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By T. Sibur-Narad. California State University, Channel Islands.

Partial brain dopamine D2 Psychiatry 2000;57:249–258 discount prometrium 100mg mastercard medications parkinsons disease. Glutamatergic strategies for macol Bull 1989;25:393–397 buy prometrium 200mg visa medications narcolepsy. Ketamine-induced synaptic D2 receptor antagonistic activity buy cheap prometrium 200 mg online medications known to cause nightmares. JPharmacol Exp Ther exacerbation of psychotic symptoms and cognitive impairment 1995;274:329–336 order prometrium 200 mg online symptoms of anxiety. Facilitation of glutamate recep- on dopaminergic mechanisms in rat brain. A preliminary dose-escala- novel antipsychotic aripiprazole (OPC-14597) with dopamine tion trial of CX 516 (ampakine) added to clozapine in schizo- and serotonin receptor subtypes. Inhibition by a putative of persons with severe and persistent mental illness. Psychiat antipsychotic quinolinone derivative (OPC-14597) of dopami- Quart 1996;67:313–321. Clinical experiences of OPC-14597, Schizophr Res 1995;17:257–265. Schizophr Bull 1999;25: and structure-activity relationships of 1,2,3,6-tetrahydro-4- 693–708. Developmental theory for a cognitive ceptor agonists and potential antipsychotic agents. Cloning of the mine partial agonist and potential antipsychotic agent. Dopamine D4 receptors dopamine partial agonist and potential antipsychotic agent. Selective dopa- receptors in antipsychotic activity. Pre-clinical pharmacology of atypical antipsychotic blockade of prepulse inhibition. Psychopharmacology 1998;135: drugs: a selective review. The role of tor antagonist, activates midbrain dopamine neurons by block- dopamine D4 receptor in the induction of behavioral sensitiza- ing serotonergic inhibition. Psychopharmacology 1989;98: tion to amphetamine and accompanying biochemical and mo- 45–50. Eur JPharmacol 1992; chotic with marked serotonin (5-HT)1A agonist properties: II. Functional profile in comparison to clozapine and haloperidol. Pharmacol Bio- ((R)-2-[1-[2-(2,3-dihydro-benzo[1,4] dioxin-5-yloxy)-ethyl]- chem Behav 1999;63:237–243. Characterization tial antipsychotic with marked serotonin (5-HT)1A agonist of the 5-HT2 receptor antagonist MDL 100907 as a putative properties: I. Receptorial and neurochemical profile in compari- atypical antipsychotic: behavioral, electrophysiological and neu- son with clozapine and haloperidol. Differential effects of classical and newer antipsychotics 334. The role of 5- on the hypermotility induced by two dose levels of D-amphet- HT1A autoreceptors and alpha1-adrenoceptors in the modula- amine. The cholinergic hypothesis of neuropsy- in rats reflects antagonism of 5-HT2A receptors. Ger- antagonist- than dopamine agonist-induced hyperactivity in ontology 1999;45(Suppl 1):15–22. The selective 5-HT2A receptor an- tools for the psychiatrist. JClin Psychiatry 1998;59(Suppl 13): tagonist, MDL 100,907, increases dopamine efflux in the pre- 31–35. Regional effects of MK-801 on dopa- a selective muscarinic receptor agonist, on cognitive function mine release effects of competitive NMDA or 5-HT2A receptor and behavioral symptoms in Alzheimer disease. Acetylcholine and hallucinations: disease- HT2A receptor antagonist and putative antipsychotic, blocks related compared to drug-induced alterations in human con- dizocilpine-induced prepulse inhibition deficits in Sprague- sciousness. Muscarinic agonists NMDA responses in pyramidal neurons of the rat medial pre- with antipsychotic-like activity: structure-activity relationships frontal cortical slice. Focusing on dopaminergic stabilizers and 5-HT2A onist activity. Clozapine is (5R,6R)6-(3-propylthio-1,2,5-thiadiazol-4-yl)-1- a partial agonist at cloned, human serotonin 5-HT1A receptors. Effects of 8-hydroxy-2-(di-n-propylamino)tetralin ferential effects of chronic administration on the activity of A9 (8-OH-DPAT) after repeated administration on a conditioned and A10 midbrain dopaminergic neurons. JNeurosci 1983;3: avoidance response (CAR) in the rat. Differential effects of repeated administration of 329. Recent advances in the phencyclidine of striatal dopamine release. The effects of ketamine in receptor mRNAs and binding site densities are differentially healthy volunteers. Autoradiography psychosis and alters limbic blood flow in schizophrenia. Neu- with [3H]8-OH-DPAT reveals increases in 5-HT(1A) receptors roreport 1995;6:869–872. Dose escalation safety D-cycloserine added to neuroleptics for negative symptoms in and tolerance study of the competitive NMDA antagonist selfo- schizophrenia. The glutamatergic dysfunction hypothesis for schizo- serine racemase: biosynthesis of the neuromodulator D-serine. Modulation of N- the rat brain after subanesthetic doses of ketamine: potential methyl-D-aspartate receptor function by