By P. Kaelin. The Transworld University. 2019.
When surgery is indicated purchase cialis extra dosage 60 mg erectile dysfunction rap lyrics, degree of intra-abdominal contamination purchase 50 mg cialis extra dosage amex erectile dysfunction drugs side effects, and patient condi- hemostasis is the key; this may be achieved with hemo- tion cialis extra dosage 60mg fast delivery impotence solutions. For the stable patient with minimal contamination and static agents buy cialis extra dosage 200 mg low price impotence drug, ligation of bleeding vessels, or cautery. Packing and planned reoperation may a stoma, diversion is achieved by exclusion or diverticuliza- be the best where hypothermia and coagulopathy promote tion. Diverticulization includes satisfactory patient warming and correction of coagulation antrectomy, gastojejunostomy, and tube duodenostomy. A scoring system for liver injuries is sionally, internal and external tube drainage alone will be used shown in Table 13. Pelvic fractures usually result from high- injury of the symphysis pubis and a sacroiliac ligament disrup- energy trauma and have a mortality rate of ∼10%. These “open book” injuries are treated nonop- rial involvement, however, is seen in only 10% of all pelvic eratively. In addition, because of the high-energy trauma, sacrospinous ligament is disrupted causing the hemipelvis pelvic fractures are frequently associated with intrapelvic and to be rotationally unstable. Thus the workup and management pubis can cause a marked increase in volume of the pelvis. The of all pelvic fractures must be carried out in unison with the increased pelvic volume contributes to the patient’s hemody- efforts of the entire trauma team. Every effort must be made to tamponade The pelvic ring is made up of the sacrum and two innomi- the bleeding while at the same time provide adequate resusci- nate bones consisting of the ilium, ischium, and pubis. In the emergency department closed reduction can be innominate bones are joined anteriorly at the pubic symphysis performed manually until a pelvic clamp can be applied, or and posteriorly to the sacrum at the sacroiliac joint. Trans- the patient can be taken to the operating room for placement verse ligaments stabilize the symphysis pubis while the sac- of an external fixator. If the patient remains hemodynamically roiliac joint is stabilized by anterior and posterior ligaments. The immediate goals of pelvic fracture management are A posteriorly-directed lateral compression force can cause hemodynamic stability, prevention of septic sequelae, and sta- a cancellous impaction fracture of the sacrum. Pel- directed lateral compression force will cause a pubic rami vic fractures can be classified into three main groups, stable, fracture or an overlap and fracture of the anterior portion of the partially stable, and unstable, based on fracture pattern and sacral ala. Stable pelvic fractures, while painful, by definition the pel- posterior pelvic fractures. They are usually avulsion fractures ture patients are less likely to be hemodynamically unstable. If the leg length Surgery in not indicated and the patient may bear weight on discrepancy is < 2 cm and there is < 30° of internal rotation of the lower extremities. Partially stable pelvic fractures by definition are rotation- the leg length discrepancy is > 2 cm or there is > 30° of internal ally unstable but vertically stable. These can be divided into rotation of the affected side, the patient can be managed in two main groups based on the mechanism of injury: anterior- two ways. Either the patient can undergo closed reduction fol- posterior compression injuries and lateral compression inju- lowed by external fixation or open reduction and symphyseal ries. Anterior-posterior compressive forces cause external rota- compression fractures may cause dyspareunia and/or diffi- tion of one or both hemipelves. These fractures are usually caused by vertical ment is deferred until the patient is stable. The hemipelvis not need a laparotomy, temporary stability can be maintained may appear to be shifted vertically. If, however, the patient requires a mitted through the pelvis results in an anterior and a posterior laparotomy and the abdomen is not contaminated, provisional break of the ring. Anteriorly there is commonly a fracture of the stability is achieved by anterior symphyseal plating. Posteriorly In the hemodynamically stable patient a distal femoral trac- there is a vertical fracture of the sacrum or complete disruption tion pin may be placed for skeletal traction. Anterior and vertical displacement is >1cm after skeletal traction, anterior posterior fixation is required to achieve pelvic stability. Patients sustaining blunt or penetrating Visible blood at the urethral meatus or with voiding may trauma may have associated genitourinary injuries that can indicate a significant genitourinary injury. Gross hema- emphasize that the severity of injury does not