By E. Bandaro. University of Wisconsin-Whitewater.
Having returned to live with her parents generic grifulvin v 250 mg free shipping antifungal cream for jock itch, she would ‘like to be able to do things more spontaneously generic grifulvin v 125mg with visa antifungal hair, have more energy generic grifulvin v 125mg otc antifungal group, spend less time with my parents and have more self-identity generic grifulvin v 125mg without a prescription fungus gnats lemon juice, be stronger and more conWdent’. Jenny said that she would love to be married and have children but felt that no one would want to take on the responsibility of caring for her and that she was not strong enough to have a child. It has stopped me from making plans and getting on with my life, like going to university or doing things which might be boring for a few years but lead on to something better’. Asked what he might want to change about himself, again like some of the others Rob replied, ‘I’m happy with my character, I’m very happy with what’s happening in my life at the moment’, and he was more keen to talk about how to change society. For example, one man with Down’s syndrome described being pushed and shoved in the street by his neighbours, and another was fed up with being Prenatal counselling and images of disability 205 treated by new work colleagues as if he were stupid, though he added, ‘They learn in the end, and then they realize that are the ones who look silly’. Their conditions did not appear to dominate their lives in most cases, and much time was spent talking about the many things they had in common with their ‘ordinary’ peers: work or unemployment, income, housing, relationships, leisure activities and ambitions. The other more disabled people with spina biWda included a young single mother who was also a college student, and Richard and Vivian who both used wheelchairs. He enjoyed going to city clubs with friends, and could haul himself in his chair up and down stairs, so he used underground trains despite oYcials trying to stop him. He said that when he joined mainstream secondary school, the wheelchair users were all taught mobility and coping with stairs and pave- ment kerbs, which helped him to become very Wt. You do feel low and in pain and angry with people and it is important to have friends and to go out for a drink’, and she talked enthusiastically about her many interests. Vivian was planning to have a baby and she talked of her mixed feelings about taking folic acid to reduce the risk of the baby having spina biWda, yet ‘being proud that I have spina biWda’ because it had given her such experience, knowledge and opportunities she would not otherwise have had. They also tended to say that they would respect any decision made by prospective parents after being properly informed, whether to continue or end a pregnancy aVected by their condition, though they hoped the pregnancy would continue and some had mixed feelings. For example, two men with Down’s syn- drome, who had been talking intently about their acting, suddenly looked very sad when asked about screening, and said they did not want to talk about it, as if the subject was too painful. However, the interviewees had far more similarities than diVerences, including the ways they reXected on their lives, and their belief that they suVered from the general stigma of disability more than from their actual condition. This raises questions about why the prenatal literature, policy makers and counsellors make so little mention of the potential range of each condi- tion from mild to severe, of the increasingly eVective treatments which Jenny mentioned, and of the possibility that some therapeutic abortions may prevent potentially rewarding lives. A further complication for prenatal predictions is the mismatch, shown particularly by the people with spina biWda, between the degree of severity of physical disability and the way people value and enjoy their lives. Prenatal counselling and images of disability 207 The implications of the interviews for prenatal counselling and maternal–fetal relations The overall impression given by the interviewees was of very interesting, thoughtful and pleasant people. Most of them appeared to value and enjoy their lives, sometimes despite pain and serious illness, as much as any average group of 40 young adults might say they do. One man with sickle cell anaemia was in such pain that his interview took place over three separate visits, but this was because he was so keen to take part. Their friends appeared to value them, and so did their families, with one exception as might be expected in any group of 40 adults (her mother had died and her father had remarried). Most interviewees had far more in common with their ‘ordinary’ peers than diVerences, and none showed any clear reason why their life would have been better prevented. Even allowing for the artiWcial nature of the research interview, and the way our methods partly shape the evidence, as is inevitable in every type of research, the interviewees provide compelling evidence for questioning the assumptions on which prenatal policies and counselling are based – that it is reasonable to prevent such lives. The interviewees challenge the view that it is kinder to terminate any aVected pregnancy, however mildly the fetus might be aVected, because life is so awful for the severest cases. Repeatedly, interviewees spoke of the crucial importance to them of being involved in mainstream society – schools and colleges, homes and jobs, clubs and pubs and friendships. They tended to stress their need to see beyond their condition as a personal predicament, and to press for greater inclusion by challenging negative attitudes in society, and by showing how they could be involved. They were grateful to parents who encouraged them to be strong and who, as one woman with Down’s syndrome said of her mother, were ready to ‘Wght for my rights [even through] the High Court, the High Court of Justice! Some of them helped to train medical students, and they criticized inaccurate medical images of disability, such as the sickly child advertisements that raise funds for medical research. Richard was referring to a theme that ran through the interviews – of adaptation, ingenuity and a resilience that grows through accepting and surmounting diYculties. This is in contrast to prenatal screening policies which propose eVorts to prevent and avoid diYculties, as if human beings cannot or should not have to experience them, and as if disability is not