V. Cronos. Gallaudet University.
Other less controllable dechlorination systems might then be used buy generic dramamine 50 mg line medical treatment, such as activated carbon or aeration generic dramamine 50mg with mastercard treatment 0f gout. Chlorinated waters from potable water systems are released to the environment through activities such as water main flushing effective 50 mg dramamine symptoms 7dpiui, disinfection of new mains buy 50mg dramamine otc medications not to take before surgery, distribution system maintenance, water main breaks, filter backwash and other utility operations. Although chlorine protects humans from pathogens in water, it is highly toxic to aquatic species in receiving waters. Similarly chlorine residual in water for use in haemodialysis and the food industry is not tolerated because of contamination and unwanted chemical reactions and its effect on the taste and smell of liquids. Consequently once residual chlorine has performed its oxidation, superchlorination or disinfection function, it may require to be removed, in order to satisfy some of the foregoing constraints on water use and disposal. The choice of a particular dechlorination chemical is dictated by site-specific issues such as the nature of water release, strength of chlorine, volume of water release, and distance from receiving waters. Sodium bisulphite is used due to its lower cost and higher rate of dechlorination. Sodium sulphite tablets are chosen due to ease of storage and handling, and its ease of use for dechlorinating constant, low flow rate releases. The dechlorination reaction with free or combined chlorine will generally occur within 15 to 20 seconds. The dechlorination chemical should be introduced at a point in the process where the hydraulic turbulence is adequate to assure thorough and complete mixing. This process is slow, especially when the initial chlorine concentrations are low and is not effective for removing chloramines from the water as the chlorine- ammonia bond is not broken by aeration. Activated carbon (charcoal) filters remove both chlorine and chloramines effectively and has the added benefit of removing chemicals and other contaminants that may be present at low concentrations. Carbon filtration reduces total dissolved organic carbon concentrations by up to 65% and various halogenated compound by 97–100% though the removal rate should be determined by pilot tests. The activated carbon media, once spent, can be re-activated with high pressure steam. This leaves the carbon with numerous minute spores or binding sites on its surface. As an aside, the higher the specific surface area of the media (or the smaller the media particles), the more binding sides there will be for a given mass. Contaminant molecules in the water supply travel into the pores and are trapped there. The media does not become exhausted by the chlorine, but rather by other contaminants present in the water. Eventually all the pores become filled and the activated carbon needs to be changed or re-activated. The frequency of changing will depend on the type and concentration of the contaminants in the water supply. The peak wavelengths for dissociation of free chlorine range from 180 to 200 nm, while the peak wavelengths for dissociation of chloramines (mono-chloramine, di-chloramine and tri-chloramine) range from 245 to 365 nm. The usual dose for removal of free chlorine is 15 to 30 times higher than the normal disinfection dose. This is caused by the system geometry permitting long-wavelength light to travel extended distances. As the penetration depth increases, all of the germicidal light will be absorbed by the fluid, leaving visible light that stimulates algal growth. This problem can be overcome by modifying the chamber geometry to prevent the passage of long wavelength visible light out of the reactor. In the case of chlorination chemicals, the key standards are those for chlorine gas, sodium hypochlorite and sodium chloride for use in on-site generation of hypochlorite. Some contaminants are not of significance to the chlorine chemical, thus in the case of chlorine gas, the chlorate, chlorite or bromate content is negligible, and no limits are set for these species. Where an existing Ct policy has been in place for an extended period and is believed to be generally appropriate and reliable, there may be no need to alter this, provided that a site-specific review of its suitability is carried out. Furthermore, because the residual after the contact tank is used as the basis for control, for most waters the real Ct will be significantly higher than this because of the higher dose to allow for chlorine decay during contact. Alternatively, Ct values could be derived using Coxsackie A2 virus as a