necessarily cor- turia is defined as readily visible and microscopic hematuria relate with the degree of hematuria. Rapid and accurate evaluation and diagnosis with a renal pedicle injury will have a normal urinalysis, but may prevent serious complications. The differential diagnosis in general, the presence of gross hematuria indicates a greater includes renal, ureteral, bladder, and urethral injury. Stable patients with eral, genitourinary injuries are the least life threatening, but blood visible at the urethral meatus should undergo a retro- are most likely to affect long-term quality of life with respect grade urethrogram (see Sect. Clinical Assessment, Physical Examination, and Urinaly- rity should be assessed with a cystogram (see Sect. The degree of hematuria does not necessarily correlate patients with gross hematuria (with or without urethral injury) with the severity of the genitourinary injury. Unstable patients who require clinical assessment may provide clues to the extent of injury. In addition, if the unstable patient has for localizing and predicting potential injuries. Blood at the meatus, a high-riding prostate on Microscopic hematuria in patients without shock is highly digital rectal examination, and hematoma of the penis, scro- unlikely to be associated with significant genitourinary injury. In this case, The majority of these cases occur with blunt trauma and usu- catheterization should not be performed until urethral integ- ally reflect a minor urological injury, most commonly a renal rity is ascertained. Accordingly, these patients can be observed closely ecchymosis (Grey-Turner sign) are associated with renal inju- without further initial evaluation. Inability to void, lower abdominal pain, and pelvic frac- this rule is patients who sustain rapid deceleration injuries. In stable, conscious This mechanism of injury is associated with renal pedicle patients, urine is collected by clean-catch technique. In more avulsion in adults and ureteropelvic junction disruption in seriously injured patients, urethral catheterization should be children. These serious injuries can present with microscopic performed if there is no blood at the urethral meatus in order hematuria or normal urinalysis. In addition, micro- The collected urine sample can be quickly tested for blood scopic hematuria in patients with shock should undergo radio- using a dipstick urinalysis. Unstable patients who require undergo further evaluation with microscopic examination for immediate operative intervention should undergo an intraop- accurate assessment of the hematuria. Grossly red urine samples should As outlined above, the clinical assessment, physical exami- also undergo microscopic examination because certain drugs nation, and urinalysis results will direct the patient’s sub- and food colorings can cause red-colored urine, for example, sequent urological assessment. Blunt trauma accounts for 80% of all trau- ously discussed, patients with blood at the urethral meatus may matic renal injuries, the majority of which are simple renal have a urethral injury, and urethral integrity is assessed with contusions. The blunt injuries are managed nonoperatively, including major catheter’s balloon is filled with 2–3ml sterile water and 10– lacerations and those involving the collecting system. In addi- 12 ml contrast material is injected into the urethra while taking tion, urinary extravasation is not an absolute indication for plain radiographs or using portable fluoroscopy to assess ure- operative intervention. In addition, patients with blood at the urethral agement include uncontrollable renal bleeding with hemody- meatus, and especially patients with pelvic fractures, may have namic instability, main renal vessel avulsion, bilateral main associated bladder injuries. Bladder integrity is assessed with renal artery injury, an injured solitary kidney, and an expand- a cystogram, which can be performed immediately following ing or pulsatile retroperitoneal hematoma.
Past medical history is significant for repeated respiratory infections and the need for inhalation bronchodilation therapy cheap 60 mg cialis extra dosage with mastercard erectile dysfunction drugs uk. Chest X-ray: Mild enlargement of cardiac silhouette and prominent pulmonary vascular markings can be seen order cialis extra dosage 40mg with amex how is erectile dysfunction causes. This child exhibits findings consistent with chronic lung disease effective 200mg cialis extra dosage impotence lipitor, this is likely due to excessive pulmonary blood flow generic cialis extra dosage 200mg visa erectile dysfunction treatment bayer. These defects cause left to right shunting at the atrial level resulting in increased pulmonary blood flow which results in pulmonary congestion manifesting as shortness of breath and easy fatigability. Auscultatory findings in such patients are due to increase in blood flow across the pulmonary and tricuspid valves leading to the