All the others have specific degradation systems that give rise to intermediates that can be metabolized in these oxidative pathways buy prochlorperazine 5 mg fast delivery symptoms juvenile diabetes. This is particularly true in non-growing adults discount prochlorperazine 5mg with amex symptoms 4 dpo, who on average consume best prochlorperazine 5 mg treatment wetlands, and therefore oxidize purchase prochlorperazine 5mg overnight delivery treatment 6th feb cardiff, about 10 to 15 percent of their dietary energy as protein (Appendix Table E-17). The contribution of protein to energy needs may be significant during periods of energy restriction or following the utilization of the body’s limited endogenous carbohydrate stores. Protein oxidation also has been shown to rise considerably in highly traumatized or septic individuals, which results in large amounts of body protein loss; this loss can compro- mise recovery or even lead to death (see below) (Klein, 1990). It is much less in periods of chronic starvation because of various metabolic adaptations related to ketone utilization, or on protein-restricted diets. Whether glucose or fat is formed from the carbon skeleton of an amino acid depends on its point of entry into these two pathways. The carbon skeletons of other amino acids can, however, enter the pathways in such a way that their carbons can be used for gluco- neogenesis. This is the basis for the classical nutritional description of amino acids as either ketogenic or glucogenic (i. Some amino acids produce both products upon degradation and so are considered both ketogenic and glucogenic (Figure 10-3). It has been argued that the majority of hepatic amino acid catabolism is directed in an obligatory fashion to glucose synthesis (Jungas et al. This cycle also involves the peripheral synthesis of glutamine, an amino acid that is utilized in substantial quantities by the intestinal cells in which it is used for energy and for the synthesis of proline, citrulline, and nucleic acids. A significant proportion of the glucose synthesized in the liver is due to recapture and recycling via the liver of 3-carbon units in the form of lactate derived from anaerobic glucose breakdown in muscle (the Cori cycle). Hepatic gluconeogenesis also occurs via the glucose–alanine cycle (a direct parallel of the Cori cycle) and the glucose–glutamine cycle. Since the nitrogen donors may be either glucogenic or ketogenic amino acids, these cycles function as mechanisms for transporting nitrogen from the periphery to the liver as well as for glucose production. The cycle involving glutamine transport from the periphery to the gastrointestinal tract is also vital to the synthesis of arginine and proline and is critical to the preven- tion of the build up of excessive ammonia in the circulation. Nonprotein Pathways of Amino Acid Nitrogen Utilization Although in general the utilization of dietary amino acids is dominated by their incorporation into protein and their role in energy metabolism, amino acids are also involved in the synthesis of other nitrogenous com- pounds important to physiological viability as shown in Table 10-5. Some pathways have the potential for exerting a substantial impact on the utili- zation of certain amino acids, and may be of potential significance for the requirements for these amino acids. This is particularly true for glycine, which is a precursor for six nitrogenous compounds, as shown in Table 10-5. Its utilization in the synthesis of creatine (muscle function), heme (oxygen transport and oxidative phosphorylation), and glutathione (protective reactions which are limited by the amount of available cysteine) is not only of physiological importance, but can also involve substantial quantities of the amino acid. For example, in the absence of a dietary source of creatine, adults require at least 1. In premature infants, mainly fed human milk, there is evidence that the glycine supply may be a primary nutritional limitation to growth (Jackson, 1991). This so-called dispensable amino acid is then needed in the diet for optimum growth and may be termed “conditionally indispensable. These may be important nutritional con- siderations in individuals consuming marginal amounts of proteins of plant origin and undoubtedly have an impact on overall amino acid utilization when protein intake is very low. Clinical Effects of Inadequate Protein Intake As outlined above, protein is the fundamental component necessary for cellular and organ function. Not only must sufficient protein be pro- vided, but also sufficient nonprotein energy (i. Similarly, unless amino acids are present in the diet in the right balance (see later section, “Protein Quality”), protein utilization will be affected (Duffy et al. Hypoalbuminemic malnutrition has been described in hospitalized adults (Bistrian, 1990) and has also been called adult kwashiorkor (Hill, 1992). Clearly, protein deficiency has adverse effects on all organs (Corish and Kennedy, 2000). Furthermore, protein deficiency has been shown to have adverse effects on the immune system, resulting in a higher risk of infections (Bistrian, 1990). It also affects gut mucosal function and permeability, which, in turn, affects absorption and makes possible bacterial invasion from the gut, which