suitable, relatively resistant, target micro-organism. Policy would also need to define the effective contact time, as described in Section 4. There will be a minimum contact time and, more significantly, chlorine concentration below which disinfection will be seriously impaired, and the Ct concept will no longer apply. This will vary from one micro- organism to another, and is likely to be more significant for the more resistant species. For water treatment applications, this is unlikely to be a significant practical consideration for most sites, because of the constraints already in place in relation to contact times and residual control systems. This should take into account the range of flowrates experienced at the works, because the degree of short-circuiting may vary with the throughput. For the majority of works, pH of the water reaching final chlorination is unlikely to vary significantly. However, if variation is expected, the Ct should be specified for defined pH conditions, and controlled accordingly. For many surface water treatment works, wide variations in water temperature can be expected, with lowest temperatures often occurring at times when the treatment challenge is greatest and treatment performance has greatest risk of impairment i. Derivation of site-specific Ct values should take these risk factors into account. Generally, for temperatures around ambient, the rate of reaction doubles for each increase by 10 C. This can be observed in the data for free (available) chlorine inactivation of Giardia and viruses (Table 4. Therefore, Ct values might be adjusted if needed to take account of seasonal variations in the temperature of surface sources of water, so that an equivalent degree of inactivation is achieved. These should be applied to maintain the desired dose and residual concentrations to maintain the target Ct under defined conditions of flow, temperature and pH. For sites where changes in these will occur slowly, manual adjustment of set points may be adequate to maintain a balance between cost of treatment, security and by-product formation. The main control of chlorine dose is by way of feedback of chlorine residual concentration measured by continuous residual monitoring. Where pH fluctuations are expected, including plants where pH correction is used, alarms on pH should be set to avoid any impairment of chlorination performance with increasing pH. Water Treatment Manual Disinfection Other water quality parameters may need to be considered at some sites. On-line measurement of increasing chlorine demand may give early warning of an impending problem with achieving the target Ct. At sites where turbidity can increase significantly, suitable alarms and/or control systems should be in place to prevent this impairing chlorination performance. This could involve automatic control of residual to increase Ct in response to increased turbidity, although the control required could be difficult to quantify in relation to turbidity. As well as flow proportional control of chlorine dose, the effects of flow variation on the Ct and contact tank performance should also be considered. In principle, a change in flowrate to increase or decrease t could be accompanied by an inversely proportional change in chlorine residual (C) to maintain the target Ct. However, this may not be a viable approach for many works, where operation to a fixed chlorine residual would be more practical. The target residual should then maintain the desired Ct at the maximum design flow (i. Additionally, there may be situations where the degree of short-circuiting and therefore effective contact time changes significantly with variation in throughput.
Oils include fats from many different plants and from fsh that are liquid at room temperature cheap dramamine 50mg mastercard symptoms liver cancer, such as canola order 50mg dramamine medicine klimt, corn discount 50mg dramamine free shipping treatment water on the knee, olive purchase 50mg dramamine free shipping symptoms 1974, soybean, and sunfower oils. Foods that are mainly oil include mayonnaise, certain salad dressings, and soft margarine. Discretionary Calorie Allowance is the remaining amount of calories in a food intake pattern after accounting for the calories needed for all food groups—using forms of foods that are fatfree or lowfat and with no added sugars. Attention should be given For those who can follow low-calorie restrictions, side to maintain an adequate intake of vitamins and minerals. Rapid medical supervision are needed for any weight-loss pro- weight loss can lead to a reduction in sex steroids that in gram involving children. For females, the reduction in estrogen can 34 Clinical Practice Guidelines for Healthy Eating, Endocr Pract. Compared to a of