systolic and diastolic mur- murs heard in this case. Fixed splitting of the second heart sound is the character- istic finding in such patients and is due to delay in closure of the pulmonary valve due to increased pulmonary blood flow throughout the respiratory cycle. The atrial septal defect in this patient is secundum in type and appears to be large in size. Secundum atrial septal defects can be closed using occlusive devices deployed through cardiac catheter- ization. This would not have been possible if the defect was of the sinus venosus or primum atrial septal defect types, where surgical closure would be indicated. A 45-year-old man complains of easy fatigability with minimal physical activity as well as mild bluish discoloration of lips and nail beds. Past medical history is significant for a diagnosis of reactive airway disease as a child with multiple chest infections in childhood. The patient states that the respiratory symptoms resolved in his 20s with increasing ability to perform physical activities and he was able to participate more effectively in sports. However, this has again declined over the past few years and now he fatigues after walking half a mile or ascending one flight of stairs. On examination, his heart rate is 70 bpm, regular, respiratory rate is 25/min, blood pressure is 110/75 mmHg, and oxygen saturation is 85%. No hepatomegaly, precordium is quiet with increased right ventricular impulse and normal apical impulse. Auscultation reveals normal first heart sound, pulmonary component of second heart sound is loud, no systolic or diastolic murmurs detected. The presence of long history of respiratory disease sug- gests chronic lung disease. On the other hand, developing cyanosis without exacer- bation of respiratory symptoms suggests etiologies other than lung disease. Long-standing congenital heart disease causing increase in pulmonary blood flow with eventual damage to the pulmonary vasculature is a likely cause of this patient’s symptoms and signs. Pulmonary arterial systolic pressure was measured through a tricuspid regurgitation jet which indicates a right ventricular/ pulmonary arterial systolic pressure of about 100 mmHg. This gentleman has a large atrial septal defect with pulmonary vas- cular obstructive disease due to long standing increase in pulmonary blood flow. The high pulmonary blood flow caused pulmonary congestion during childhood 102 Ra-id Abdulla and A. However, with unrepaired lesions, there is likelihood that pulmonary vascular obstructive disease progress causing the pulmonary vascular disease to be significantly elevated, leading to right to left shunting at the atrial septal defect resulting in cyanosis. If reversible, then closure with ongoing management of pulmo- nary vascular obstructive disease can be considered. Otherwise, the only alternative available is the chronic use of pulmonary vascular dilation therapy such as oxygen, sildenafil, bosentan, and intravenous agents such as continuous prostacyclin infusion. Khalid and Ra-id Abdulla Key Facts • Children with ventricular septal defects are typically asymptomatic. The ventricular septum is normally a solid wall completely sepa- rating the 2 ventricles. Khalid (*) Children’s Heart Institute, Mary Washington Hospital, 1101 Sam Perry Blvd. Khalid and Ra-id Abdulla Incidence Ventricular septal defect is the most common cardiac defect, and it accounts for 15–20% of all cardiac defects. The incidence of ventricular septal defect is slightly more common in females (56%). Pathology The ventricular septum can be divided into a small membranous region and a much larger muscular septum; the latter makes up the bulk of the ventricular septum and can be further divided into an inlet, trabecular, and outlet regions. Ventricular septal defects may occur in any part of the ventricular septum, it may be single or multiple, and it may also be associated with other forms of congenital heart defects. The ven- tricular septal defect is usually classified by its location in the ventricular septum. The defect occurs in the membranous septum and involves some of the surrounding tissue, thus sometimes called perimembrenous or paramembranous defect. A defect in and around the membranous region of the ventricular septum is known as perimembrenous ventricular septal defect (sometimes referred to as paramembrenous). It is located beneath the tricuspid valve, posterior, and inferior of the membranous septum. Muscular ventricular septal defect accounts for 5–20% of all ventricular septal defects. Outlet (infundibular, conal, and supracristal) ventricular septal defect account for 5–7% of all types of defects. The defect is located in the outlet septum, beneath both semilunar (pulmonary and aortic) valves. Pathophysiology The magnitude of shunting from one chamber to the other depends on the size of the defect and the difference between the systemic and pulmonary vascular resistance. In small ventricular septal defects