can result in septicemia (Reynolds et al. Protein deficiency has also been shown to adversely affect kidney function, where it has adverse effects on both glomerular and tubular function (Benabe and Martinez-Moldonado, 1998). Total starvation will result in death in initially normal-weight adults in 60 to 70 days (Allison, 1992). For comparison, protein and energy reserves are much smaller in premature infants, and survival of 1,000-g neonates is only about 5 days (Heird et al. Clinical Assessment of Protein Nutritional Status No single parameter is completely reliable to assess protein nutritional status. Borderline inadequate protein intakes in infants and children are reflected in failure to grow as estimated by length or height (Jelliffe, 1966; Pencharz, 1985). However, weight-height relationships can be distorted by edema and ascites (Corish and Kennedy, 2000). Mid-upper arm parameters such as arm muscle circumference have been used to measure protein status (Young et al. The triceps skinfold is reflective of energy nutritional status while the arm muscle circumference (or diameter) is reflective of protein nutritional status (unless a myopathy or neuropathy is present) (Patrick et al. In addition, urinary creatinine excretion has been used as a reflection of muscle mass (Corish and Kennedy, 2000; Forbes, 1987; Young et al. The most commonly used methods to clinically evaluate protein status measure serum proteins; the strengths and weaknesses of these indicators are summarized in Table 10-6. In practical terms, acute protein depletion is not clinically important as it is rare, while chronic deficiency is important. Serum proteins as shown in Table 10-6 are useful, especially albumin and transferrin (an iron-binding protein). Due to their very short half-lives, prealbumin and retinol binding protein (apart from their dependence on vitamin A status) may reflect more acute protein intake than risk of protein malnutrition (which is a process with an onset of period of 7 to 10 days (Ramsey et al. Hence, albumin and transferrin remain the best measures of protein mal- nutrition, but with all of the caveats listed in Table 10-6. In protein malnutrition, the skin becomes thinner and appears dull; the hair first does not grow, then it may fall out or show color changes (Pencharz, 1985). Over a longer period of time, assessment of changes in lean body mass reflects protein nutritional status. The clinical tools most available to assess lean mass are dual emission x-ray absorptiometry and bioelectrical impedance (Pencharz and Azcue, 1996). This section reviews some of the possible indicators used or proposed for use in analyses estimating human protein requirements. Factorial Method The factorial method is based on estimating the nitrogen (obligatory) losses that occur when a person is fed a diet that meets energy needs but is essentially protein free and, when appropriate, also relies on estimates of the amount of nitrogen that is accreted during periods of growth or lost to mothers during lactation. The major losses of nitrogen under most con- ditions are in urine and feces, but also include sweat and miscellaneous losses, such as nasal secretions, menstrual losses, or seminal fluid. This is where the factorial method has its greatest weakness, since the relationship between protein intake and nitrogen retention is somewhat curvilinear; the efficiency of nitrogen retention becomes less as the zero balance point is approached (Rand and Young, 1999; Young et al. Additionally, in order to utilize the factorial approach when determining the protein requirement for infants and children, their needs for protein accreted as a result of growth must be added to their maintenance needs. Nitrogen Balance Method This classical method has been viewed by many as theoretically the most satisfactory way of determining the protein requirement. Nitrogen balance is the difference between nitrogen intake and the amount excreted in urine, feces, skin, and miscellaneous losses. As discussed below, nitro- gen balance remains the only method that has generated sufficient data for the determination of the total protein (nitrogen) requirement.
The health And there is mounting evidence from cross- and economic burden of disability also can national data that—with appropriate policies be reinforced or alleviated by environmental and programs—people can remain healthy characteristics that can determine whether and independent well into old age and can an older person can remain independent continue to contribute to their communities despite physical limitations generic 5mg prochlorperazine visa medicine 2000. Prevalence of dementia rises and ill health in developing countries will be sharply with age discount prochlorperazine 5mg with visa medicine video. An estimated 25-30 percent entering old age in coming decades prochlorperazine 5mg low cost treatment kitty colds, potentially of people aged 85 or older have dementia purchase prochlorperazine 5mg without prescription medications mothers milk thomas hale. Aging is taking place alongside other broad social trends that will affect the lives of older people. Economies are globalizing, people are more likely to live in cities, and technology is evolving rapidly. Demographic and family changes mean there