By T. Topork. Bluefield College. 2019.
Fact is the research is positive for bipolar children who get medical attention buy cheap zofran 8mg treatment yellow fever. One more thing I have noticed is that the parents of these kids themselves are often outstanding in some area cheap 4mg zofran mastercard treatment 99213. It seems it is getting more difficult as he gets older buy zofran 4mg with amex medicine qd. Batty: There is a great book buy zofran 4mg line symptoms 4dpiui, Uniquely Gifted: Identifying and Meeting the Needs of the Twice-Exceptional Student by Kiesa Kay, that addresses gifted children with learning disabilities!! We are the only ones who can help our children even though it is so difficult for us. I always wonder if I am doing everything I can because the process is so slow. On one hand, raising kids like ours can be bruising. On the other, it really helps to keep a vision of what is possible for your child, and to document his accomplishments and yours. Keep your sense of humor and try to find the central patterns in his personality that are unique. Oftentimes our kids can think deeper and be more creative than "neurotypicals," so holding that vision is very important. When you look at how civilization has progressed, you find bipolars all throughout the map. Lynn, what advice can you offer to single parents of bipolar children, especially where the non-custodial parent is bipolar and non-compliant with bipolar medications? George Lynn: Educate your child about the situation as best you can. Teach him to monitor himself when he is with your ex. Wear your cell phone so he can call if he has to, and try to control medications from your end so that he is less dependent on your ex to get them. If the ex is un-medicated, your child may be in danger. Oftentimes the ex may be diagnosed "borderline personality disorder" or show symptoms of this. Follow the situation very closely and get involved legally if you have to. Once again, having a supportive professional in the picture is essential. Batty: Keeping a sense of humor and a positive vision is helped greatly by support from places like CABF--and in my area we have even started local support groups. Gates: Let the non-custodial parent take the child for a few weeks off of the meds and they will change their minds. I know that one untreated bipolar can not handle another untreated bipolar. MB0821: At what age do you begin discussing the more technical aspects of the bipolar disorder with children? George Lynn: MBO81, you have got to make sure that your timing is right and that the way you explain it is understandable to the child. There is not particular age, but it is important for him or her to have the issue put in terms that are age appropriate. Kids with these challenges are usually eager to make sense of the situation, so I will tell them that their brains just have a tendency to overheat at times, or that they are like big ships and it is hard to stop them once they get going, and that the bipolar medications and their self-control strategies help them so they can have friends and be successful. We have an 18 year old who was diagnosed with Bipolar Disorder last April, after years of being labeled ADHD and ODD. One of our many problems is that our 24 year old son, who is living at home while he finishes nursing school, has little patience with his brother. He is also very critical of our parenting decisions. George Lynn: Your question points to the essential presence of a good family therapist who understands Bipolar Disorder and sibling issues. I would address the issue to your 24 year old as a professional consideration. What can he learn from his brother about the kinds of people that he will treat in hospital? Sometimes it takes distance for siblings to overcome their resentment and you may just have to wait it out and give information to the 24 year old when he can hear it. The light bulb went off for him, and he accepted his diagnosis better. George Lynn: Some kids can understand the triune brain model. I tell them they have three brains - draw pictures of these. We have the cortex (the civilized brain), the limbic brain (the animal brain), and the base brain (heartbeat, etc. I tell kids with Bipolar Disorder that, in their case, the limbic brain sometimes sits as an equal at the table with the cortex and that the medications help their thinking brain keep things in check. Martha Hellander: George, I want to commend you for your first book Survival Strategies for Parenting Your ADD Child (as you call them "Attention Different") as well as your new one on parenting bipolar kids. The earlier one was the only thing I could find in 1996 when my 8 year old daughter was diagnosed. Your description of the "limbic wave" was so approprate. I still refer to it often when talking to parents on the CABF message boards. The "limbic wave" that Martha mentions is how I describe the sudden explosivity of our kids. MarciaAboutBP: We have a Bipolar parent who, in defending himself from a raging 16 year old child, threw up a forearm, which hit the child and broke her nose. How can parents explain when the child is so violent? George Lynn: Marcia, you need