gallstone formation, a slow but progressive weight-loss typical low-fat meal plan (<30% calories from fat), incor- strategy is preferred. A reasonable time line is to achieve porating more fruits and vegetables into a low-fat meal a 10% reduction in total weight over 6 to 12 months. This plan resulted in a more rapid weight loss after 6 months can be accomplished by a decrease in caloric intake of 300 (6. Minor side effects include headache, fatigue, diz- Small cumulative effects (~30 kcal/day) of calories by such ziness, constipation, nausea, diarrhea, hair loss, and cold subtle changes as the thermic effect of food eaten will have intolerance. The position paper used The ideal macronutrient composition of the meal an “Evidence Analysis Process” to identify effective nutri- plan for weight loss and weight maintenance is still being tional strategies for weight management. Reducing carbohydrate intake to <35% of kcal in vegetable proteins), European diets (including alcohol consumed results in reduced energy intake and is and saturated fat), and the America Diet (lower in fat) are associated with a greater weight- and fat-loss dur- being considered. Every involving small changes to prevent weight gain kilogram of reduction in body weight results in a 2. In a meta- As American adults continue to steadily gain small analysis of 25 trials, a loss of 5. Meal planning is an effort to prevent the progression to Energy expenditure is an important component of obesity and/or exacerbation of the obese state. What Nutritional Recommendations are intake in the form of foods—in the context of an appropri- Appropriate for Cardiovascular Health? Clinical Guidelines on the Identifcation, Evaluation, and Treatment of Overweight and Obesity in Adults: The Evidence Report. Excess body weight clearly affects hyper- plan is as follows (% values are of total daily calories): 25 tension status. A dose-dependent 38 Clinical Practice Guidelines for Healthy Eating, Endocr Pract. The current recommendations for treating hyperten- Salt (NaCl) intake differed (high, 3,300 mg/day; medium, sion according to the Seventh Report of the Joint National 2,300 mg/day; and low, 1,500 mg/day). What Nutrient Sources Should Be Limited for mended <7%) and usual sodium intake is 1,554 mg/1,000 Cardiovascular Health? Dietary approaches to prevent and treat hypertension: a scientifc statement from the American Heart Association. The fruits and dairy products, have intrinsic sugars and are not Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee states that “there restricted. Analysis of a and meta-analysis of fve large, epidemiologic studies, cohort from the Framingham Heart Study demonstrated red meat intake (i. Salt is added to processed foods to improve taste and Lean or very lean cuts of red meat should be chosen instead also to preserve foods for a longer shelf life. Epidemiologic and prospective cohort studies rely on Refned grain intake also was signifcantly associated with dietary assessment data, which is prone to regression dilu- overall poorer meal planning and unhealthy behaviors, tion bias and measurement error. Based on both a strong evidence base and the for health outcomes—decreasing refned grain intake or emerging data with regards to fats, intake should be shifted increasing whole grain intake. What Nutritional Recommendations are Refned Grains Appropriate for Diabetes Mellitus? Refned grains are produced by removing the germ and bran from the seed in processing. The fortifcation of grains in the United on the interaction between ingested food and metabolism, States with iron, niacin, thiamin, ribofavin, folate, and cal- then in order to address this question, specifc healthy cium, however, has made micronutrients highly bioavail- eating strategies should be based upon the key metabolic able in refned grains. In addition, the source of ingested protein home glucose monitoring, and frequency and severity and the nature of the accompanying fat appear to affect of hypoglycemia and then offered specifc management markers of infammation and metabolic risks. These dietary intervention contains very little starch (composed recent discoveries and novel systems biology models raise entirely of glucose molecules) or sucrose (composed of new possibilities for novel nutritional, pharmacologic, or 50% glucose). What Nutritional Recommendations are fower seeds; dry roasted soybeans; dark leafy Appropriate for Patients with greens, including spinach, turnip greens, and Chronic Kidney Disease? However, nutritional interventions maintain this degree of protein restriction, an intake of up should be individualized and evaluated with care because to 0. Limiting salt intake to ≤2 g/ Sodium <2 g/day day may be necessary, especially for patients