inevitable for most human beings, at least at the beginning and end of life. The interviewees quoted earlier suggest that this approach is unrealistic, because ordinary people’s lives so often involve problems – such as with relationships, loss, frustrating limitations or poverty. Fearful avoidance of disability, rather than promoting ways to support disabled people’s lives, is liable to diminish people rather than freeing them into new achievement and conWdence. The diYculty in these criteria is the current limitations in predicting how severe an impairment might be or might become, how much it may be ameliorated by social or medical support, and how the aVected person and family may experience similar diYculties either as hardship and suVering or as part of a worthwhile rewarding life. Some parents value their Prenatal counselling and images of disability 209 child’s very short life far more than no life at all (Delight and Goodall, 1990). Unawareness may include unawareness of suVering, which would obviate the criterion of suVering, and uncertainty again prevails over the diagnosis and prognosis of unawareness. Children who have been dismissed as ‘vegetables’ are perceived by others to experience profound feelings, such as by the researcher who commented, ‘Cabbages do not cry’ (Oswin, 1971). The argument that prenatal selection is diVerent from ending such lives after birth, and aVects attitudes towards impaired fetuses only, is unconvincing. The interviewees show that some disabled people feel threatened and disad- vantaged by the prejudices which are, perhaps inadvertently, promoted through prenatal screening. The emphasis on particular impairments when selecting an embryo or fetus as worth preserving suggests that any policy diVerence between preserving an embryo or a person with, say, thalassaemia is not one of principle but of practicality. Social exclusion, school exclusion and family exclusion (in numbers of teenagers living on the streets) are increasing rapidly, as are expectations that children should conform to ever more speciWc milestones, school tests and behaviour standards with an unjust ‘zero-tolerance’ which does not allow for contingencies and disadvantages. Prenatal programmes are not responsible for these changes, but they are part of them, and are powerful medical and oYcial indirect endorsements of them. Another theme of injustice is when public rejection, expressed through national prenatal programmes, is made to appear to be a matter of private grief and responsibility, as when each individual woman faces the ‘choice’ of termination of pregnancy, a choice constrained by social and economic circumstances. Tests which screen ‘negatively’ for one or a few speciWc impairments are soon likely to become multi-package tests to screen simultaneously for numerous impair- ments, and then tests to select ‘positively’ for growing numbers of preferred features such as intelligence or height. When the embryo and fetus, and implicitly the baby and child, are presented to women by health professionals as a means of fulWlling adults’ dreams of perfection, rather than as ordinarily imperfect mortals to love as ends in themselves, then maternal– child as well as maternal–fetal relationships are likely to become ever more tentative and conditional. I am grateful to everyone who took part in the research,and to my co-researchers,although I am responsible for any shortcomings and opinions in this chapter. Over time, the initial way a problem is deWned then crystallizes policy debates, producing what can then become a very rigid framework, all but impossible to expand or modify (Rochefort and Cobb, 1994: vii, pp. Constitutionally, in the course of nearly 30 years of Supreme Court reasoning, abortion rights have become rigidly deWned as a problem of decisional autonomy, that is, as a problem of privacy and choice. Politically, during that same time period, the problem of abortion has been deWned by pro-life activists (as we would expect), but also by pro-choice advocates (as we might not expect) on the basis of a very traditional model of motherhood, one invoking cultural and ethical depictions of women as maternal, self-sacriWcing nurturers. The combination of deWning the problem of abortion rights constitu- tionally in terms of the privacy of choice and politically in terms of a traditional view of motherhood has produced a rigid, serious policy conse- quence – namely, failure to obtain access to abortion services for women in the form of public funding of abortions. Correction of this policy conse- quence requires a redeWnition of the problem of abortion rights from both constitutional and political perspectives, which entails, as part of that re- deWnition, a transformation of the traditional model of motherhood to include nontraditional elements. To understand more clearly what is in- volved in this transformative process, let us review the current status of how a traditional model of motherhood underlies the current way the problem of abortion is deWned. McDonagh Problem definition: constitutionalism and politics In the United States, the Due Process Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment of the Constitution prohibits the state from depriving ‘any person of life, liberty, or property without due process of law’. This Due Process right of privacy has been interpreted by the Supreme Court to mean that a state may not interfere with a person’s choice about whom to marry, how to educate and raise one’s children, or the choice to use contraceptives. When the Supreme Court established the constitutional right to an abortion in Roe v Wade in 1973, it did so by ruling that the Due Process right to privacy was ‘broad enough to encompass a woman’s decision whether or not to terminate her pregnancy’ without interference from the state. This decision was a breakthrough for women’s rights because it immediately struck down nu- merous state laws that had severely limited procurement of an abortion (Ginsburg, 1985; Klarman, 1996). The Court reasoned that because a pregnant woman ‘carries [potential life] within her’, she ‘cannot be isolated in her privacy’ and her ‘privacy is no longer sole’. Thus, in Roe, the Court established that it is constitutional for the state to protect the fetus from the moment of conception and that a pregnant woman’s right of privacy to make a choice to terminate pregnancy can be limited by, or balanced against, the state’s interest in protecting the fetus as a separate entity from the consequences of that choice.
