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By Q. Gorn. New Jersey Institute of Technology.

Medications that increase oral dryness such as antihistamines and diuretics should be avoided if possible buy 25 mg nortriptyline visa anxiety ocd. Tese agents stimulate the M1 and M3 receptors present on salivary glands cheap nortriptyline 25 mg on line anxiety symptoms mayo clinic, leading to increased secretory function buy 25 mg nortriptyline otc anxiety nos icd 10. In our experience cheap nortriptyline 25 mg without prescription anxiety symptoms gastro, pilocarpine has a shorter onset of action but also a shorter duration of action with suggesting dosing 4 times a day. However, we recommend gradually in- creasing the dose and taking about 30 minutes before meals. Initially, patients may have some increased symptoms of gastric acidity (also stimulated by the muscarinic receptors) and this can be minimized by use of a proton pump inhibitor while initiating therapy. For this reason, periodic eye checks (generally every 612 months) are recommended so that the medicine can be discontinued if there is any signifcant build-up. Drugs such as hydroxychloroquine, azathioprine and methotrexate are used to help taper the corticoster- oids (Deheinzelin et al. For life-threatening illness, cyclophosphamide is occasionally required (Fox, 2000). Because of side efects, the use of mycophenolic mofetil is currently being ex- plored as an alternative to cyclophosphamide in treatment of vasculitis (Gross, 1999). One pilot study suggested that one tumor necrosis factor inhibitor (infiximab) might be benefcial (Steinfeld et al. Similarly, double-blind studies have not shown signifcant beneft with etanercept (Zandbelt et al. It is unclear whether or not the xerosis is due to infltrate of the eccrine or sebaceous glands, or dysfunctional response of the residual glands. Adequate explanation is essential; many subjects, for example, may not realize that their central heating or air conditioning creates a drying environment or that a windy day is likely to make their eyes dryer. Simple measures such as humidifers, sips of water, chewing gums, and simple replacement tears will be adequate in the majority of subjects. The rest should be told of the wide range of artifcial fuids available and encouraged to try several diferent formulations. The most serious (and fortunately rare) complications such as vasculitis and neurologic disease probably require immunosuppression with drugs such as cyclophosphamide, as in systemic lupus erythematosus. Because many lupus symptoms mimic other illnesses, are sometimes vague and may come and go, lupus can be difcult to diagnose. Diagnosis is usually made by a careful re- view of a persons entire medical history coupled with an analysis of the results obtained in routine laboratory tests and some specialized tests related to immune status. Currently, there is no single laboratory test that can determine whether a person has lupus or not. To assist the physician in the diagnosis of lupus, the American Rheumatism Association is- sued a list of 11 symptoms or signs that help distinguish lupus from other diseases. Feine (1999) The relationship between dental status and health-related quality of life in upper aerodigestive tract cancer patients. Harley (2003) Development of autoantibodies before the clinical onset of systemic lupus ery- thematosus. Perry (2000) The efectiveness of 10% chlorhexidine varnish treatment on dental caries incidence in adults with dry mouth. Markusse (2001) Involvement of the peripheral nervous system in primary Sjogrens syndrome. Radiol Med (Torino) 106 (56):44551; quiz 523 8 Sjgrens Syndrome 315 Belafsky, P. Fabbri (2004) Sjogrens syndrome: a retrospective review of the cutaneous features of 93 patients by the Italian Group of Immunodermatology. Waterman (2002) Up-regu- lation of M3-muscarinic receptors in labial salivary gland acini in primary Sjogrens syndrome. Gordon (2001) Subcellular distribution of aquaporin 5 in salivary glands in primary Sjogrens syndrome. Bunim (1956) Sjgrens syndrome: A clinical, patho- logical and serological study of 62 cases. Jonsson (2003) Increased salivary gland tissue expression of Fas, Fas ligand, cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated antigen 4, and programmed cell death 1 in primary Sjogrens syndrome. Bennett (1995) An association of fbromyalgia with primary Sjogrens syndrome: a prospective study of 72 patients. Sterin-Borda (1999) Sjogren autoantibodies modify neonatal cardiac function via M1 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor activation. Fey (2001) Evaluation of fuoride release from commercially available fuoride varnishes. J Autoimmun 2:3217 Chatterjee, S (2004) Severe interstitial pneumonitis associated with infiximab therapy. Schiodt (2001) Dental caries and dental health behavior of patients with primary Sjogren syndrome. Drosos (2003) Primary Sjogren syndrome in the paediatric age: a multicentre survey. Nagler (2003) Treatment of Refractory Autoimmune Diseases with Ablative Immunotherapy Using Monoclonal Antibodies and/or High Dose Chemotherapy with Hematopoietic Stem Cell Support. Helin (1997) Gastritis classifed in ac- cordance with the Sydney system in patients with primary Sjogrens syndrome. Moutsopoulos (1992) Pulmonary and gastrointestinal manifestations of Sjogrens syndrome. Pennec (2003) Tyroid dysfunction in primary Sjogrens syndrome: a long-term followup study. Misra (1995) Glomerulonephritis leading to end stage renal disease in a patient with primary Sjogren syndrome. Moutsopoulos (1990) Efect of cy- closporin A (CyA) on the immunopathological lesion of the minor salivary glands from pa- tients with Sjgrens syndrome. Vermer- sch (2001) The prevalence of Sjogren syndrome in patients with primary progressive multiple sclerosis. Hatron (2004) Neurologic manifestations in primary Sjogren syn- drome: a study of 82 patients. Burmester (1999) Autoantibodies in primary Sjogrens syndrome are directed against proteasomal sub- units of the alpha and beta type. Prindiville (2005) Crohns disease associated with Sweets syndrome and Sjogrens syndrome treated with Infiximab. Krubel (1996) Treatment of primary Sjogrens syndrome with hydroxychloroquine: a retrospective, open-label study. Lupus 5 Suppl 1:S316 Fox, R (1997) Sjogrens syndrome: Progress and controversies. Michelson (1999) Current issues in the diagnosis and treatment of Sjogrens syndrome. I (2000) Sjogrens syndrome: current therapies remain inadequate for a common disease. Stern (2002) Sjogrens syndrome: mechanisms of pathogenesis involve interaction of immune and neurosecretory systems. Harley (1987) Implications of anti-Ro/Sjgrens syndrome A antigen autoantibody in normal sera for autoimmunity. Dobozy (2002) Atypical autoimmune blistering dermatosis associated with Sjogrens syndrome. J Am Acad Dermatol 42 (6):106972 Hamano, T (2005) Lacrimal duct occlusion for the treatment of dry eye. Tomson (2002) A clinical trial of the anticaries efcacy of casein derivatives complexed with calcium phosphate in patients with salivary gland dysfunction. Sindet-Pedersen (1999) Outcome of treatment with implant-retained dental prostheses in patients with Sjogren syndrome. Tamaki (1999) Cutaneous manifestations of Sjogrens syndrome associated with myasthenia gravis [letter].

Methylation of polycomb target genes in intestinal cancer is mediated by inammation cheap nortriptyline 25 mg otc anxiety symptoms getting worse. Helicobacter pylori-induced modication of the histone H3 phosphorylation status in gastric epithelial cells reects its impact on cell cycle regulation trusted nortriptyline 25mg anxiety symptoms to get xanax. Helicobacter pylori-induced histone modication order 25 mg nortriptyline amex anxiety girl meme, associated gene expression in gastric epithelial cells nortriptyline 25 mg generic anxiety symptoms rapid heart rate, and its implication in patho- genesis. EpsteineBarr nuclear antigen leader protein coactivates transcription through interaction with histone deacetylase 4. Modulation of histone acetyltransferase activity through interaction of EpsteineBarr nuclear antigen 3C with prothymosin alpha. EpsteineBarr virus latency in B cells leads to epigenetic repression and CpG methylation of the tumour suppressor gene Bim. Epigenetic dysregulation of the host cell genome in EpsteineBarr virus- associated neoplasia. Patterned CpG methylation of silenced B cell gene promoters in classical Hodgkin lymphoma-derived and primary effusion lymphoma cell lines. Epigenetic processes play a major role in B-cell-specic gene silencing in classical Hodgkin lymphoma. Therapy-related lymphomas in patients with autoim- mune diseases after treatment with disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs. EpsteineBarr virus-positive gastric carcinoma demonstrates frequent aberrant methylation of multiple genes and constitutes CpG island methylator phenotype-positive gastric carcinoma. CpG island methylation status in gastric carcinoma with and without infection of EpsteineBarr virus. Accumulation of heterochromatin components on the terminal repeat sequence of Kaposis sarcoma-associated herpesvirus mediated by the latency-associated nuclear antigen. Latency-associated nuclear antigen of Kaposis sarcoma-associated herpesvirus functionally interacts with heterochromatin protein 1. Cytomegalovirus replicates in differentiated but not in undifferentiated human embryonal carcinoma cells. Ets-2 repressor factor recruits histone deacetylase to silence human cytomegalovirus immediate-early gene expression in non-permissive cells. Human cytomegalovirus