the defect is restrictive and the amount of shunting will be hemodynamically insignificant. If the defect is large there will be significant shunting to the right side depending primarily on the difference between the systemic and pulmonary vascular resistance. The pulmonary vascular resistance is significantly less than the systemic vascular resis- tance, therefore, any abnormal communication between the left and right sides of the heart will result in left to right shunting. Blood flow to the lungs versus that to the body (Qp:Qs ratio) in this scenario is 6:2 or 3:1 106 O. Khalid and Ra-id Abdulla of the pulmonary arteries, left atrium, and left ventricle. The excessive shunting will also cause increase in pulmonary blood flow and congestive heart failure sec- ondary to volume overload. Pulmonary congestion will lead to respiratory symp- toms, recurrent respiratory infections, and feeding difficulties. Significant left to right shunting will cause decrease in the systemic cardiac output manifested by exercise intolerance, diaphoresis, poor feeding, and failure to thrive. The pulmo- nary vascular resistance is high in the newborn period, and the left to right shunting will not be significant, therefore the infant is typically asymptomatic in the first 2 months of life, with no significant heart murmur in the first few days of life. With a large (unrestrictive) ventricular septal defect, the right ventricle and the pulmonary vascular bed will be facing systemic pressures; if left untreated, this may cause an irreversible change in the pulmonary arterioles causing pulmonary vascular obstructive disease (Eisenmenger’s syndrome) with subsequent right to left shunting and cyanosis. This complication is delayed according to the size of the defect; large defects may cause irreversible changes in the pulmonary vasculature during early childhood. Blood shunting in a turbulent fashion across the ventricular septal defect may affect adjacent structures such as the aortic valve leading to prolapse of the aortic cusp closer to the defect and this may progress to aortic valve regurgita- tion. If left untreated, it may cause left ventricular dilatation and worsening heart failure. Clinical Manifestations Most infants with small ventricular septal defects are asymptomatic.
Histamine can cause uncomfortable symptoms discount 200 mg cialis extra dosage amex impotence vs infertile, such as swollen eyes from allergies quality cialis extra dosage 40mg where to buy erectile dysfunction pump. Sunglasses can also help reduce the amount of allergen that lands in the eyes buy generic cialis extra dosage 200 mg line most popular erectile dysfunction pills. Wear a hat with a wide brim to reduce the amount of allergen that blows into the eyes 50mg cialis extra dosage sale erectile dysfunction after prostate surgery. If pollen and other seasonal allergens are causing your misery, here are a few helpful suggestions: If your symptoms are related to an eye allergy, chances are you will have problems in both eyes. However, red, itchy, burning and puffy eyes can be caused also by infections and other conditions that can threaten eyesight. Some people prefer oral treatments whereas others prefer eye drops. Over-the-counter eye drops for allergic conjunctivitis are currently only available in decongestant preparations such as Visine (naphazoline), and decongestant/anti-histamine combinations such as Visine-A (naphazoline/pheniramine). Warning signs that suggest that something other than eye allergies include severe eye pain, significant light sensitivity (photophobia,) decreased vision, colored halos, and a history of trauma to the eyes. Perennial eye allergies are usually less severe than seasonal eye allergies and are more likely to associated with allergic rhinitis (hayfever.) Perennial allergic rhinitis typically occurs year-round, although many people notice some seasonal flares to their symptoms. When the inside of the eyelid (the conjunctiva) is also swollen, your eyes may have a watery, gelatinous-like appearance—a condition referred to as "chemosis". In addition to itching and watery eyes, you may notice other symptoms with eye allergies. Perennial allergic conjunctivitis (PAC) is also very common, with animal dander, feathers, and dust mites being the most important triggers. It often accompanies other symptoms of seasonal allergies such as a runny, itchy nose, and nasal drainage. Along with her eye drops, Jones receives twice-weekly allergy shots and takes several allergy medications to keep her allergy symptoms under control. Ogbogu suggests trying an over-the-counter eye drop made to soothe itchy, swollen eyes caused by allergies. That will loosen the allergens from the inside of your eyes and help to flush them out. "They have contact with the lining of the eye the conjunctiva, and they react with antibodies that are bound to cells in your eyes," she says. "Basically, what happens is that when the allergens hit your