with edema, Potassium 2,000-3,000 mg/day (40-70 mEq/day) heart failure, or hypertension. When serum potassium levels are elevated, ~12 to 15% of the total kcal/day, but the total amount of potassium intake (including salt substitutes) should be lim- protein varies greatly with the level of total caloric intake ited to 2,000 to 3,000 mg/day (40 to 70 mEq/day). Potassium should still be limited meal plan provides ~13% of kcal/day at the 1,200 kcal/ if blood tests show phosphate or potassium levels above day level but only ~8% of kcal at the 2,400 kcal/day level. Energy-intake requirements have been studied Vitamin D in hemodialysis patients considered to be under metabolic Supplemental vitamin D should be given to treat balance conditions. The study showed that the necessary energy treatment with an activated form of vitamin D (calcitriol, intake of 35 kcal/kg body weight/day was enough to main- alfacalcidol, paracalcitol, or doxercalciferol) is indicated. Iron should be administered to maintain the transferrin Nutrient Recommendation saturation >20% and serum ferritin level >100 ng/mL. For stable hemodialysis patients, the recom- Patients on peritoneal dialysis experience decreased appe- mended protein intake is 1. The Evaluation of A1c should include assessment of home following are recommended doses, often found in renal blood sugar records showing pre- and postprandial blood vitamins: vitamin C, 60 mg (not to exceed 200 mg daily); sugar excursions, as well as frequency and severity of folic acid, 1 mg; thiamine, 1. What Nutritional Recommendations are Patients on peritoneal dialysis should have a total daily Appropriate for Bone Health? Although causes of malnutrition 50% less absorption after menopause, as compared with in peritoneal dialysis are similar to those in hemodialy- adolescence. This decreased calcium absorption is due at sis patients, there is an increased loss of protein into the least in part to vitamin D insuffciency. In fact, protein losses average about 5 fciency is common in older patients with decreased to 15 g/24 hours. Calcium absorption decreases with studies indicate that the amount of calcium intake needed higher calcium intake, higher fber intake, and increased to maintain a positive calcium balance is over 1,000 mg/ alcohol use. Calcium ingestion slows age-related bone loss and Adequate amounts of calcium can be obtained from reduces osteoporosis fracture risk. Calcium-fortifed orange juice, soy milk, and soft pausal women and 1,690 late-menopausal women) studied drinks are becoming more popular as sources of calcium. In the early postmeno- fculty with calcium-fortifed beverages is that the calcium pausal women, bone loss was not prevented at the spine by may settle out of solution, thus decreasing the actual intake 500 mg of supplemental calcium. Calcium absorption is dependent on many factors A meta-analysis of 15 clinical trials randomized to (Table 27). There is both passive and active absorption in calcium supplements or usual calcium ingestion over 2 the small bowel. Absorption is decreased in the setting of years showed increased bone density and a trend towards low vitamin D, advanced age, low or absent stomach acid, reduced vertebral fractures with calcium supplementation and high fber intake.
While risk calcu- major risk factor (family history stroke in men but signiﬁcantly reduced lators such as those from the American of premature atherosclerotic car- stroke in women order dramamine 50 mg without a prescription treatment lung cancer. However dramamine 50 mg with mastercard medications zovirax, there was College of Cardiology/American Heart As- diovascular disease effective 50 mg dramamine symptoms, hypertension dramamine 50 mg free shipping symptoms 0f pregnancy, no heterogeneity of effect by sex in the sociation (http://my. The conﬁdence interval aspirin therapy, particularly in those at atherosclerotic cardiovascular dis- was wider for those with diabetes be- low risk (87), but are not generally recom- ease risk factors, as the potential ad- cause of smaller numbers. Sex differences in the antiplate- verse effects from bleeding likely Aspirin appears to have a modest ef- let effect of aspirin have been suggested offset the potential beneﬁts. The the presence of such differences in indi- years of age with multiple other main adverse effects appear to be an viduals with diabetes. The excess risk may be as high as Aspirin Use in People <50 Years of Age is required. E 1–5 per 1,000 per year in real-world Aspirin is not recommended for those at settings. Previous ran- and the American College of Cardiol- ingness to undergo long-term aspirin domized controlled trials of aspirin specif- ogy Foundation recommended that therapy should also be considered ically in patients