immediate-early 1 protein facilitates viral replication by antagonizing histone deacetylation. The story of human cytomegalovirus and cancer: increasing evidence and open questions. Multi-stepaberrantCpGislandhyper-methylation is associated with the progression of adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma. Infection of lymphoid cells by integration- defective human immunodeciency virus type 1 increases de novo methylation. Hepatitis B viral X protein overcomes inhibition of E2F1 activity by pRb on the human Rb gene promoter. Aberrant epigenetic modications in hepato- carcinogenesis induced by hepatitis B virus X protein. Altered expression of E-cadherin in hepato- cellular carcinoma: correlations with genetic alterations, beta-catenin expression, and clinical features. Downregulation of E-cadherin by hepatitis B virus X antigen in hepatocellullar carcinoma. Intensive hypermethylation of the CpG island of Ras association domain family 1A in hepatitis B virus-associated hepatocellular carcinomas. Epigenetic mechanisms in hepatocellular carcinoma: how environmental factors inuence the epigenome. Aberrant promoter methylation proles of tumor suppressor genes in hepatocellular carcinoma. Downregulation of Gadd45beta expression by hepatitis C virus leads to 440 defective cell cycle arrest. Identication of genes preferentially methylated in hepatitis C virus-related hepatocellular carcinoma. Epigenetic silencing of interferon- inducible genes is implicated in interferon resistance of hepatitis C virus replicon-harboring cells. Activation of the enhancer of zeste homologue 2 gene by the human papillomavirus E7 oncoprotein. Human papillomavirus type 16 E7 protein increases acetylation of histone H3 in human foreskin keratinocytes. T antigen mutations are a human tumor- specic signature for Merkel cell polyomavirus. Preferentially different mechanisms of inactivation of 9p21 gene cluster in liver uke-related cholangiocarcinoma. Regulation and dysregulation of EpsteineBarr virus latency: implications for the development of autoimmune diseases. Itis a leading cause of disability in women of reproductive age, responsible for dysmenorrhea, pelvic pain, and subfertility [2]. Epigenetics in Human Disease United States, endometriosis is the third leading cause of gynecologic hospitalization [4,5]. In China, endometriosis-related surgeries constitute about one quarter of all gynecological surgeries. In Italy, more than 65% of patients with endometriosis had endometriosis-related surgical procedures, including hysterectomy, within 1 year of rm diagnosis [9]. In Belgium, the average non-healthcare costs associated with endometriosis incurred during the 6 months prior to and following surgical treatment are 1514 and 2496 Euros, respectively [10]. In Canada, the estimated mean annual societal cost of endometriosis was $5200 per patient (95% condence interval: $3700e7100), 78% of which is due to the lost productivity and lost leisure time [11]. Various theories on the pathogenesis of endometriosis have been proposed, but none has been unequivocally proven [13]. These theories can be grouped into roughly three themes: in situ development (such as coelomic metaplasia or embryonic cell rests), implantation, or a combination of in situ development and implantation. The implantation theory of Sampson [14], or the retrograde menstruation theory, is the most widely accepted. This theory stipulates that viable endometrial cells regurgitate through the fallopian tubes during menstruation to implant and grow in peritoneum or other ectopic sites. Indeed, retrograde menstruation is reported to occur in over 95% of women of reproductive age with patent fallopian tubes [15]. While tremendous effects have been devoted to the search for non-invasive diagnostic procedures such as serum biomarkers, so far no single biomarker or group of biomarkers have been proven to be unequivocally useful clinically [17]. Yet the staging system does not correlate well with either the severity of pain or the extent of infertility, nor does it correlate well with the prognosis [19]. Therefore, the devel- opment of a better classication system is currently an active research area [20]. It has been generally regarded that endometriosis has at least three different subtypes, i. This view has been supported by different gene expression patterns between ovarian and peritoneal endometriosis based on large-scale gene expression proling studies [22]. The current treatment modalities include medical, surgical, or a combination of both, with surgery being the treatment of choice. However, the recurrence risk after surgery is high: 7e30% of patients reported recurrences 3 years after laparoscopic surgery [24]. Therefore, non-surgical medical therapy, preferably with high safety and cost proles, is sorely needed.