eyes, they sort of dissolve in your tears," says Dr. Ogbogu. They trigger allergy symptoms like coughing, sneezing, stuffy and runny nose — and swollen eyes. Today, many treatments are available for seasonal allergic conjunctivitis. The symptoms described above may not necessarily mean that you have seasonal allergic conjunctivitis. Symptoms are similar to seasonal allergic conjunctivitis but tend to be milder. These allergic responses are often related to animal dander, dust, or other allergens present in the environment year round. Intense redness in one eye or both eyes. They can give you advice and suggest eye drops or antihistamines to help with your symptoms. If eyes are red and feel gritty, the conjunctivitis is also usually contagious. If the eyes remain itchy and poorly controlled, buy some Ketotifen antihistamine eye drops. Overtime, people can be effectively cured of their allergies, and some studies show improvement in oral allergy syndrome too, she says. Bananas, cantaloupe, cucumbers, honeydew, peppers, watermelon, and zucchini can cause oral allergy syndrome symptoms in people with ragweed allergies. After allergy testing, typically by skin testing to detect what allergens your child may react to, a health care professional injects the child with extracts”—small amounts of the allergens that trigger a reaction. In the spring and summer, during the grass pollen season, pollen levels are highest in the evening. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regulates over-the-counter (OTC) and prescription medicines that offer allergy relief as well as allergen extracts used to diagnose and treat allergies. Long-lasting sneezing, with a stuffy or runny nose, may signal the presence of allergic rhinitis—the collection of symptoms that affect the nose when you have an allergic reaction to something you breathe in and that lands on the lining inside the nose. The allergen each patient was most allergic to (as determined by a skin prick test) was delivered through the face mask in increasing concentrations over time until a reaction was elicited. CHICAGO - A cream applied to the inside of the nose appears effective in reducing the symptoms of allergic rhinitis, according to an article in the August issue of The Archives of Otolaryngology - Head & Neck Surgery, one of the JAMA/Archives journals. Additionally, there are other practical steps people can take to help reduce allergy-related symptoms "Pollen reaches its peak level in the early afternoon, so if you want to be outdoors, do it early in the morning, rather than later in the day," Long said. Experts say many people are developing seasonal allergies for the first time well into their adulthood. Stay one step ahead of ragweed with the ZYRTEC® ALLERGYCAST® app It allows you to find out what pollen is in the air with the daily pollen forecast, and monitor your allergy symptoms too. Treatments for allergies include avoidance, use of anti-histamines, steroids or other medications, and immunotherapy to desensitize the allergic response. 4 5 It can reduce allergy symptoms like sneezing, coughing, itchy eyes, and a chronically runny nose. Food allergies can develop at any time, but certain seasonal events — like heading back to school or enjoying holiday feasts — can expose you to common triggering ingredients like peanuts and shellfish. Rainy weather can also cause an increase in mold spores, which can contribute to allergy symptoms like blocked ears, stuffy nose, and watery eyes. Allergy symptoms can impact people any time of year. You can get pollen alert apps to warn you when and where airborne allergens are highest. People with asthma are more likely to develop hay fever, and about a third of hay fever sufferers have a mild form of asthma. The symptoms of pollen allergies can also trigger or worsen an asthma attack. "What smog seems to do is it sensitizes the nose and eyes and upper airways, and makes them more irritable," said Dr. Ross Chang of the B.C. Society of Allergy and Immunology in Vancouver. By starting a few months before the birch pollen allergy season (usually from the end of April to the beginning of June in Quebec), sublingual immunotherapy represents an attractive solution not only to control symptoms but indeed to change the course of this seasonal allergy. Birch pollen allergy is a major cause of seasonal allergies in Canada, particularly in the eastern provinces. Birch pollen allergy : a common seasonal allergy. Pollen information is key as it enables a timely start of the preventive and symptomatic treatment of seasonal allergy problems. Accurate knowledge of prevalent aeroallergens can improve the diagnosis and treatment of patients with pollen allergy. Clinicians and allergic patients need to know the atmospheric pollen concentrations around Europe to manage allergy symptoms. But pollen is also an allergen which that provokes severe allergic reactions to many people. Many people with pollen allergy do not get complete relief from medications.