glycine transport. Glycine uptake governs brain metabolic activity patterns induced by ketamine, MK- glycine site occupancy at NMDA receptors of excitatory syn- 801 and amphetamine in rats: support for NMDA receptor apses. Glycyldodecylamide, a phencyclidine Brain Res 1999;843:171–183. Effects of keta- tions for schizophrenia and substance abuse. Psychopharmacology mine, MK-801, and amphetamine on regional brain 2-deoxy- 1997;129:96–98. Differential effects pathway from NMDA receptor blockade to dopaminergic and of clozapine and haloperidol on ketamine-induced brain meta- cognitive disruptions associated with the prefrontal cortex. NMDA-depen- effects of clozapine, risperidone, and olanzapine on ketamine- dent modulation of CA1 local circuit inhibition. JNeurosci induced alterations in regional brain metabolism. Antagonism of phencyclidine-induced mate release-inhibiting properties of the highly potent metabo- deficits in prepulse inhibition by the putative atypical antipsy- tropic glutamate receptor agonist (2S,2′R, 3′R)-2-(2′,3′-dicar- chotic olanzapine. Antipsychotic agents group II metabotropic glutamate receptor agonist LY354740 in antagonize non-competitive N-methyl-D-aspartate antagonist- rats. An integrated view neuropsychiatric effects of ketamine with lamotrigine: support of pathophysiological models of schizophrenia. Brain Res Rev for hyperglutamatergic effects of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor 1999;29:250–264.

Te classical painful multiple vesicular or results might be more frequent at early stages of infection buy cheap prometrium 100mg line medications neuropathy. False-positive results is causing an increasing proportion of frst episodes of ano- can occur purchase prometrium 100mg on-line medications related to the lymphatic system, especially in patients with a low likelihood of HSV genital herpes in some populations (e purchase prometrium 200 mg fast delivery treatment yeast infection. Repeat or confrmatory testing might be indicated in MSM) and might now account for most of these infections some settings generic prometrium 100mg line symptoms upper respiratory infection, especially if recent acquisition of genital herpes (148,149). Recurrences and subclinical shedding are much is suspected. IgM testing for HSV is not useful, because the less frequent for genital HSV-1 infection than for genital Vol. Terefore, all patients with frst episodes of recurrent episodes of herpes (159). Because nearly all HSV-2 infections are sexually acquired, Recommended Regimens* the presence of type-specifc HSV-2 antibody implies anogeni- tal infection. In this instance, education and counseling appro- Acyclovir 400 mg orally three times a day for 7–10 days priate for persons with genital herpes should be provided. Te OR presence of HSV-1 antibody alone is more difcult to interpret. Acyclovir 200 mg orally fve times a day for 7–10 days Most persons with HSV-1 antibody have oral HSV infection OR acquired during childhood, which might be asymptomatic. Famciclovir 250 mg orally three times a day for 7–10 days However, acquisition of genital HSV-1 appears to be increas- OR ing, and genital HSV-1 also can be asymptomatic (147–149). Valacyclovir 1 g orally twice a day for 7–10 days Lack of symptoms in an HSV-1 seropositive person does not *Treatment can be extended if healing is incomplete after 10 days of therapy. Established HSV-2 Infection Type-specifc HSV serologic assays might be useful in the Almost all persons with symptomatic frst-episode genital following scenarios: 1) recurrent genital symptoms or atypical HSV-2 infection subsequently experience recurrent episodes of symptoms with negative HSV cultures; 2) a clinical diagnosis of genital lesions; recurrences are less frequent after initial genital genital herpes without laboratory confrmation; or 3) a partner HSV-1 infection. Intermittent asymptomatic shedding occurs with genital herpes. HSV serologic testing should be considered in persons with genital HSV-2 infection, even in those with for persons presenting for an STD evaluation (especially for longstanding or clinically silent infection. Antiviral therapy for those persons with multiple sex partners), persons with HIV recurrent genital herpes can be administered either as suppres- infection, and MSM at increased risk for HIV acquisition. Many persons might prefer symptomatic patients and is the mainstay of management. Suppressive Therapy for Recurrent Genital Herpes Systemic antiviral drugs can partially control the signs and Suppressive therapy reduces the frequency of genital herpes symptoms of herpes episodes when used to treat frst clinical recurrences by 70%–80% in patients who have frequent recur- and recurrent episodes, or when used as daily suppressive rences (166–169); many persons receiving such therapy report therapy. However, these drugs neither