A history of abdominal pain associated habit buy nortriptyline 25 mg fast delivery anxiety symptoms muscle tension, are often precipitated or worsened by stress or with unresponsiveness order 25 mg nortriptyline amex anxiety over the counter, shock generic nortriptyline 25 mg fast delivery anxiety symptoms of the heart, or cardiac arrest suggests anxiety order nortriptyline 25mg mastercard anxiety symptoms on kids. Traditionally, obstruction), whereas hyperactive or high-pitched the abdomen is divided into four parts, referred to as tinkling sounds suggest intestinal obstruction. Guarding 51 Abortion (involuntary abdominal muscular wall contraction) on of other pelvic surgical procedures. The offer a variety of procedures for the diagnosis and treat- abdomen is also examined for the presence of masses as ment of abdominal pain including upper and lower well as liver and spleen findings such as enlargement, endoscopy (insertion of a flexible tube containing a nodularity, or tenderness. In women with lower abdom- camera into the mouth or rectum) of the digestive and inal pain, a pelvic examination should be performed to pancreasbiliary tracts, motility studies, and pH (acid) assess potential uro-gynecological causes. At times, the involvement of an anes- Laboratory and radiologic studies can provide thesiologist or other pain management professional is additional information in making the diagnosis. They are skilled in the management of pain tests ordered should reflect the clinical suspicion. If there appears to be a psy- should be considered in all women of reproductive age chiatric component to abdominal pain, referral to a with lower abdominal pain. Philadelphia: Lippincott, plastic, and vascular lesions, as well as for identifying Williams & Wilkins. Other potential radiologic examinations available, depending Suggested Resources on the clinical circumstances, include angiography, con- U. Medical abor- Obstetrician/gynecologists are skilled in the evalu- tion (abortion induced by the use of medications) has ation of women with a suspected gynecologic cause recently become an option in this country. In most of pain and perform a wide variety of diagnostic and medical abortions, expulsion of the pregnancy occurs at curative procedures such as transvaginal ultrasound, home. About 1% of women require surgical evacuation diagnostic and therapeutic laparoscopy, and a number to complete the process. It is usually a single-step process that requires who are having a medical abortion require an emer- one visit to the practitioner. In early pregnancy (less gency dilation and curettage because of heavy bleed- than 7 weeks), a small flexible plastic cannula (56 mm) ing (1%). Postabortion follow-up with a practitioner is is inserted into the uterus under sterile conditions. In some studies, only half of pain relief is provided by injecting local anesthetic into the women who thought they had aborted actually the cervix and administering intravenous sedation and had done so. This facilitates Misoprostol is the most common medication used the use of a cannula to extract the fetus and placenta at in medical abortion. It causes softening of the cervix and uterine con- increase with gestational age and the use of general tractions, resulting in the termination of a pregnancy. Risks include hemorrhage, infection, and Because misoprostol is potentially teratogenic (it can perforation of the uterus if a surgical instrument slips cause physical malformations of the fetus), a surgical through the uterine wall. Uterine perforation can cause abortion must be performed in the event of a continu- bladder, bowel, or vascular injury necessitating further ing pregnancy. The most common complication is Mifepristone is a progestin-like structure that uterine infection (0. This halts the process of implantation (attach- visits, and there is a potential need for emergency inter- ment of the embryo to the uterine wall). The earlier the gestational age is, the higher the Repeated use of medical termination has not been complete abortion rate. However, there is no ranges from 92 to 96% if medication is begun before medical basis to believe that repeated medical abortion 56 days. Most med- ication regimens require patients to be no more than 50 days pregnant (as calculated from the first day of the last menstrual period). Complicated systems such as applica- tion for Medicaid present perceived and real barriers in literacy and native language. Further, workforce studies underscore the lack of providers who speak the lan- guage and are from the same culture as the populations Access to Health Care Access to health care they