keep a track record by way of a good psychiatric evaluation. The best thing to have is a are allowed to defend yourself. If you make it clear to investigating officers how you were defending yourself, you should not have a hassle. At the same time, you run the risk of at least having to explain this to a judge. The important thing is for parents to keep their own cool because the limbic brain does not think, and when one limbic brain is talking to another, tragedy can happen! Batty: My son gave his psychologist a bloody nose and now everybody believes us! KateIA: I have read your book with its unique perspective of both professional and parent. I especially appreciated your noting the many positive aspects of bipolar children and the need for compassion in dealing with them. When I feel discouraged, I find myself reviewing certain sections and immediately feel empowered and encouraged in managing my amazing 14 year old BP/TS/OCD son.
Average steady-state concentrations of either once-daily or once-weekly dosing are in relative proportion to the total dose administered purchase 8 mg zofran free shipping symptoms 5dp5dt fet. Average steady-state fluoxetine concentrations are approximately 50% lower following the once-weekly regimen compared with the once-daily regimen purchase zofran 8mg line treatment group. C max for fluoxetine following the 90-mg dose was approximately 1 buy zofran 4 mg cheap medications may be administered in which of the following ways. In contrast trusted zofran 8 mg medicine 752, when the first 90-mg once-weekly dose and the last 20-mg once-daily dose were separated by 1 week, Cmax values were similar. Also, there was a transient increase in the average steady-state concentrations of fluoxetine observed following transition the next day to the once-weekly regimen. From a pharmacokinetic perspective, it may be better to separate the first 90-mg weekly dose and the last 20-mg once-daily dose by 1 week (see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION ). Liver disease - As might be predicted from its primary site of metabolism, liver impairment can affect the elimination of fluoxetine. The elimination half-life of fluoxetine was prolonged in a study of cirrhotic patients, with a mean of 7. This suggests that the use of fluoxetine in patients with liver disease must be approached with caution. If fluoxetine is administered to patients with liver disease, a lower or less frequent dose should be used (see PRECAUTIONS and DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION ). Renal disease - In depressed patients on dialysis (N=12), fluoxetine administered as 20 mg once daily for 2 months produced steady-state fluoxetine and norfluoxetine plasma concentrations comparable with those seen in patients with normal renal function. While the possibility exists that renally excreted metabolites of fluoxetine may accumulate to higher levels in patients with severe renal dysfunction, use of a lower or less frequent dose is not routinely necessary in renally impaired patients (see Use in Patients with Concomitant Illness under PRECAUTIONS and DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION ). Geriatric pharmacokinetics - The disposition of single doses of fluoxetine in healthy elderly subjects (>65 years of age) did not differ significantly from that in younger normal subjects. However, given the long half-life and nonlinear disposition of the drug, a single-dose study is not adequate to rule out the possibility of altered pharmacokinetics in the elderly, particularly if they have systemic illness or are receiving multiple drugs for concomitant diseases. The effects of age upon the metabolism of fluoxetine have been investigated in 260 elderly but otherwise healthy depressed patients (?-U60 years of age) who received 20 mg fluoxetine for 6 weeks. Combined fluoxetine plus norfluoxetine plasma concentrations were 209. No unusual age-associated pattern of adverse events was observed in those elderly patients. Pediatric pharmacokinetics (children and adolescents) - Fluoxetine pharmacokinetics were evaluated in 21 pediatric patients (10 children ages 6 to <13, 11 adolescents ages 13 to <18) diagnosed with major depressive disorder or obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Fluoxetine 20 mg/day was administered for up to 62 days. The average steady-state concentrations of fluoxetine in these children were 2-fold higher than in adolescents (171 and 86 ng/mL, respectively). The average norfluoxetine steady-state concentrations in these children were 1. These differences can be almost entirely explained by differences in weight. No gender-associated difference in fluoxetine pharmacokinetics was observed. Similar ranges of fluoxetine and norfluoxetine plasma concentrations were observed in another study in 94 pediatric patients (ages 8 to <18) diagnosed with major depressive disorder. Higher average steady-state fluoxetine and norfluoxetine concentrations were observed in children relative to adults; however, these concentrations were within the range of concentrations observed in the adult population. As in adults, fluoxetine and norfluoxetine accumulated extensively following multiple oral dosing; steady-state concentrations were achieved within 3 to 4 weeks of daily dosing. Adult - The efficacy of Prozac for the treatment of patients with major depressive disorder (?