eradicate latent virus nor having experienced no symptomatic outbreaks. Treatment also afect the risk, frequency, or severity of recurrences after the is efective in patients with less frequent recurrences. Randomized trials have indicated that and efcacy have been documented among patients receiving three antiviral medications provide clinical beneft for genital daily therapy with acyclovir for as long as 6 years and with herpes: acyclovir, valacyclovir, and famciclovir (160–168). Quality of life Valacyclovir is the valine ester of acyclovir and has enhanced is improved in many patients with frequent recurrences who absorption after oral administration. Famciclovir also has high receive suppressive therapy rather than episodic treatment. Topical therapy with antiviral drugs ofers The frequency of recurrent genital herpes outbreaks minimal clinical beneft, and its use is discouraged. Terefore, Newly acquired genital herpes can cause a prolonged periodically during suppressive treatment (e. Even persons with frst-episode herpes who have the patient. Such couples should be encouraged to consider suppressive antiviral therapy as part of a strategy to prevent transmission, in addition to consistent condom use Severe Disease and avoidance of sexual activity during recurrences. Suppressive Intravenous (IV) acyclovir therapy should be provided for antiviral therapy also is likely to reduce transmission when patients who have severe HSV disease or complications that used by persons who have multiple partners (including MSM) necessitate hospitalization (e. Te recommended regimen is acyclovir 5–10 mg/ Recommended Regimens kg IV every 8 hours for 2–7 days or until clinical improvement Acyclovir 400 mg orally twice a day is observed, followed by oral antiviral therapy to complete at OR least 10 days of total therapy. Acyclovir dose adjustment is Famiciclovir 250 mg orally twice a day recommended for impaired renal function. OR Counseling Valacyclovir 500 mg orally once a day* OR Counseling of infected persons and their sex partners is Valacyclovir 1 g orally once a day critical to the management of genital herpes. Te goals of counseling include 1) helping patients cope with the infection * Valacyclovir 500 mg once a day might be less efective than other vala- cyclovir or acyclovir dosing regimens in patients who have very frequent and 2) preventing sexual and perinatal transmission (174,175). Although initial counseling can be provided at the frst visit, many patients beneft from learning about the chronic aspects Acyclovir, famciclovir, and valacyclovir appear equally efec- of the disease after the acute illness subsides. Multiple resources, tive for episodic treatment of genital herpes, but famciclovir including websites (http://www. Ease of administration and cost also are clinicians who become involved in counseling. Although the psychological efect of a serologic diagnosis of HSV-2 infection in a person with asymptomatic or unrecog- Episodic Therapy for Recurrent Genital Herpes nized genital herpes appears minimal and transient (176), some Efective episodic treatment of recurrent herpes requires HSV-infected persons might express anxiety concerning genital initiation of therapy within 1 day of lesion onset or during the herpes that does not refect the actual clinical severity of their prodrome that precedes some outbreaks. Te patient should disease; the psychological efect of HSV infection frequently be provided with a supply of drug or a prescription for the is substantial. Common concerns regarding genital herpes medication with instructions to initiate treatment immediately include the severity of initial clinical manifestations, recurrent when symptoms begin. Te misconception that HSV causes cancer should be dispelled. Acyclovir 400 mg orally three times a day for 5 days Te following recommendations apply to counseling of OR persons with genital HSV infection: Acyclovir 800 mg orally twice a day for 5 days • Persons who have genital herpes should be educated OR concerning the natural history of the disease, with Acyclovir 800 mg orally three times a day for 2 days emphasis on the potential for recurrent episodes, asymp- OR tomatic viral shedding, and the attendant risks of sexual Famciclovir 125 mg orally twice daily for 5 days transmission. OR • Persons experiencing a frst episode of genital herpes Famciclovir 1000 mg orally twice daily for 1 day should be advised that suppressive therapy is available and OR Famciclovir 500 mg once, followed by 250 mg twice daily for 2 days efective in preventing symptomatic recurrent episodes OR Vol. Patients should • All persons with genital HSV infection should be encour- be informed that suppressive antiviral therapy does not aged to inform their current sex partners that they have reduce the increased risk for HIV acquisition associated genital herpes