with diabetes failed to low-dose (75–162 mg/day) aspirin for (89). There is little evidence to large trials of aspirin for primary pre- multiple recent well-conducted studies support any speciﬁc dose, but using the vention in the general population. These and meta-analyses have reported a risk lowest possible dose may help to re- trials collectively enrolled over 95,000 of heart disease and stroke that is duce side effects (90). Overall, they found that pared with men with diabetes, including Although platelets from patients with aspirin reduced the risk of serious among nonelderly adults. Despite that more frequent dosing regimens of infarction, b-blockers should be abnormal myocardial perfusion imaging aspirin may reduce platelet reactivity in continued for at least 2 years after in more than one in ﬁve patients, cardiac individuals with diabetes (93); however, the event. B outcomes were essentially equal (and these observations alone are insufﬁ- c In patients with symptomatic very low) in screened versus unscreened cient to empirically recommend that heart failure, thiazolidinedione patients. Accordingly, indiscriminate higher doses of aspirin be used in this treatment should not be used. It appears that 75– c In patients with type 2 diabetes Studies have found that a risk factor– 162 mg/day is optimal. Any beneﬁt of newer noninva- and may have beneﬁts beyond this sive coronary artery disease screening period. Evidence supports use of either Cardiac Testing methods, such as computed tomography ticagrelor or clopidogrel if no percuta- Candidates for advanced or invasive car- and computed tomography angiography, neous coronary intervention was per- diac testing include those with 1)typical toidentifypatient subgroups for different formed and clopidogrel, ticagrelor, or or atypical cardiac symptoms and 2)an treatment strategies remains unproven. In adults with diabetes (100,106,107), the role of these tests be- pirin signiﬁcantly reduces the risk of $40 years of age, measurement of cor- yond risk stratiﬁcation is not clear. Their recurrent ischemic events including car- onaryarterycalciumisalsoreason- routine use leads to radiation exposure diovascular and coronary heart disease able for cardiovascular risk assessment. More studies are needed to Pharmacologic stress echocardiography testing such as coronary angiography investigate the longer-term beneﬁts of or nuclear imaging should be considered and revascularization procedures. Screening testing and are unable to exercise should undergo pharmacologic stress Lifestyle and Pharmacologic c In asymptomatic patients, routine echocardiography or nuclear imaging. In patients with prior diovascular disease or at high risk for tients with diabetes remains unknown. N Engl J Med As many as 50% of patients with type 2 randomized, double-blind trial that 2013;368:1613–1624 diabetes may develop heart failure (112). Study partici- 2007;30:162–172 fore, thiazolidinedione use should be pants had a mean age of 63 years, 57% 3. Gaede P, Lund-Andersen H, Parving H-H, had diabetes for more than 10 years, and Pedersen O. Effect of a multifactorial interven- avoided in patients with symptomatic tion on mortality in type 2 diabetes. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention the relationship between dipeptidyl over a median follow-up of 3. The cardiovascular disease as ﬁrst-listed diagnosis death by 14% (absolute rate 10. Saxagliptin Assessment of Vascular Out- per 1,000 diabetic population, United States, 12. Available from http:// comes Recorded in Patients with Diabetes vascular death by 38% (absolute rate www. Two other recent ofﬁce” hypertension a sign of greater cardiovascu- high-risk patients and whether empagliﬂo- multicenter, randomized, double-blind, lar risk? Prog- similar effect in lower-risk patients with nostic value of ambulatory and home blood diovascular Outcomes with Alogliptin diabetes remains unknown. Study participants had a mean age of type 2 diabetes: a systematic review and meta- no effect on the composite end point of analysis. Over 80% of study partici- pressure targets for hypertension in people sion for heart failure in the post hoc anal- pants had established cardiovascular dis- with diabetes mellitus. Effects of intensive blood-pressure of candesartan on mortality and morbidity in Pregnancy. Diabetes Care on renal and cardiovascular outcomes in pa- sive drug therapy for mild to moderate hyper- 2014;37:1721–1728 tients with type 2 diabetes and nephropathy. Use of di- nation of perindopril and indapamide on mac- parative efﬁcacy and safety of blood pressure- uretics during pregnancy. Can Fam Physician rovascular and microvascular outcomes in lowering agents in adults with diabetes and 2009;55:44–45 