Alison Heather effective cialis extra dosage 60mg erectile dysfunction doctors in el paso tx, School of Medical and Molecular Biosciences cheap 200 mg cialis extra dosage with amex experimental erectile dysfunction drugs, University of Technology discount cialis extra dosage 50mg on line impotence when trying for a baby, Sydney order 50 mg cialis extra dosage fast delivery erectile dysfunction nofap, New South Wales, Australia. Isabelle Jalbert, School of Optometry and Vision Science, University of New South Wales, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia. Carla Lopes, Department of Clinical Epidemiology, Predictive Medicine and Public Health, University of Porto Medical School and Public Health Institute, University of Porto, Porto, Portugal. Michele Madigan, School of Optometry and Vision Science, University of New South Wales, Sydney, New South Wales, and Save Sight Institute, Sydney Medical School, University of Sydney, Australia. Kristine McGrath, School of Medical and Molecular Biosciences, University of Technology, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia. Andreia Oliveira, Department of Clinical Epidemiology, Predictive Medicine and Public Health, University of Porto Medical School and Public Health Institute, University of Porto, Porto, Portugal. Rohan Walker, School of Biomedical Sciences & Pharmacy, University of Newcastle, Newcastle, New South Wales, Australia. Thus, in its Inflammation is a physiological response to physiological context, inflammation is protec- infection, injury or irritants. It is considered to be part of the innate defence mechanism, acting to initiate pathogen immune system, being initiated by pathogens killing. Inflammation also plays a role in tissue and being an essential component of the host * Author, p. These many cell types and the production of, and cells include macrophages, dendritic cells and responses to, a number of chemical media- mast cells and they express on their surface tors. Upon exposure to an infec- tion are pain (dolour), heat (calor), redness tious microbe or as the result of another insult (rubor), swelling (tumour) and loss of func- (e. It blood flow to the inflamed site; swelling is is these mediators that are responsible for the caused by accumulation of fluid at that site; clinical signs of inflammation. Vasodilation pain is due to release of chemicals that stim- and the increase in blood flow that results ulate nerve endings. It is a short-term tion of leucocytes (these are the white blood process, usually appearing within a few min- cells) from the bloodstream into the tissue. Acute Chronic Causative agent Pathogens, injured tissues, Persistent inflammation owing to irradiation, irritants pathogens or other foreign bodies, autoimmune reactions Major cells involved Neutrophils and other granulocytes, Mononuclear cells (monocytes, mononuclear cells (monocytes, macrophages, T lymphocytes, macrophages) B lymphocytes) Primary mediators Vasoactive amines, eicosanoids, Cytokines, eicosanoids, growth granule peptides factors, reactive oxygen species, hydrolytic enzymes Onset Immediate Delayed Duration Hours to a few days Up to months or years Outcomes Resolution, chronic inflammation Tissue destruction, fibrosis, necrosis Inflammation: An Introduction 3 chemoattractants, being released at that site; in serves to neutralize the pathogen, injury the process called chemotaxis, leucocytes move or irritant and, if necessary, to initate the along a concentration gradient of the chemoat- acquired immune response. Inflammatory In addition to the activation of cells and mediators have short half lives and are the production of chemical mediators by quickly degraded. Therefore once the ini- those cells, several biochemical cascade sys- tiating stimulus has been removed, acute tems not involving cells are initiated in par- inflammation ceases. These cascade which inflammation is terminated (called systems involve proteins existing initially resolution) are rather poorly understood. This include the complement, kinin, coagulation self-regulation of inflammation involves the and fibrinolytic systems. The complement activation of negative-feedback mechanisms system is activated by bacteria and acts to including the production of pro-resolving neutralize and then destroy bacteria. The mediators, inhibition of pro-inflammatory kinin system acts to sustain inflammatory signalling cascades, shedding of receptors activities such as vasodilation at the blood for inflammatory mediators and activation vessel wall. Pathological chronic motes blood clotting, whereas the fibrino- inflammation involves a loss of these regu- lytic system acts to inhibit it. Calder present at the site of inflammation away the same process of chemotaxis is involved from granulocytes (neutrophils, eosinophils in the movement of other leucocytes to sites and mast cells) to mononuclear cells (mono- of infection and of inflammatory