-U18 years of age) has been studied in 5- and 6-week placebo-controlled trials. Prozac was shown to be significantly more effective than placebo as measured by the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D). Prozac was also significantly more effective than placebo on the HAM-D subscores for depressed mood, sleep disturbance, and the anxiety subfactor. Two 6-week controlled studies (N=671, randomized) comparing Prozac 20 mg and placebo have shown Prozac 20 mg daily to be effective in the treatment of elderly patients (?-U60 years of age) with major depressive disorder. In these studies, Prozac produced a significantly higher rate of response and remission as defined, respectively, by a 50% decrease in the HAM-D score and a total endpoint HAM-D score of ?-T8. Prozac was well tolerated and the rate of treatment discontinuations due to adverse events did not differ between Prozac (12%) and placebo (9%). A study was conducted involving depressed outpatients who had responded (modified HAMD-17 score of ?-T7 during each of the last 3 weeks of open-label treatment and absence of major depressive disorder by DSM-III-R criteria) by the end of an initial 12-week open-treatment phase on Prozac 20 mg/day. These patients (N=298) were randomized to continuation on double-blind Prozac 20 mg/day or placebo. At 38 weeks (50 weeks total), a statistically significantly lower relapse rate (defined as symptoms sufficient to meet a diagnosis of major depressive disorder for 2 weeks or a modified HAMD-17 score of ?-U14 for 3 weeks) was observed for patients taking Prozac compared with those on placebo. Pediatric (children and adolescents) -The efficacy of Prozac 20 mg/day for the treatment of major depressive disorder in pediatric outpatients (N=315 randomized; 170 children ages 8 to <13, 145 adolescents ages 13 to ?-T18) has been studied in two 8- to 9-week placebo-controlled clinical trials. In both studies independently, Prozac produced a statistically significantly greater mean change on the Childhood Depression Rating Scale-Revised (CDRS-R) total score from baseline to endpoint than did placebo. Subgroup analyses on the CDRS-R total score did not suggest any differential responsiveness on the basis of age or gender. Weekly dosing for maintenance/continuation treatment A longer-term study was conducted involving adult outpatients meeting DSM-IV criteria for major depressive disorder who had responded (defined as having a modified HAMD-17 score of ?-T9, a CGI-Severity rating of ?-T2, and no longer meeting criteria for major depressive disorder) for 3 consecutive weeks at the end of 13 weeks of open-label treatment with Prozac 20 mg once daily. These patients were randomized to double-blind, once-weekly continuation treatment with Prozac Weekly, Prozac 20 mg once daily, or placebo. Prozac Weekly once weekly and Prozac 20 mg once daily demonstrated superior efficacy (having a significantly longer time to relapse of depressive symptoms) compared with placebo for a period of 25 weeks. However, the equivalence of these 2 treatments during continuation therapy has not been established. Adult - The effectiveness of Prozac for the treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) was demonstrated in two 13-week, multicenter, parallel group studies (Studies 1 and 2) of adult outpatients who received fixed Prozac doses of 20, 40, or 60 mg/day (on a once-a-day schedule, in the morning) or placebo. Patients in both studies had moderate to severe OCD (DSM-III-R), with mean baseline ratings on the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (YBOCS, total score) ranging from 22 to 26. In Study 1, patients receiving Prozac experienced mean reductions of approximately 4 to 6 units on the YBOCS total score, compared with a 1-unit reduction for placebo patients. In Study 2, patients receiving Prozac experienced mean reductions of approximately 4 to 9 units on the YBOCS total score, compared with a 1-unit reduction for placebo patients. While there was no indication of a dose-response relationship for effectiveness in Study 1, a dose-response relationship was observed in Study 2, with numerically better responses in the 2 higher dose groups. The following table provides the outcome classification by treatment group on the Clinical Global Impression (CGI) improvement scale for Studies 1 and 2 combined:OUTCOME CLASSIFICATION (%) ON CGI-GLOBAL IMPROVEMENTITEM FOR COMPLETERS IN PEDIATRIC STUDYExploratory analyses for age and gender effects on outcome did not suggest any differential responsiveness on the basis of age or sex. Pediatric (children and adolescents) - In one 13-week clinical trial in pediatric patients (N=103 randomized; 75 children ages 7 to <13, 28 adolescents ages 13 to <18) with OCD, patients received Prozac 10 mg/day for 2 weeks, followed by 20 mg/day for 2 weeks. The dose was then adjusted in the range of 20 to 60 mg/day on the basis of clinical response and tolerability. Subgroup analyses on outcome did not suggest any differential responsiveness on the basis of age or gender. The effectiveness of Prozac for the treatment of bulimia was demonstrated in two 8-week and one 16-week, multicenter, parallel group studies of adult outpatients meeting DSM-III-R criteria for bulimia. Patients in the 8-week studies received either 20 or 60 mg/day of Prozac or placebo in the morning. Patients in the 16-week study received a fixed Prozac dose of 60 mg/day (once a day) or placebo.