It was not relieved by three doses of sublingual nitroglycerin administered by the paramedics while en route to the hospital grifulvin v 125mg generic fungus gnats and cannabis. He is a basketball coach at a local high school discount 125 mg grifulvin v otc fungus shampoo, and is usually physically very active generic 125 mg grifulvin v fast delivery fungus gnats taxonomy. On physical examination order grifulvin v 125mg otc fungus japanese maple, he is a tall man with long arms and legs who appears uncomfortable and diaphoretic; he is lying on the stretcher with his eyes closed. He is afebrile, with a heart rate of 118 bpm, and blood pressure of 156/100 mm Hg in the right arm and 188/94 mm Hg in the left arm. His chest is clear to auscultation bilaterally, and incidental note is made of pectus excavatum. His heart rate is tachycardic and regular, with a soft, early diastolic murmur at the right sternal border. His blood pressure is elevated but asymmetric in his arms, and he has a new murmur of aortic insufficiency. All of these fea- tures strongly suggest aortic dissection as the cause of his pain. He is tall with pectus excavatum and other features of Marfan syndrome, which may be the underlying cause of his dissection. Learn the clinical and radiographic features of aortic dissection as well as complications of dissection. Understand the management of dissection and the indications for surgical versus medical treatment. In hypertensive patients with dissection, urgent blood pressure lowering is indicated to limit propaga- tion of the dissection. Aneurysms can occur anywhere in the thoracic or abdominal aorta, but the large majority occur in the abdomen, below the renal arteries. Sometimes referred to as a “dissecting aneurysm,” although the term is misleading because the dissection typically produces the aneurysmal dilation rather than the reverse. It receives most of the shear forces generated by the heart with every heartbeat throughout the lifetime of an individual. The wall of the aorta is composed of three layers: the intima, the media, and the adventitia. These specialized layers allow the aortic wall to distend under the great pressure created by every heartbeat. Some of this kinetic energy is stored as potential energy, thus allowing forward flow to be maintained during the cardiac cycle. One must consider the great tensile stress that the walls of this vessel faces when considering the pathologic processes that affect it. Cystic degeneration of the elastic media predisposes patients to aortic dis- section. This occurs in various connective tissue disorders that cause cystic medial degeneration, such as Marfan and Ehlers-Danlos syndrome. Other fac- tors predisposing to aortic dissection are hypertension, aortic valvular abnor- malities such as aortic stenosis and congenital bicuspid aortic valve, coarctation of the aorta, pregnancy, and atherosclerotic disease. Aortic dissection may occur iatrogenically after cardiac surgery or catheterization. A dissection occurs when there is a sudden intimal tear or rupture followed by the formation of a dissecting hematoma within the aortic media, separat- ing the intima from the adventitia and propagating distally. The presence of hypertension and associated shear forces are the most important factors caus- ing propagation of the dissection. It can produce an intraluminal intimal flap, which can occlude branch arteries and cause organ ischemia or infarction. The hematoma may rupture into the pericardial sac, causing cardiac tampon- ade, or into the pleural space, causing exsanguination. It can produce severe acute aortic regurgitation leading to fulminant heart failure. Differentiating the pain of dissection from the pain of myocardial ischemia or infarction is essential because the use of anticoagulation or thrombolytics in a patient with a dissection may be devastating. In contrast to anginal pain, which often builds over minutes, the pain of dissection is often maximal at onset. In addition, myocardial ischemia pain usually is relieved with nitrates, whereas the pain of dissection is not. Also, because most dissections begin very close to the aortic valve, a dissection may produce the early diastolic murmur of aortic insufficiency; if it occludes branch arteries, it can produce dramatically different pulses and blood pressures in the extremities. Most patients with dissection are hypertensive; if hypotension is present, one must suspect aortic rupture, cardiac tamponade, or dissection of the subclavian artery supplying the arm where the blood pressure is being measured. Often a widened superior mediastinum is noted on plain chest film because of dissec- tion of the ascending aorta. When aortic dissection is suspected, confirming the diagnosis with an imaging study is essential. Because of the emergent nature of the condition, the best initial study is the one that can be obtained and interpreted quickly in the given hospital setting. Several classification schemes describe the different types of aortic dissec- tions. Type A dissection always involves the ascending aorta but can involve any other part. Type B dissec- tion does not involve the ascending aorta but can involve any other part. Two-thirds of aortic dissections originate in the ascending aorta a few cen- timeters above the aortic valve. Virtually all type A (proximal or ascending) dissections require urgent surgical therapy with replacement of the involved aorta and sometimes the aortic valve. Type B dissections do not involve the ascending aorta and typically origi- nate