will be fewer older people with families to care for them. People today have fewer children, are less likely to be married, and are less likely to live with older generations. By 2050, this number is expected to fell with surprising speed in many less developed nearly triple to about 1. Between 2010 and 2050, the number of older Most developed nations have had decades to people in less developed countries is projected to adjust to their changing age structures. In contrast, many less This remarkable phenomenon is being driven developed countries are experiencing a rapid by declines in fertility and improvements in increase in the number and percentage of older longevity. With fewer children entering the people, often within a single generation (Figure population and people living longer, older 2). For example, the same demographic aging people are making up an increasing share of the that unfolded over more than a century in total population. The Speed of Population Aging Time required or expected for percentage of population aged 65 and over to rise from 7 percent to 14 percent Source: Kinsella K, He W. In some countries, the sheer number of people entering older ages will challenge national infrastructures, particularly health systems. By the middle of this century, there could be 100 million Chinese over the age of 80. This is an amazing achievement considering that there were fewer than 14 million people this age on the entire planet just a century ago. Growth of the Population Aged 65 and Older in India and China: 2010-2050 Source: United Nations. Humanity’s Aging 5 Living Longer The dramatic increase in average life expectancy pathways. Less developed to noncommunicable diseases and chronic regions of the world have experienced a steady conditions. Even These improvements are part of a major earlier, better living standards, especially transition in human health spreading around more nutritious diets and cleaner drinking the globe at different rates and along different water, began to reduce serious infections and prevent deaths among children. Research for more recent periods shows a surprising and continuing improvement in life expectancy among those aged 80 or above. The progressive increase in survival in these oldest age groups was not anticipated by demographers, and it raises questions about how high the average life expectancy can realistically rise and about the potential length of the human lifespan. While some experts assume that life expectancy must be approaching an upper limit, 6 Global Health and Aging Figure 4. Living Longer 7 data on life expectancies between 1840 and 2007 global level, the 85-and-over population is show a steady increase averaging about three projected to increase 351 percent between 2010 months of life per year. The country with the and 2050, compared to a 188 percent increase for highest average life expectancy has varied over the population aged 65 or older and a 22 percent time (Figure 4). So far there is little evidence that life to increase 10-fold between 2010 and 2050. In many decreases in mortality rates among the oldest countries, the oldest old are now the fastest old. Percentage Change in the World’s Population by Age: 2010-2050 Source: United Nations, World Population Prospects: The 2010 Revision. Demographers and epidemiologists describe this Evidence from the multicountry Global Burden shift as part of an “epidemiologic transition” of Disease project and other international characterized by the waning of infectious and epidemiologic research shows that health acute diseases and the emerging importance of problems associated with wealthy and aged chronic and degenerative diseases. High death populations affect a wide and expanding rates from infectious diseases are commonly swath of world population. Over the next associated with the poverty, poor diets, and 10 to 15 years, people in every world region limited infrastructure found in developing will suffer more death and disability from countries. Although many developing countries such noncommunicable diseases as heart still experience high child mortality from disease, cancer, and diabetes than from infectious and parasitic diseases, one of the Figure 6. The Increasing Burden of Chronic Noncommunicable Diseases: 2008 and 2030 Source: World Health Organization, Projections of Mortality and Burden of Disease, 2004-2030. In direct bearing on the development of risk factors for 2008, noncommunicable diseases accounted for an adult diseases—especially cardiovascular diseases. Among the impairments or physical limitations at ages 80 or 60-and-over population, noncommunicable diseases older. Proving links between childhood health conditions But the continuing health threats from and adult development and health is a complicated communicable diseases for older people cannot research challenge. Older people account for a necessary to separate the health effects of changes growing share of the infectious disease burden in in living standards or environmental conditions low-income countries. However, older people and ignore the potential effects of a Swedish study with excellent historical data population aging. And, there is growing evidence A cross-national investigation of data from two that older people are particularly