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (the kidney disease: a network meta-analysis. Effects of intensive as compared with enalapril on cardiovascular 27 randomised trials. Lancet 2012;380:581–590 blood-pressure lowering and low-dose aspirin outcomes in patients with non-insulin-dependent 45. Appropriate blood pressure control in hy- from 90,056participants in 14 randomised trials et al. Clinical prognosis of diabetic patients with coronary 2650–2664 outcomes in antihypertensive treatment of heart disease. Collins R, Armitage J, Parish S, Sleigh P, Peto in the Veterans Affairs Diabetes Trial. Effects on blood pressure of reduced dietary hypertensive patients with type 2 diabetes- Lancet 2003;361:2005–2016 sodium and the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hy- Network meta-analysis of randomized trials. N Engl J Med 2001;344: J Diabetes Complications 2016;30:1192–1200 The Care Investigators. N Engl J Med 2008; survivors with average cholesterol levels: sub- for use of renin angiotensin system blockers: 358:1547–1559 groupanalyses intheCholesterolAndRecurrent systematic review and meta-analysis of ran- 35. Cardiovascular tatin in 2,532 patients with type 2 diabetes: of candesartan in patients with chronic heart events during differing hypertension therapies Anglo-Scandinavian Cardiac Outcomes Trial– failure and reduced left-ventricular systolic in patients with diabetes. Di- with type 2 diabetes: the Atorvastatin Study Effects of candesartan in patients with chronic abetes Care 2011;34:1270–1276 for Prevention of Coronary Heart Disease S86 Cardiovascular Disease and Risk Management Diabetes Care Volume 40, Supplement 1, January 2017 Endpoints in Non-Insulin-Dependent Diabetes of 25 randomized, controlled trials. Diabetes Care 2006;29: 2015;13:123 Aspirin for primary prevention of cardiovascular 1478–1485 66. Primary prevention of hypertriglyceridemia: an Endocrine Society clin- b4531 cardiovascular disease with atorvastatin in type 2 ical practice guideline. Lancet 2004;364:685–696 density lipoprotein as a therapeutic target: a in men: a cost-utility analysis. Effects of long-term fenoﬁ- American Diabetes Association; American Heart in18,686peoplewithdiabetesin14randomised brate therapy on cardiovascular events in Association; American College of Cardiology trials of statins: a meta-analysis. Reporting rate of Association, a scientiﬁc statement of the Amer- vascular disease.
Monitor heart rate during nebulization (if heart rate greater than 200 order dramamine 50 mg amex 300 medications for nclex, stop the nebulization) 50 mg dramamine fast delivery anima sound medicine. Age 3 months 4-6 months 7-9 months 10-11 months 1-4 years Weight 6 kg 7 kg 8 kg 9 kg 10-17 kg Dose in mg 3 mg 3 effective dramamine 50mg 9 medications that can cause heartburn. Epiglottitis Bacterial infection of the epiglottis in young children caused by Haemophilus influenzae buy dramamine 50mg low cost medications known to cause miscarriage, it is rare when Hib vaccine coverage is high. Avoid any examination that will upset the child including examination of the mouth and throat. Treatment – In case of imminent airway obstruction, emergency intubation or tracheotomy is indicated. The intubation is technically difficult and should be performed under anaesthesia by a physician familiar with the procedure. The dose is expressed in amoxicillin: Children < 40 kg: 80 to 100 mg/kg/day in 2 or 3 divided doses (use formulations in a ratio of 8:1 or 7:1 exclusively). Bacterial tracheitis Bacterial infection of the trachea in children, occurring as a complication of a previous viral infection (croup, influenza, measles, etc. Common precipitants of otitis externa are maceration, trauma of the ear canal or presence of a foreign body or dermatologic diseases (such as eczema, psoriasis). Clinical features – Ear canal pruritus or ear pain, often severe and exacerbated by motion of the pinna; feeling of fullness in the ear; clear or purulent ear discharge or no discharge – Otoscopy: • diffuse erythema and edema, or infected eczema, of the ear canal • look for a foreign body • if visible, the tympanic membrane is normal (swelling, pain or secretions very often prevent adequate visualization of the tympanic membrane) Treatment – Remove a foreign body, if present. The principal causative organisms of bacterial otitis media are Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, Moraxella catarrhalis and in older children, Streptococcus pyogenes. Clinical features – Rapid onset of ear pain (in infants: crying, irritability, sleeplessness, reluctance to nurse) and ear discharge (otorrhoea) or fever. Spontaneous resolution is probable and a short symptomatic treatment of fever and pain may be sufficient. Antibiotics are prescribed if there is no