in the aortic arch distal to the left subclavian artery. Type B dissections usually are first managed medically, and surgery usually is performed only for complications such as rupture or ischemia of a branch artery of the aorta. The aim of medical therapy is to prevent propagation of the dissection by reducing mean arterial pressure and the rate of rise (dP/dT) of arterial pressure, which cor- relates with arterial shear forces. Intravenous vasodilators, such as sodium nitro- prusside to lower blood pressure, can be administered, along with intravenous beta-blockers, such as metoprolol, to reduce shear forces. Alternatively, one can administer intravenous labetalol, which accomplishes both tasks. It is a degenerative condition typically found in older men (>50 years), most com- monly in smokers, who often have atherosclerotic disease elsewhere, such as coronary artery disease or peripheral vascular disease. The risk of rupture is related to the size of the aneurysm: the annual rate of rupture is low if the aneurysm is smaller than 5 cm but is at least 10% to 20% for 6-cm aneurysms. The risk of rupture must be weighed against the surgical risk of elective repair, which traditionally required excision of the diseased aorta and replacement with a Dacron graft. Recently, endovascular grafts with stents have been used as a less invasive pro- cedure with less risk than the traditional surgical repair, but the exact role of this procedure remains to be defined. Surgery is urgently required in the event of aortic root or other proximal (type A) dissections. Unrecognized and hence untreated aortic dissection can quickly lead to exsanguination and death. For asymptomatic aneurysms smaller than 5 cm, the 5-year risk of rupture is less than 1% to 2%, so serial noninvasive monitoring is an alternative strategy. A bicuspid aortic valve is usually asymptomatic and does not place the patient at risk for aortic aneurysms. Other patients at risk include those with Marfan syndrome,congenital aortic anomalies,or otherwise normal women in the third trimester of pregnancy.
Vocational training The relatively small number of physicists in many countries makes it very difficult to establish and maintain postgraduate teaching programmes buy grifulvin v 125mg lowest price fungus body wash, with the 46 2 purchase grifulvin v 250mg fast delivery zeasorb antifungal treatment. The turnover of physicists is far lower than that of technologists so that the number of vacancies cannot even justify broad courses that encompass radiotherapy buy discount grifulvin v 125mg on line anti bacterial fungal shampoo for dogs. This makes it difficult for a physicist who may be working alone in an institution to gain the necessary experience by working alongside nuclear medicine technologists grifulvin v 125 mg generic antifungal household items. Short, focused, courses in fields such as radiation safety can be quite effective, as can workshops on quality control or specific computer skills. However, the nature of the work, which is often advisory or developmental rather than involving routine activities, can be difficult to learn in a short attachment since the exact role of the physicist and the equipment can vary considerably between individual departments. Of paramount importance is the physicist’s general education as well as his or her ability to find out and synthesize information when required, and to be aware of the existence of resources. The ability to find solutions from first principles, when faced with a question, can only develop with exposure to multiple situations and problems. This normally requires a relatively long attachment working with experienced staff. Accreditation and licensing It is widely recognized that individuals using unsealed sources should be licensed and should show an understanding of the responsibility that this involves. Radiation safety officers normally undertake a specific examination to test their knowledge and practical skills. Specific vocation based accreditation is uncommon in other areas of nuclear medicine physics. In many cases, profes- sional societies require their members to have undertaken suitable basic education with relevant experience in nuclear medicine physics over a number of years. In some instances, examinations are set to test knowledge specific to the area of medical physics practised. However, it is the responsibility of the employing authorities and medical practitioners to assess the relevant training of medical physicists and to employ only suitably qualified individuals, or to ensure that suitable training is provided. Summary The medical physicist needs to be a multiskilled individual with an aptitude for general problem solving and familiarity with a wide range of the technical aspects of nuclear medicine. Although postgraduate programmes are available, they normally require 1–2 years of full-time study and do not necessarily provide practical experience relevant to the workplace. Estab- lishment of training programmes is difficult due to the small numbers involved in many countries. Maintenance contracts are strongly recommended, particularly in the case of gamma cameras, for which maintenance and calibration are highly specialized procedures. Spare parts can only be guaranteed where the supplier or manufac- turer, rather than simply a local agent, continues to be involved. In most cases, centralized electronic laboratories are equipped to deal with the repair of less specialized equipment (e. In general, routine maintenance is provided by medical physicists, who