and to inform future partners before with HSV-2 infection (177,178). Management of Sex Partners • Sexual transmission of HSV can occur during asymp- tomatic periods. Asymptomatic viral shedding is more Te sex partners of patients who have genital herpes can frequent in genital HSV-2 infection than genital HSV-1 beneft from evaluation and counseling. Symptomatic sex infection and is most frequent during the frst 12 months partners should be evaluated and treated in the same manner after acquiring HSV-2. Asymptomatic sex part- • All persons with genital herpes should remain abstinent ners of patients who have genital herpes should be questioned from sexual activity with uninfected partners when concerning histories of genital lesions and ofered type-specifc lesions or prodromal symptoms are present. Episodic therapy does not reduce the risk for transmis- Allergy, Intolerance, and Adverse Reactions sion and its use should be discouraged for this purpose Allergic and other adverse reactions to acyclovir, valacyclo- among persons whose partners might be at risk for HSV-2 vir, and famciclovir are rare. Immunocompromised patients can have prolonged or • Sex partners of infected persons should be advised that severe episodes of genital, perianal, or oral herpes. Lesions they might be infected even if they have no symptoms. HSV shedding partners of persons with genital herpes is recommended is increased in HIV-infected persons. Whereas antiretroviral to determine whether such partners are already HSV therapy reduces the severity and frequency of symptomatic seropositive or whether risk for acquiring HSV exists. Pregnant women and ing immune reconstitution after initiation of antiretroviral women of childbearing age who have genital herpes therapy. Pregnant women who are among HIV-positive persons (181–183). Te extent to which not known to be infected with HSV-2 should be advised suppressive antiviral therapy will decrease HSV transmission to abstain from intercourse with men who have genital from this population is unknown. HSV type-specifc serologies herpes during the third trimester of pregnancy.

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Note: For every 10-fold increase in gross national income (GNI) per person order prometrium 200mg free shipping treatment quadriceps tendonitis, the number of scientifc publications (per person) increases by a factor of about 50 at best (actually by 105/3 = 46 purchase 200mg prometrium symptoms checklist, diagonal line) buy generic prometrium 100mg medicine hat lodge. While some countries exploit maximum productivity generic prometrium 200mg treatment 2015, lying close to the diagonal line, many lie well below it, indicating that there is unfulflled research potential, given their national wealth. Some of these coun- tries have smaller populations (< 20 million, blue circles), but not all. The unfulflled potential for research in one large country (Philippines) is indicated by the vertical arrow. Private companies engaged in R&D in low- However, the products are sold to people who can income countries frequently cite lack of funding aford them, ofen excluding those in greatest and the shortage of skilled researchers as major need. Both free knowledge (as a public good) and barriers to innovation (35). Te shortage of trained highly restricted knowledge (limited by its pro- researchers emerges as a general constraint in prietary nature) can be obstacles to improving R&D, but it is also found in specifc areas such as health; the former may discourage innovation health systems research (36). A disincentive for and the latter may limit access to the products private technological research is the domination of innovation. A market failure in diferent settings present some further impediment in low-income countries is critical questions for research (Box 2. The Global Strategy and Plan of Action on Public Health, Innovation and Intellectual Property Born out of concern among low- and middle-income countries about inequitable access to the products of research, the Commission on Intellectual Property Rights, Innovation and Public Health was established to promote innovation and access to medicines. The work of the Commission led to the Global Strategy and Plan of Action on Public Health, Innovation and Intellectual Property (GSPA-PHI), which was approved by the World Health Assembly in 2009 (68). The GSPA-PHI consists of eight elements that aim to promote innovation, build capacity, improve access and mobilize resources. Work is under way in several areas related to GSPA-PHI, such as the local production of medical products and technology transfer (element 4), building capacity in the management and use of intellectual property in favour of public health (element 5), reporting on models for sustainable financing and better coordination of research and