susceptible surveys of older populations in Latin America to infectious diseases for a variety of reasons, and the Caribbean also found links between early including immunosenescence (the progressive conditions and later disability. The older people in deterioration of immune function with age) the studies were born and grew up during times and frailty. Older people already suffering from of generally poor nutrition and higher risk of one chronic or infectious disease are especially exposure to infectious diseases. For survey, the probability of being disabled was more example, type 2 diabetes and tuberculosis are well- than 64 percent higher for people growing up in known “comorbid risk factors” that have serious health consequences for older people. A survey of seven urban centers in Latin counterparts in the developed world, and studies America and the Caribbean found the probability such as those described above suggest that they are of disability was 43 percent higher for those from at much greater risk of health problems in older age, disadvantaged backgrounds than for those from more often from multiple noncommunicable diseases. People now growing old in low- and middle- diet, and physical activity may have long-term health income countries are likely to have experienced more implications. Probability of Being Disabled among Elderly in Seven Cities of Latin America and the Caribbean (2000) and Puerto Rico (2002-2003) by Early Life Conditions Source: Monteverde M, Norohna K, Palloni A. Effect of early conditions on disability among the elderly in Latin-America and the Caribbean. New Disease Patterns 11 Longer Lives and Disability Are we living healthier as well as longer lives, or forward. National Institutes of Health, found among researchers, and the answers have broad surprising health differences, for example, implications for the growing number of older between non-Hispanic whites aged 55 to 64 people around the world. In general, the question is to look at changes in rates of people in higher socioeconomic levels have better disability, one measure of health and function. In the United States, between 1982 in education and behavioral risk factors (such as and 2001 severe disability fell about 25 percent smoking, obesity, and alcohol use) explained few among those aged 65 or older even as life of the health differences. With the levels of wealth, Americans were less healthy rapid growth of older populations throughout than their European counterparts. Analyses of the world—and the high costs of managing the same data sources also showed that cognitive people with disabilities—continuing and better functioning declined further between ages 55 and assessment of trends in disability in different 65 in countries where workers left the labor force countries will help researchers discover more at early ages, suggesting that engagement in about why there are such differences across work might help preserve cognitive functioning. American Journal of Public Health 2009; 99/3:540-548, using data from the Health and Retirement Study, the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing, and the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe. Dementia prevalence estimates vary considerably internationally, in part because diagnoses and reporting systems are not standardized.
Lithium overdose r Confusion discount prochlorperazine 5mg on-line symptoms shingles, agitation and visual hallucinations may Deﬁnition occur during recovery prochlorperazine 5mg sale medications zyprexa. Lithium poisoning usually results from chronic drug ac- cumulation buy 5mg prochlorperazine with amex medicine 665, accidental or deliberate overdose of lithium Complications carbonate buy prochlorperazine 5mg on line symptoms joint pain fatigue. Aetiology/pathophysiology Investigations Lithium has a narrow therapeutic index (the levels at Arterial blood gases to check both pH and bicarbonate which it becomes toxic are only marginally higher than levels. U&Es and urine output duce toxicity, as may concomitant use of nonsteroidal should be monitored. Management Clinical features r Patients should be stabilised with management of air- Thereisgoodcorrelationbetweensymptomsandplasma way, breathing and circulation as required. Intravenous lidocaine may be Investigations of beneﬁt in treatment of cardiac arrhythmias; how- Serum lithium levels should be measured if chronic toxi- ever, it may precipitate seizures. Refractory should be taken 6 hours post-ingestion and 6–12 hourly seizures require intubation, ventilation, paralysis and thereafter. Persisting hypotension may require intravenous ﬂu- ids, glucagon bolus and infusion (corrects myocardial depression) and in severe cases inotropes. Management In chronic accumulation, stopping lithium is often all Prognosis that is needed to alleviate symptoms; however, patients Tricyclic antidepressant overdose carries a high mor- may require other treatments for bipolar disorder. All patients should be surviving patients most cardiac complications resolve observed for a minimum of 24 hours post-ingestion. In refractory hypotension, inotropes may 532 Chapter 15: Overdose, poisoning and addiction be required. The mortality in chronic poisoning is 9%, but as high r In severe poisoning the treatment of choice