can assess problems and, where possible, undertake minor repairs. The medical physicist should be familiar with the operation of the equipment and understand the principles of measurement being used in order to diagnose problems correctly. Direct repairs to electronic equipment now usually involve board replacement rather than direct circuit troubleshooting. Equally important is knowledge of system software, as many problems are a consequence of the software configu- ration rather than hardware faults. Introduction Training requirements in nuclear medicine depend on whether the target group comprises technologists, medical staff, nursing staff or physicists. In general, the scope of knowledge required for the various categories of personnel is as follows. Training syllabus The level of training in radiation safety required depends on the type of facilities available and techniques performed, and may differ considerably between institutions. The training course for trainers, however, must be of a consistently high standard. Both syllabus and duration of training will depend not only on the target group (see above) but also on whether the course to be conducted is, for example, an introductory course, a specialized or customized course, or a course leading to the award of a degree, diploma or certificate. Provision of training In some countries, radiation safety is included in the training of technolo- gists and nuclear medicine physicians. Depending on their background, physicists may or may not have had any radiation safety training. Where the staff have had no training, there is a variety of options: —Formal courses offered locally (e. Alternatively, some countries may wish to establish a centre of excellence with advanced facilities to work as a hub and disseminate learning to an entire region. Experts from reputable centres could also provide training at the local site, depending on its requirements. The use of radionuclides is proposed in a large variety of molecular biology protocols as they can be easily traced. The availability of practical ways of detecting the presence of a radionuclide in a specific molecule (qualitative result) and its potential to be measured (quanti- tative analysis) are the main reasons why radionuclides are important in molecular biology. In the theoretical and practical training in molecular biology techniques and also in radionuclide handling, some specific points should be considered, such as the transfer of technology to scientists and technicians from other research fields (immunology, pathology and microbiology) who are not familiar with molecular biology and radionuclide techniques, and upgrading the skills of experienced scientists regarding the use of new protocols in molecular biology. If these aspects are not recognized, there may be a real risk of courses being either too profound to those who are not familiar with the techniques or very superficial to others who have these skills already. Selection of the participants The best way of selecting those who will be attending the training initiative is to evaluate the previous involvement of the candidate in the course topic. Sometimes a simple curriculum vitae analysis is not sufficient to determine the suitability of candidates. Therefore, alternative criteria have to be used in addition, such as prospective participants supplying a summary of work they propose doing linked to the training theme and a list of their recent publications. The candidate should be able to specify the objectives of their project, to detail the importance of the methodology that will be learnt and how the techniques will be applied in solving specific problems. Course content Owing to the complexity of the protocols that are usually carried out in molecular biology training courses, the trainees should have access to the theoretical and practical programmes in advance. Participants should be informed beforehand about the possibility of bringing samples, when possible and allowed, to be tested in the course. Participants should also be asked to present ongoing relevant work they are involved with. In addition, they should be asked beforehand to bring results, if they have any, illustrating the problems they have experienced and thus be actively involved in the troubleshooting section. One point that needs to be emphasized in the course is the handling of radioactive material and disposable waste. Certain precautions should be taken, such as the following: —The laboratory in which hybridizations are performed should be visibly marked with the radiation symbol and a warning of the radioactive material in use within. Guest visits and fellowships In the vast majority of cases, the simple transfer of technology during a training course is not enough to allow participants to set up the methodologies in their own setting. Difficulties are always encountered and adaptations of the protocols are necessary. It is important to emphasize during training that there are specific points related to the performance of the protocols which can be modified without compromising the perfect outcome of the assay. The possibility of making adaptations to a formal protocol is linked to a previous professional background in the area. If local expertise in molecular biology is lacking, an alternative could be an expert guest visit. This professional will take into consideration the local conditions and the availability of equipment and supplies, analysing the real situation on the spot.
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