And the physician prescribing purchase 4mg zofran amex medications kidney stones, often listen to the mental health professional (unless it is a psychiatrist who is both prescribing and treating) about what mental health conditions may be underlying an eating disorder zofran 4mg with mastercard treatment anal fissure. Dr Haltom: For example cheap zofran 8mg with amex medicine disposal, it is very common for young people with eating disorders to suffer from depression discount 8 mg zofran otc treatment varicose veins. Also, social anxiety and obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) are often part of the clinical picture. The medication chosen will address the clinical psychiatric problems. There is some evidence that certain anti-depressant medications will curb appetite for those who binge. Also, sometimes medicine is given for gastrointestinal problems that arise with eating disorders. In short, parents should be prepared to deal with the question of medication when their child is in treatment for an eating disorder. There was a lot of good information and I appreciate the audience participation. Judith Asner, MSW, discusses the guilt and shame associated with having bulimia or any of the other eating disorders. Asner has been working with bulimics for over 20 years and says "many feel guilty about having bulimia; bingeing and purging. David: Good Afternoon, or evening, if you are overseas. She also runs the "Beat Bulimia" site inside the Eating Disorders Community. Good afternoon, Judith, and welcome back to HealthyPlace. We, literally, receive dozens of emails every week from people talking about the shame, the guilt, and the deception involved in having an eating disorder like bulimia. Judith Asner: I think the first step is understanding that the eating disorders and the addictive disorders are based on shame, but the person who created this shame in the young person is usually the one who should be feeling the shame--the perpetrator, not the victim. Many eating disorders (ED) are often linked to abuse (sexual abuse, physical abuse, emotional abuse), in which a child is innocent and suffers early insult or irrational guilt, where there is really nothing to feel guilty about. This is just an illness like any other and one does not have to be ashamed of having these symptoms. David: Unfortunately though, a lot of people do feel guilty about having bulimia and are ashamed to tell anyone about it. David: Judith, we get many people who write us saying that rather than telling anyone about their eating disorder, they want to handle recovery on their own. What do you think about that concept of handling bulimia recovery on your own? If you try to do this on your own, you miss the opportunity to see that people are good and willing to help you. All studies show that friendship enhances health and the immune system and isolation increases mental and physical illness. As a psychotherapist, I believe that cure is easier when we help each other. The illness is already isolating, but if you are absolutely intent on doing this by yourself, then nothing can sway you. Every person has his or her right to do it their way. If you want to overcome an eating disorder, keep a journal and let your journal become your mirror and your friend. Stay in touch with your feelings, plan your menus, write down your feelings after you eat instead of purging. In other words, use your journal as your key to your own psyche. Here are a few audience comments on sharing the news of your eating disorder with someone else and the idea of recovering from bulimia on your own:gillian1: I have told my mum about my bulimia, but she handled it badly so I covered up what I said with lying. The problem is that I told my doctor before I told my mum. I also find it discouraging, the way my parents treat me since they found out about my eating disorder. Judith Asner: A food journal and meal planning are 2 of the most important tools in overcoming an eating disorder. Changing your negative self talk, self-concept is also important. David: Could you go into a bit more detail about the food journal and what that is and what doing one accomplishes? Judith Asner: A food journal brings order to a chaotic eating situation. Bulimia was originally called dietary chaos syndrome. A person with bulimia, as you all know, binges in an uncontrolled way. A food diary will do the following:it will allow you to plan your meals ahead of time. By using the food journal, you will begin to know when you are really hungry versus when you eat and are not hungry. It will allow you to track your negative thoughts before you binge. Judith Asner: Cassiana, yes that is an eating disorder. But what if a person has grown