is as 25% in acute overdose. Clinical symptoms may per- haemodialysis which is considered if there are any sist after the serum lithium levels have fallen and 10% of neurological features or if very high plasma levels are patients with chronic poisoning have long-term neuro- detected. This module focuses on drugs—powerful substances that can change both the way the brain functions and how the brain communicates with the body. Some drugs are helpful when used properly: they fall into the category of medicines. The purpose of today’s activity is for students to begin to understand how different drugs can affect the body. Learning Objectives • Students learn about different drugs and how they affect the body. Then they are invited to question whether they think these substances are helpful or harmful. Background When we refer to “drugs” during this module, we divide them into two categories: helpful medicines and harmful drugs. Medicines are helpful only when they are given at the right times in the right amounts by people who care about children—parents, doctors, dentists, and other caregivers. In this module, drugs classifed as medicines include the following: aspirin or Tylenol, antibiotics, fuoride, and immunizations. With medicines, however, it is extremely important to follow the dosage prescribed by the health care provider. Although caffeine itself isn’t a medicine, it is an ingredient found in some medications. Nicotine itself is not harmful in the doses found in cigarettes, but it does produce addiction. Using the fact sheets at the back of this guide, students work either in small groups or as a class to identify drugs from riddles. After children guess the name of the substance, ask them whether they think its effect is helpful or harmful. Questions like these will help students better understand whether it is appropriate to take certain substances and, if so, how much is acceptable. During the discussion portion of the module, you have the option of giving the students a second riddle, which explains how each drug affects the body. The trading cards reinforce the information in both riddles and are an effective way to convey complex, unfamiliar information. Some substances that are acceptable for adults are not acceptable for children because their bodies are smaller and they are still growing. For example, some people fnd that drinking a glass of wine with dinner is pleasurable, but drinking a whole bottle of wine could be dangerous. You could do it as a whole-class exercise, by dividing the class into two teams, or by dividing the class into groups of three students each. Ask students what drugs they are familiar with and what they know about each drug. Tell the students that they will be learning about the following drugs: aspirin/ Tylenol, fuoride, immunizations, antibiotics, alcohol, caffeine, nicotine, and illegal drugs. The reader will ask the questions identifed on the fact sheet; the responder will answer them; and the recorder will write down the responses on the recording sheet. If you decide to do the activity this way, make sure that each student has a chance to do each job. If you are going to do the activity as a class, you probably don’t have to make extra copies. Depending on your teaching approach, decide whether you are going to distribute them to the class. Try to have at least one other adult in the room while the children are doing this activity. Use the riddles on the handout “Learn More About Drugs” to give the students more information about each of these substances. Lead a discussion about the different drugs the students learned about and answer any questions they may have. One circle should say “Drugs That Help the Body,” and the other circle should say “Drugs That Hurt the Body. Have each student or group make a list of the most important things to know about the effects of drugs on the body. Students may want to create a brochure or poster identifying the effects different drugs have on the body. Divide the students into pairs and have them test each other until both students have really grasped the information about each substance. Then have each student make a large drawing showing the setting in which that drug would be used. For example, immunizations may be given at the doctor’s offce, a clinic, or the hospital. Have the students write a class play about one of the drugs studied during the mission. The play could be about how a drug was discovered, how it is used, and what impact it has had on our lives. Do students understand the difference between a drug that has a helpful effect and one that has a harmful effect? As a class, go to the Library/Media Center and look for books or Web sites about one or more of the drugs studied during the module. Discuss what they mean and how they apply to what the students learned during the module. Bring out the list the class generated during module 2, describing what the students wanted to learn about the brain. Students can take turns being the player, and the rest of the class can be the audience. If the player doesn’t know the answer, he or she has the option of asking the audience for help. Have the students write a class story about the substances they learned about during this module.
S. Trompok. North Dakota State University--Fargo.