development (element 7) through WHO expert working groups; and the establishment of monitoring and reporting systems (element 8), such as research observatories (Chapter 4) (69, 70). Effective implementation of the GSPA-PHI depends on the robustness of the national health research system in each country. Over time, monitoring and evaluation will reveal whether the GSPA-PHI leads to increased innovation and more affordable and equitable access to the benefits and products of research, especially in low- and middle- income countries. In total, more than however, methods of preventing and treating US$ 100 billion is spent globally on health noncommunicable diseases, largely developed research each year (71). About half of this is in in richer countries, should help to address the the private sector, mainly in the pharmaceutical growing burden of these diseases in poorer and biotechnology industries, and the products countries. Drug develop- research and in discovery and development (phar- ment is a case in point: only 21 of 1556 (1. One survey of 140 health research from 1975 to 2004 were for diseases not found funders globally found that most research is directed in high-income countries (75). Despite the per- at developing new health technologies rather than sistently high burden of infection in low- and at making better use of existing ones (77). Funding for R&D is 45 Research for universal health coverage predominantly for HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis and donors are aligned with those of national health malaria, with relatively little for some other services, in keeping with the Paris Declaration major causes of ill-health such as dengue, diar- on Aid Efectiveness (2005), the Accra Agenda rhoeal diseases and helminth infections (37). Tis is true both in low- and high-income In assessing the strengths and weaknesses countries. In the United Kingdom in 2006, of research, the virtues of tracking research health services research (included in category 8 investments, practices and applications quickly in Box 2. Such data are absent or incomplete all research funds allocated by four major fund- for many countries. An observation repeatedly made in a variety The value of health research of settings is that too little attention is given to translating existing knowledge about products Adding to the impetus to do more research is and processes into policy and practice (79–81). Notwithstanding some contentious clinical studies and epidemiology, is commonly methodological issues – such as how to value undervalued (2). In the opinion of some African research- Exceptional returns, a report prepared for ers, external aid undermines eforts to convince Funding First in the USA, calculated large gains African governments to spend more money on from reductions in mortality, especially due to research (82). In the domain of health policy and cardiovascular disease (88). Based on a high fgure systems research, a drawback of external funding for the value of a life, the monetary returns from is that it tends to focus on operational matters, investments in research were valued at US$ 1. On the lion annually between 1970 and 1990, one third of one hand, external donations to carry out opera- which was attributed to research into new drugs and tional and translational research satisfy a press- treatment protocols. Yet on the other hand, less attention is lar disease, the returns on investment were approx- given to deeper, structural questions about the imately 20 times the annual expenditure. Access functioning of health services – questions that Economics carried out a similar study in Australia, ask, for example, how to promote accountability fnding that every dollar invested in Australian in service delivery or how to engage local stake- health research and development yielded, on aver- holders (2). Tis rate of return was surpassed only in is to ensure that the priorities of international the mining and retail sectors (89). The study described how the early evaluated in monetary terms (90). Te assess- intervention services, contributing to the Irish ment included 28 trials carried out at a total cost mental health service, could reduce the dura- of US$ 335 million. By valuing a quality-adjusted tion of untreated psychosis, the severity of life year (QALY) as the same as gross domestic symptoms, suicidal behaviour and the rate of product (GDP) per capita, the projected net ben- relapse and subsequent hospitalization. The eft to society afer 10 years was US$ 15·2 billion, study suggested that early detection reduces indicating a yearly return on investment of 46%. For instance, public-sector ing from the wider economic efects of public and research institutions in the USA do more applied charitable research spending, including the stim- research than has sometimes been thought. Te yearly