up in a great environment. It can be a great environment with wonderful people, but they may have high expectations or it may be how you perceive what you see in the media. There are cultural and other influences, not just the family. TV, peer groups, and the fashion industry are factors also. Usually there is some element of self-esteem, when a person meets cultural expectations and ideal body types and some sense of dissatisfaction with the self. Judith Asner: latlat, I think the parents need to get support or the parent will get very depressed. I suggest support groups for parents with eating disordered children. By going to a support group, the parents will typically get some distance from the illness that will allow the teenager to get some treatment eventually. I think the parents need to first get help for themselves. You can only go to treatment for yourself and then hopefully the teenager will become curious with the process and want to join in. Now if the eating disorder, bulimia or anorexia, becomes life-threatening, a parent can force the teenager into treatment. And, of course, they are scared and want to take immediate action.
Families and caregivers of patients being treated with antidepressants for major depressive disorder or other indications zofran 4mg on line medicine hollywood undead, both psychiatric and nonpsychiatric purchase 4mg zofran with mastercard medications diabetes, should be alerted about the need to monitor patients for the emergence of agitation cheap zofran 4 mg with visa medicine dictionary pill identification, irritability buy zofran 4 mg otc cold medications, unusual changes in behavior, and the other symptoms described above, as well as the emergence of suicidality, and to report such symptoms immediately to health care providers. Such monitoring should include daily observation by families and caregivers. Prescriptions for ZOLOFT should be written for the smallest quantity of tablets consistent with good patient management, in order to reduce the risk of overdose. Screening Patients for Bipolar Disorder: A major depressive episode may be the initial presentation of bipolar disorder. It is generally believed (though not established in controlled trials) that treating such an episode with an antidepressant alone may increase the likelihood of precipitation of a mixed/manic episode in patients at risk for bipolar disorder. Whether any of the symptoms described above represent such a conversion is unknown. However, prior to initiating treatment with an antidepressant, patients with depressive symptoms should be adequately screened to determine if they are at risk for bipolar disorder; such screening should include a detailed psychiatric history, including a family history of suicide, bipolar disorder, and depression. It should be noted that ZOLOFT is not approved for use in treating bipolar depression. Cases of serious sometimes fatal reactions have been reported in patients receiving ZOLOFT^ (sertraline hydrochloride), a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), in combination with a monoamine oxidase inhibitor (MAOI). Symptoms of a drug interaction between an SSRI and an MAOI include: hyperthermia, rigidity, myoclonus, autonomic instability with possible rapid fluctuations of vital signs, mental status changes that include confusion, irritability, and extreme agitation progressing to delirium and coma. These reactions have also been reported in patients who have recently discontinued an SSRI and have been started on an MAOI. Some cases presented with features resembling neuroleptic malignant syndrome. Therefore, ZOLOFT should not be used in combination with an MAOI, or within 14 days of discontinuing treatment with an MAOI. Similarly, at least 14 days should be allowed after stopping ZOLOFT before starting an MAOI. The concomitant use of Zoloft with MAOIs intended to treat depression is contraindicated (see CONTRAINDICATIONS and WARNINGS - Potential for Interaction with Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors. Serotonin syndrome symptoms may include mental status changes (e. If concomitant treatment of SNRIs and SSRIs, including Zoloft, with a 5-hydroxytryptamine receptor agonist (triptan) is clinically warranted, careful observation of the patient is advised, particularly during treatment initiation and dose increases (see PRECAUTIONS - Drug Interactions). The concomitant use of SNRIs and SSRIs, including Zoloft, with serotonin precursors (such as tryptophan) is not recommended (see PRECAUTIONS - Drug Interactions). Activation of Mania/Hypomania -During premarketing testing, hypomania or mania occurred in approximately 0. Weight Loss -Significant weight loss may be an undesirable result of treatment with sertraline for some patients, but on average, patients in controlled trials had minimal, 1 to 2 pound weight loss, versus smaller changes on placebo. Only rarely have sertraline patients been discontinued for weight loss. Seizure -ZOLOFT has not been evaluated in patients with a seizure disorder. No seizures were observed among approximately 3000 patients treated with ZOLOFT in the development program for major depressive disorder. However, 