCl 0 suprax 100 mg antimicrobial underwear. Cardiac resuscitation: calcium chloride injection is preferred (see the Calcium chloride monograph) suprax 100mg for sale medication for uti relief. Inspect visually for particulate matter or discolor- ation prior to administration and discard if present buy cheap suprax 200mg on line antibiotics for dogs with gastroenteritis. Withdraw the required dose and add to a 500--1000mL (see information above) NaCl 0 generic 100mg suprax visa antibiotics for dogs and cats. Inspect visually for particulate matter or discolor- ation prior to administration and discard if present. Technical information Incompatible with Bicarbonates, phosphates, tartrates and sulfates. Significant interactions * The following may "calcium levels or effect (or "side-effects): thiazides (#urinary Ca excretion). This assessment is based on the full range of preparation and administration options described in the monograph. Calcium gluconate injection in small-volume glass containers: new contraindications due to aluminium exposure risk. It is used in a similar way but generally at half the doses recommended for the racemic form. Consult specialist literature as regimens vary greatly depending on the indication. Inspect visually for particulate matter or discolor- ation prior to administration and discard if present. Withdraw the required dose and add to a suitable volume of compatible infusion fluid (usually 100--250mL NaCl 0. Inspect visually for particulate matter or discolor- ation prior to administration and discard if present. Calcium levofolinate | 115 Technical information Incompatible with Sodium bicarbonate. Stability after preparation From a microbiological point of view, should be used immediately; however, prepared infusions may be protected from light, stored at 2--8 C and infused (at room temperature) within 24 hours. Creatinine and At least daily in folinic acid * Dose of calcium folinate is dependent on these methotrexate levels rescue parameters in ‘rescue’. Action in case of overdose There have been no reports of overdose with calcium levofolinate. This assessment is based on the full range of preparation and administration options described in the monograph. Capreom ycin 1-g (1 million units) dry powder vials * Capreomycin sulfate is a polypeptide complex of four microbiologically active components. Pre-treatment checks Use with caution in patients with auditory impairment or eighth cranial nerve damage. Dose in renal impairment: there are two similar strategies for dosing in renal impairment: * The manufacturer recommends doses should be adjusted according to creatinine clearance. The doses in Table C1 are calculated to achieve a mean steady-state capreomycin level of 10 micro- grams/mL, at various levels of renal function. In both cases the dose should be adjusted according to the capreomycin serum concentration with a desired steady state level of 10 micrograms/mL. Capreomycin | 117 Table C1 Capreomycin: dose adjustment according to creatinine clearance Creatinine clearance Dose for these dosing intervals (mg/kg) (mL/minute) 24-hourly 48-hourly 72-hourly 0 1. Inspect visually for particulate matter or discoloration prior to administration and discard if present. Table C2 Capreomycin: Volume of diluent to give desired capreomycin concentrations Volume of diluent Final volume (mL) Concentration of added (mL) capreomycin (mg/mL) 2. Inspect visually for particulate matter or discoloration prior to administration and discard if present. Technical information Incompatible with No information Compatible with Flush:NaCl0. A pale straw colour may develop which may darken over time, but this is not harmful. Monitoring Measure Frequency Rationale U&Es At least monthly (more * Capreomycin is nephrotoxic. Take * May be measured to check that the concentration sample in the middle of a desired steady-state concentration of dosage interval. Additional information Common and serious Injection-related: Local: Pain and induration at injection site. Pharmacokinetics Elimination half-life is 4--6 hours; up to 55 hours in severe renal impairment. This assessment is based on the full range of preparation and administration options described in the monograph. British Thoracic Society Standards of Care Committee and Joint Tuberculosis Committee. Guidelinesfor the preventionandmanagement of Mycobacteriumtuberculosisinfection anddisease in adult patients with chronic kidney disease. Carbetocin 100 micrograms/mL solution in 1-mL ampoules * Carbetocin is a synthetic analogue of oxytocin, with a longer duration of action. Pre-treatment checks * Do not give during pregnancy and labour before delivery of the infant. Inspect visually for particulate matter or discolor- ation prior to administration and discard if present. Carbetocin | 121 Technical information Incompatible with No information Compatible with Flush: NaCl 0. Monitoring Measure Frequency Rationale Postpartum Postpartum * If carbetocin has been ineffective in controlling haemorrhage excessive bleeding postpartum, alternative therapy with oxytocin and/or ergometrine may be required once the cause has been determined. U&Es Daily in immediate * Carbetocin has some vasopressin activity, and as post-Caesarean period a result can cause #Na. It is assumed that any transferred carbetocin is degraded by enzymes in the infant’s digestive tract. This assessment is based on the full range of preparation and administration options described in the monograph. Carboprost 250 micrograms/mL solution in ampoules * Carboprost trometamol is a synthetic analogue of prostaglandin F2 alpha (dinoprost). Pre-treatment checks * Contraindicated in known cardiac, pulmonary, renal or hepatic disease and in acute pelvic inflam- matory disease. In severe cases, at the discretion of an expert attending clinician, the interval between doses may be reduced, but must not be less than 15 minutes. Carboprost | 123 Technical information Incompatible with Not relevant Compatible with Not relevant pH 7--8 Sodium content Negligible Excipients Contains benzyl alcohol. Monitoring Measure Frequency Rationale Physical signs of Ongoing during * Monitor patient for signs of improvement in postpartum successful treatment treatment bleeding. Maternal arterial * Recommended in patients with pre-existing oxygen saturation cardiopulmonary disease, as carboprost may reduce and respiration maternal arterial oxygen levels and oxygen support may be required. Maternal * Carboprost may induce hyperthermia, which would temperature need symptomatic management. Cardiac monitoring Ongoing at * Cardiovascular collapse, although rare, is possible discretion of following treatment with carboprost. This assessment is based on the full range of preparation and administration options described in the monograph. Caspofungin 50-mg and 70-mg dry powder vials * Caspofungin acetate is a semisynthetic echinocandin antifungal agent.