one domain, they contributed to the discovery of rate of return with respect to the health gain was 9–21% of all drugs involved in new-drug applica- 9% for cardiovascular disease research, and 7% for tions that were approved between 1990 and 2007 mental health research. Publicly funded research in the USA also terms of GDP was 30% for all medical research in tends to discover drugs that are expected to have the United Kingdom. Putting these together gave disproportionately large clinical efects. A key con- should be, measured in monetary terms (91). To cern, therefore, is how far such countries can rely capture the diversity of benefts from research, on medical research carried out elsewhere (91). Tis model of assessment has Research for universal health coverage is not a logical appeal because, while acknowledging luxury; rather, it is fundamental to the discov- complexities and feedback loops, it tracks the ery, development and delivery of interventions evolution of a research idea from its inception, that people need to maintain good health (100). It parallels the research research also lie ahead (101). Te report generated a wide appreciation and weaknesses of research for health, country of the shortfall in research investment and of the by country, worldwide. When public money is fragility of health research in low- and middle- being spent on research, there should be mecha- income countries. More than 20 years later, it nisms for debating research priorities, for devel- is clear that research for health is on the rise oping the capacity to carry out research, for worldwide. Health problems are better defned setting standards, and for translating the results than they were two decades ago. In judging the priorities funds and greater research capacity to address for spending, there should be a consensus on the key questions about health. Investigations are balance of activities related to the research cycle: increasingly following best practice in design, measuring the size of the health problem; under- ethics and the reporting of results. Tere are standing its cause; devising solutions; translating more research institutions and networks, and the evidence into policy, practice and products; there is more national and international col- and evaluating the efectiveness of interventions laboration, “south to south” as well as “north to afer implementation. Te review of the research land- studied in any given setting, there should be scape in this chapter is not yet a story of research discussion on the methods of investigation, the potential fulflled but it shows the strengthen- signifcance of the fndings, and the inferences to ing foundations on which better research pro- be drawn from them. Te means of creating a healthy research Creativity and imagination are central to environment and of judging its performance the research enterprise. A premise of this report are described in greater detail in Chapter 4. Health research - essential link to equity in development.

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Incremental net benefit of early intervention Ineligible population for preschool-aged children with emotional and behavioral problems in foster care buy 100mg prometrium overnight delivery medications grapefruit interacts with. Child Youth Serv Rev 2014;36:213–19 Mandhane PJ buy generic prometrium 200mg on-line treatment works, McGhan SL order 200 mg prometrium visa medicine education, Sharpe HM order 200mg prometrium medications quit smoking, Wong E, Hessel PA, Befus AD, et al. This issue may be freely reproduced for the purposes of private research and study and extracts (or indeed, the full report) may be included in professional journals provided that 107 suitable acknowledgement is made and the reproduction is not associated with any form of advertising. Applications for commercial reproduction should be addressed to: NIHR Journals Library, National Institute for Health Research, Evaluation, Trials and Studies Coordinating Centre, Alpha House, University of Southampton Science Park, Southampton SO16 7NS, UK. APPENDIX 4 Study ID Reason for exclusion Mangione-Smith R, Schonlau M, Chan KS, Keesey J, Rosen M, Louis TA, et al. Measuring Ineligible intervention the effectiveness of a collaborative for quality improvement in pediatric asthma care: does implementing the chronic care model improve processes and outcomes of care? Ambul Pediatr 2005;5:75–82 Mann NP, Noronha JL, Johnston DI. A prospective study to evaluate the benefits of No eligible health outcomes long-term self-monitoring of blood glucose in diabetic children. Diabetes Care 1984;7:322–6 Marrero DG, Vandagriff JL, Kronz K, Fineberg NS, Golden MP, Gray D, et al. Using Ineligible intervention telecommunication technology to manage children with diabetes: the Computer-Linked Outpatient Clinic (CLOC) study. Diabetes