serve. Thus, barriers are influenced by provider has dominated the health policy scene for several and patient factors. In the early 1990s, national legislation, uni- versal access to health care, was introduced by President Clinton and the Congress as a way to provide Culture health security for all Americans. Health care providers and facilities that do not The effort, although unsuccessful, has kept the problem understand the cultural expectations and norms of the of health care access on the public agenda. Initially, ficulty in achieving compliance with necessary medical the premise was access to physicians and hospitals. More recently, health care access has included a variety of providers, services, and facilities. In addition, access Attitudes, Beliefs describes the actual use of health services and factors that facilitate or impede health care. The relationship between the provider of services Aday (2001) and Anderson (see Anderson et al. Barriers occur when patients/clients per- refers to health care system characteristics that influence ceive attitudes and beliefs about the nature of their the use of services. Realized access is the actual use of health as negative and not consistent with their own health services. This results in delays and lack vices determined by demographic characteristics and of compliance that undermines successful treatment out- need. Efficient access minimizes the cost of health care ser- Human Behaviors vices and maximizes health status or satisfaction. Thus, each type of access to care is influenced by a number Individual characteristics may serve as barriers to of characteristics and events. Patients with physical or emotional disabili- the influences on access to health care, numerous ties may find it difficult to find services to meet their studies have examined the barriers to care in specific needs. These efforts is experiencing out-of-pocket expenses as a barrier to may not be sustained since they are not a reimbursable obtaining services. Women frequently encounter this barrier when they are dependent on others for transportation. These are often individuals and groups who are Insurance Coverage vulnerable and need multiple services. Aday (2001) notes that the principal health needs of vulnerable Insurance coverage, tied to employment, is the populations are physical (high-risk mothers and infants, admission ticket to health services. Patients/clients are reluctant to social (abusing families, homeless persons, immigrants seek care without insurance and providers/facilities are and refugees). Many of these vulnerable groups have reluctant to provide care since services may not be crosscutting health needs such as battered pregnant reimbursed. Insurance reform is a health policy issue women, pregnant, homeless, substance-abusing women. A single-parent Hispanic woman with Reimbursement Levels three children and no insurance, living in a rural area, likely experiences the following barriers: Reimbursement levels for health services have been a major disincentive for providers and health Fewer providers in rural areas care facilities. While government programs and private Providers may not take uninsured insurance companies have attempted to implement cost Providers may not understand language and containment and reasonable reimbursement, significant culture gaps exist and exacerbate the barriers that populations Transportation and childcare may not be available at risk may experience. Testing Access to health service, in particular, a regular the equity of access involves measuring utilization of source of medical care, is contingent upon services services as well as outcomes and determining barriers being available where and when needed by the service to care. Barriers based on availability, for example, America (1993), the Institute of Medicine proposed five occur when services are located only in more urban indicators for assessing access: areas creating barriers for remote rural populations or during hours when those working are unable to come Promoting successful birth outcomes for services. Lack of access to the appropriate health Reducing the incidence of vaccine-preventable service and extended waiting times are also examples diseases of access limited by availability. The implications for these indicators provides useful clues to how Americans women are significant. In these selected examples, notable access to appropriate care has a significant impact. Women also need preventive services to main- There is a striking difference between Caucasians tain their health, Pap tests, family planning services for and African Americans receiving prenatal care example.