improvement or worsening of symptoms after 48 to 72 hours. Treatment failure is defined as persistence of fever and/or ear pain after 48 hours of antibiotic treatment. Children ≥ 40 kg and adults: 1500 to 2000 mg/day depending on the formulation available: Ratio 8:1: 2000 mg/day = 2 tablets of 500/62. The principal causative organisms are Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus spp, staphylococcus, other Gram negatives and anaerobes. Treatment – Remove secretions from the auditory canal by gentle dry mopping (use a dry cotton bud or a small piece of dry cotton wool) then apply ciprofloxacin (ear drops): 2 drops twice daily, until no more drainage is obtained (max. Before transfer to hospital, if the patient needs to be transferred, administer the first dose of antibiotics. The majority of cases arise in non-vaccinated or incompletely vaccinated individuals. Clinical features After an incubation period of 7 to 10 days, the illness evolves in 3 phases: – Catarrhal phase (1 to 2 weeks): coryza and cough. At this stage, the illness is indistinguishable from a minor upper respiratory infection. Fever is absent or moderate, and the clinical exam is normal between coughing bouts; however, the patient becomes more and more fatigued. Management and treatment Suspect cases – Routinely hospitalise infants less than 3 months, as well as children with severe cases. Infants under 3 months must be monitored 24 hours per day due to the risk of apnoea. Advise mothers to feed the child frequently in small quantities after coughing bouts and the vomiting which follows. Monitor the weight of the child during the course of the illness, and consider food supplements for several weeks after recovery. Post-exposure prophylaxis – Antibiotic prophylaxis (same treatment as for suspect cases) is recommended for unvaccinated or incompletely vaccinated infants of less than 6 months, who have had contact with a suspect case. Note: pertussis vaccination should be updated in all cases (suspects and contacts). If the primary series has been interrupted, it should be completed, rather than restarted from the beginning. Prevention Routine vaccination with polyvalent vaccines containing pertussis antigens (e. Booster doses are necessary to reinforce immunity and reduce the risk of developing disease and transmitting it to young children. In children over 2 years of age with repetitive acute bronchitis or ‘wheezing’ bronchitis, consider asthma (see Asthma). Clinical features Often begins with a rhinopharyngitis that descends progressively: pharyngitis, laryngitis, tracheitis. Clinical features – Productive cough for 3 consecutive months per year for 2 successive years. Dyspnoea develops after several years, first on exertion, then becoming persistent. Treatment – Antibiotic treatment is not useful in treating simple chronic bronchitis. In the majority of cases, bronchiolitis is benign, resolves spontaneously (relapses are possible), and can be treated on an outpatient basis. Severe cases may occur, which put the child at risk due to exhaustion or secondary bacterial infection. Hospitalisation is necessary when signs/criteria of severity are present (10 to 20% of cases). Clinical features – Tachypnoea, dyspnoea, wheezing, cough; profuse, frothy, obstructive secretions. Rhinopharyngitis, with dry cough, precedes these features by 24 to 72 hours; fever is absent or moderate. Exercise caution in interpreting these signs as indicators of clinical improvement. Obstructive signs and symptoms last for about 10 days; cough may persist for 2 weeks longer. Hospitalisation – In all cases: • Place the infant in a semi-reclining position (± 30°). If inhaled salbutamol appears effective in relieving symptoms, the treatment is continued (2 to 3 puffs every 6 hours in the acute phase, then gradual reduction as recovery takes place). Prevention and control The risk of transmission of the virus is increased in hospital settings: – Children with bronchiolitis should be grouped together, away from other children (cohorting). Pneumonia in children under 5 years of age The most common causes are viruses, pneumococcus and Haemophilus influenzae. Clinical examination must be done on a calm child in order to correctly count the respiratory rate and look for signs of serious illness. Clinical features Pneumonia should be suspected in a child who presents with cough or difficulty breathing. Fever is often high (> 39°C), but the child may present with low-grade fever or may have no fever (often a sign of serious illness). If it is observed when a child is upset or feeding and is not visible when the child is resting, there is no chest indrawing. Diagnosis of pneumonia in children under 5 presenting with cough or difficulty breathing: Chest indrawing present?