Educ 1995;21:313–19 Massie J, Efron D, Cerritelli B, South M, Powell C, Haby MM, et al. Implementation of Ineligible intervention evidence based guidelines for paediatric asthma management in a teaching hospital. The feasibility and effectiveness of early intervention in psychotic Ineligible population disorders: the Australian experience. Int Clin Psychopharmacol 1998;13:S47–52 McPherson AC, Glazebrook C, Forster D, James C, Smyth A. A randomized, controlled trial No eligible health outcomes of an interactive educational computer package for children with asthma. Pediatrics 2006;117:1046–54 Meng YY, Pourat N, Cosway R, Kominski GF. Estimated cost impacts of law to expand Ineligible intervention coverage for self-management education to children with asthma in California. J Asthma 2010;47:581–6 Mihalopoulos C, McGorry PD, Carter RC. Is phase-specific, community-oriented treatment Ineligible intervention of early psychosis an economically viable method of improving outcome. Acta Psychiatr Scand 1999;100:47–55 Moran G, Fonagy P, Kurtz A, Bolton A, Brook C. A controlled study of the psychoanalytic No eligible health outcomes treatment of brittle diabetes. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 1991;30:926–35 Murphy HR, Wadham C, Hassler-Hurst J, Rayman G, Skinner TC, Families and Adolescents No eligible economic Communication and Teamwork Study (FACTS) Group. Randomized trial of a diabetes outcomes self-management education and family teamwork intervention in adolescents with type 1 diabetes. Diabet Med 2012;29:e249–54 Nelson KA, Highstein GR, Garbutt J, Trinkaus K, Fisher EB, Smith SR, et al. A randomized No eligible health outcomes controlled trial of parental asthma coaching to improve outcomes among urban minority children. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 2011;165:520–6 Ngo VK, Asarnow JR, Lange J, Jaycox LH, Rea MM, Landon C, et al. Outcomes for youths Ineligible intervention from racial-ethnic minority groups in a quality improvement intervention for depression treatment. Psychiatr Serv 2009;60:1357–64 Nguyen KH, Boulay E, Peng J. Quality-of-life and cost–benefit analysis of a home Wrong study design environmental assessment program in Connecticut. J Asthma 2011;48:147–55 Nunn E, King B, Smart C, Anderson D. A randomized controlled trial of telephone calls to No eligible economic young patients with poorly controlled type 1 diabetes. Pediatr Diabetes 2006;7:254–9 outcomes Oishi T, Narita M, Morisawa Y, Watanabe H, Fukuie T, Akashi M, et al. The written action Ineligible intervention plan in childhood asthma can reduce unscheduled physician visits. Allergy 2013;68:377 Patel B, Sheridan P, Detjen P, Donnersberger D, Gluck E, Malamut K, et al. Success of a Ineligible intervention comprehensive school-based asthma intervention on clinical markers and resource utilization for inner-city children with asthma in Chicago: the Mobile C. J Asthma 2007;44:113–18 Persaud DI, Barnett SE, Weller SC, Baldwin CD, Niebuhr V, McCormick DP. An asthma No eligible health outcomes self-management program for children, including instruction in peak flow monitoring by school nurses. J Asthma 1996;33:37–43 Polisena J, Tam S, Lodha A, Laporte A, Coyte PC, Ungar WJ. An economic evaluation of Ineligible intervention asthma action plans for children with asthma. J Asthma 2007;44:501–8 Reagan MM, DeBaun MR, Frei-Jones MJ. Multi-modal intervention for the inpatient Ineligible intervention management of sickle cell pain significantly decreases the rate of acute chest syndrome. Pediatr Blood Cancer 2011;56:262–6 108 NIHR Journals Library www. Cost benefits of a peer-led asthma self-management program Absent/ineligible comparator for adolescents. J Asthma 2012;49:606–13 Rhee H, Belyea MJ, Hunt JF, Brasch J. Effects of a peer-led asthma self-management Absent/ineligible comparator program for adolescents. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 2011;165:513–19 Robling M, McNamara R, Bennert K, Butler CC, Channon S, Cohen D, et al. The effect of Ineligible intervention the Talking Diabetes consulting skills intervention on glycaemic control and quality of life in children with type 1 diabetes: cluster randomised controlled trial (DEPICTED study). BMJ 2012;344:e2359 Rushton A, Monck E, Leese M, McCrone P, Sharac J. Enhancing adoptive parenting: Ineligible population a randomized controlled trial. Clin Child Psychol Psychiatry 2010;15:529–42 Sanders MR, Baker S, Turner KM. A randomized controlled trial evaluating the efficacy of No eligible economic Triple P Online with parents of children with early-onset conduct problems. Behav Res Ther outcomes 2012;50:675–84 Schauerte G, Fendel T, Schwab S, Bredl C. A No eligible health outcomes randomized controlled trial of a 3-year home exercise program in cystic fibrosis.

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