In spite of regular clinical treatment at home buy nortriptyline 25 mg without a prescription anxiety symptoms or something else, the lymph nodes of his abdomen were getting bigger again generic 25 mg nortriptyline fast delivery anxiety medication. This one cheap nortriptyline 25 mg line anxiety attack symptoms, done May 7 order nortriptyline 25mg anxiety symptoms 6 year molars, showed a large tumor in the abdomen be- tween the kidneys, measuring 6. The scan also showed considerable ascites (water seepage and accumulation) around the kidneys. The radiologist noted that the liver texture was quite poor, on the verge of developing tumors there. Yet they had to stay in a Mexican motel, because, although an envi- ronmentally safe one had just been opened, it was already full. And he was full of aflatoxin, the fungal toxin that can raise the total bilirubin and cause a lethal jaundice. The total protein was rather low, probably causing the ascites we could see around the tumor and kid- neys, although maleic anhydride was probably the real culprit. In one week, all his dental work was done; we omitted to record in his file what was done, however. Somehow, he continued getting copper, in spite of moving to the copper-free motel. Nevertheless, tumor activity was stronger than before, in some respect, since the alk phos was up. We increased his glutathione to 500 mg, eight a day to help the liver detoxify everything. By the end of the second week, May 18, he was still frequently Positive to copper; he had to switch motel rooms again. And he was given caster oil packs to place in the groin area every night, both to ease pain and provide immune stimulation. Although the blood test showed some improvement from the time of ar- rival three weeks ear- lier, his best news was tucked under his arm as he brought in his new ultrasounds. Its contour was now rough; it was beginning to fragment judging by density change. And with the admonition to do a scan or ultrasound once a month till it was all gone and a blood test that included serum iron. Little could we perceive that obtaining these elementary data records would not be easy even in a country like Canada with a May 27 tumor down to 4. But after that, a new tumor grew in the empty location where the kidney had been (called the renal fossa). He had started the parasite program eleven days ago, but still had iso- propyl alcohol built up in him. Calcium was too low, due to malonic acid and other toxins appearing in the parathyroid glands. A generous level of triglycerides and enough cholesterol would cer- tainly help him succeed. But there was no time to gloat over his good health; there was a tumor to shrink, and he had come many miles to do this. He was ad- vised to move into a mobile home with plastic water pipes tempo- rarily while his plumbing got changed. All supplements had to be procured from us to be sure they had been tested and were free of the common tumor-causing pollutants. On June 26 although copper and fiberglass were now Negative, he still tested Positive for Staphylococcus at the kidney location. He had just begun dental cleanup, but hadnt been using white iodine to brush; he was quickly started on it. In case the calcium should go too high, the albumin is present to sponge it up and take it out of action in the bloodstream. Although calcium had come up significantly, it was still low, a parathy- roid problem. Testing at the parathyroid showed copper and vanadium Negative there, but glutathione, biotin, and glutamine were also Negative. With glutathione Negative, this tipped us off that a heavy metal was still present or a malonate. An ultrasound of the kidney tu- mor was scheduled since it had been six weeks since he began the cancer program. The radiologist, not being able to see anything at the left kidney site (remember it had been surgically removed) thought the patient must be mistaken so he took the ultrasound of the right kidney instead. When the patient returned, the missing ultrasound of the left side was seen as an error so the patient was sent back to the radiologist. But the radiologist explained to the patient there was nothing to take, since the kidney was gone, so why spend the money? It seemed unfair to send him a third time just to get the missing tumor namely, nothing on record. Remi and his family were pleased and convinced, although only the radiolo- gists word could ascertain that the tumor in the left kidney fossa was gone. Tumor gone, was this rotten tooth By now we had begun to suspect dental plastic as the the culprit? He was advised to have it all re- viewed, tested by the staff with scrapings or chipping of the plastic; and some of it replaced, again! He prom- triglycerides 214 251 170 ised to send an ultrasound cholesterol 171 182 204 from home in August. This time to request an ultrasound of the location of the space where the left kidney had once been. It started as non-Hodgkins lymphoma, but a year ago there were several brain lesions found by scanning. One was removed surgically and was diagnosed as diffuse large cell non-Hodgkins lymphoma, intermediate grade. She then got ten radiation treatments to the head, which brought two of the remaining lesions down to 1. She began going to sleep for half hour periods during the day, her balance was bad, and her eyes werent focusing so she couldnt read any- more. We reviewed her scan on May 8; we could see what looked like a disor- ganized tangle in the thalamus filling the depression that hangs down and mushrooming above it. If the tumor could be shrunk in a permanent way, she would not need to recover from anything. The calcium level was too low, showing that the metabolic problem in- volved the parathyroid gland. Iron showed some depression (it should be about 100), but not enough to interfere with red blood cell formation. Al- though her blood fats (triglycerides) were much too low, cholesterol level was excellent. She was reminded that her urine would look bluenot to worry about turning into a blueberry. The next day, though, May 4, she was still testing Positive for copper at the brain and liver; it was found polluting the dilantin pills she was taking. They had already moved twice to different rooms in their motel, each time bringing the tap water in to test for copper. It would mean sitting in a long line of border traffic each day, but at least the copper problem would disappear.

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