activity. Within the bloodstream, unactivated neutrophils are spherical in shape but once Physiological Role of Principal activated they undergo shape change, form- Cells Involved in Inflammation ing projections that ‘hunt’ for bacteria. Some of these medi- ators target bacteria directly, whereas oth- Neutrophils (sometimes called polymor- ers, particularly cytokines, act on other cell phonuclear neutrophils) are the most abun- types to amplify the inflammatory response. The principal roles of neutrophils Neutrophils are also able to form eicosanoids are phagocytosis and bacterial killing (Witko- from arachidonic acid; although neutrophils Sarset et al. The average lifespan of a human produce greater amounts of 5-lipoxygenase neutrophil in the circulation is about 5 days. The Neutropenia, a decreased number of neu- three antibacterial actions of neutrophils are trophils in the bloodstream can occur with phagocytosis, release of antimicrobial agents, viral infections and after radiotherapy and and generation of extracellular ‘traps’ (Segal, chemotherapy. When the endothelium recognized, they must be coated in so-called is activated, its expression of certain adhesion opsonins (the process is called opsonization molecules is up-regulated. These adhesion and opsonins are commonly complement molecules cause neutrophils to marginate proteins or antibodies). The recognition of (position themselves adjacent to the blood the opsonized target is receptor mediated. The chemoattractants are recog- by the phagocyte, the generation of reactive nised by specific receptors (usually G-protein oxygen species is termed the respiratory burst. Neutrophils also release an assortment Following activation, eosinophils produce a of proteins by a process called degranulation. Many of these proteins are pro- tein, eosinophil peroxidase and eosinophil- teases capable of degrading bacteria. Major basic protein, eosinophil peroxidase and eosi- nophil cationic protein are toxic, whereas Eosinophils eosinophil cationic protein and eosinophil- derived neurotoxin have antiviral activity. Eosinophils normally constitute 1–5% of the Major basic protein induces mast cell and peripheral blood leucocytes. Eosinophil cationic also commonly located within many tissues protein creates toxic pores in the membranes including the lower gastrointestinal tract, but of target cells allowing the potential entry of they are not normally present in the lungs or other cytotoxic molecules to the cell. Their main role is in protection against also induce degranulation of mast cells and parasitic infections (Rothenberg and Hogan stimulate fibroblast cells to secrete mucus. The numbers of eosinophils in the blood (eosinophilia) can be elevated with parasitic infections or in people with allergic diseases and asthma. Their life- Basophils time in the blood stream is short (8–12 h), but they can survive in tissues for as long as 12 days Basophils are the least common of the gran- in the absence of stimulation. They are granular cells contain- and store many proteins in cytosolic gran- ing preformed histamine and heparin and ules. Like eosi- in the bloodstream and migrate to parasite- nophils, basophils play a role in both defence infected or inflammatory sites in tissues. When activated, also irritates nerve endings causing itching or basophils degranulate to release histamine, pain. Body-wide degranulation of mast cells heparin and chondroitin, and proteolytic can cause anaphylaxis. Mononuclear phagocytes (monocytes Mast cells and macrophages) Mast cells (also known as mastocytes) are res- The principal mononuclear phagocytes ident in many tissues. They are granular cells are monocytes and macrophages (Ziegler- with the granules being rich in histamine and Heitbrock, 2007; Mosser and Edwards, 2008). They are involved in defence against Monocytes circulate in the bloodstream some pathogens and in wound healing, and where their lifetime is a few days. Despite being similar, mast cells and monocytes migrate to the site of the immuno- basophils have a distinct precursor. Mast cells inflammatory activity where they differenti- circulate in an immature form, only matur- ate into macrophages. Two types of mast do not circulate in the bloodstream but are cell have been identified: one is resident in found in tissues including secondary lym- connective tissue and the other is found at phoid organs such as the spleen and lymph mucosal sites (skin, lungs, mouth, gastroin- nodes. The latter are regulated by given site-specific names such as Kupffer T lymphocytes. When activated, mast cells cells in the liver, alveolar macrophages in release the contents of their granules and the lungs and microglial cells in the brain. It is the senescent erythrocytes, leucocytes and mega- presence of the high-affinity IgE receptors to karyocytes. Their primary modes of action which IgE is bound that links mast cells with are phagocytosis and subsequent digestion, allergy.