4 patients out of approximately 1800 (220<18 years of age) exposed during the development program for obsessive-compulsive disorder experienced seizures, representing a crude incidence of 0. Three of these patients were adolescents, two with a seizure disorder and one with a family history of seizure disorder, none of whom were receiving anticonvulsant medication. Accordingly, ZOLOFT should be introduced with care in patients with a seizure disorder. Discontinuation of Treatment with ZoloftDuring marketing of Zoloft and other SSRIs and SNRIs (Serotonin and Norepinephrine Reuptake Inhibitors), there have been spontaneous reports of adverse events occurring upon discontinuation of these drugs, particularly when abrupt, including the following: dysphoric mood, irritability, agitation, dizziness, sensory disturbances (e. While these events are generally self-limiting, there have been reports of serious discontinuation symptoms. Patients should be monitored for these symptoms when discontinuing treatment with Zoloft. A gradual reduction in the dose rather than abrupt cessation is recommended whenever possible. If intolerable symptoms occur following a decrease in the dose or upon discontinuation of treatment, then resuming the previously prescribed dose may be considered. Subsequently, the physician may continue decreasing the dose but at a more gradual rate (see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION ). Published case reports have documented the occurrence of bleeding episodes in patients treated with psychotropic drugs that interfere with serotonin reuptake. Subsequent epidemiological studies, both of the case-control and cohort design, have demonstrated an association between use of psychotropic drugs that interfere with serotonin reuptake and the occurrence of upper gastrointestinal bleeding. In two studies, concurrent use of a non-selective nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (i. Although these studies focused on upper gastrointestinal bleeding, there is reason to believe that bleeding at other sites may be similarly potentiated. Patients should be cautioned regarding the risk of bleeding associated with the concomitant use of ZOLOFT with non-selective NSAIDs (i. Weak Uricosuric Effect -ZOLOFT^ (sertraline hydrochloride) is associated with a mean decrease in serum uric acid of approximately 7%. The clinical significance of this weak uricosuric effect is unknown. Use in Patients with Concomitant Illness -Clinical experience with ZOLOFT in patients with certain concomitant systemic illness is limited. Caution is advisable in using ZOLOFT in patients with diseases or conditions that could affect metabolism or hemodynamic responses. However, the electrocardiograms of 774 patients who received ZOLOFT in double-blind trials were evaluated and the data indicate that ZOLOFT is not associated with the development of significant ECG abnormalities. ZOLOFT administered in a flexible dose range of 50 to 200 mg/day (mean dose of 89 mg/day) was evaluated in a post-marketing, placebo-controlled trial of 372 randomized subjects with a DSM-IV diagnosis of major depressive disorder and recent history of myocardial infarction or unstable angina requiring hospitalization. Exclusions from this trial included, among others, patients with uncontrolled hypertension, need for cardiac surgery, history of CABG within 3 months of index event, severe or symptomatic bradycardia, non-atherosclerotic cause of angina, clinically significant renal impairment (creatinine > 2. ZOLOFT treatment initiated during the acute phase of recovery (within 30 days post-MI or post-hospitalization for unstable angina) was indistinguishable from placebo in this study on the following week 16 treatment endpoints: left ventricular ejection fraction, total cardiovascular events (angina, chest pain, edema, palpitations, syncope, postural dizziness, CHF, MI, tachycardia, bradycardia, and changes in BP), and major cardiovascular events involving death or requiring hospitalization (for MI, CHF, stroke, or angina). In patients with chronic mild liver impairment, sertraline clearance was reduced, resulting in increased AUC, Cmax and elimination half-life. The effects of sertraline in patients with moderate and severe hepatic impairment have not been studied. The use of sertraline in patients with liver disease must be approached with caution. If sertraline is administered to patients with liver impairment, a lower or less frequent dose should be used (see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY and DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION ). Since ZOLOFT is extensively metabolized, excretion of unchanged drug in urine is a minor route of elimination. A clinical study comparing sertraline pharmacokinetics in healthy volunteers to that in patients with renal impairment ranging from mild to severe (requiring dialysis) indicated that the pharmacokinetics and protein binding are unaffected by renal disease. Based on the pharmacokinetic results, there is no need for dosage adjustment in patients with renal impairment (see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY ). Interference with Cognitive and Motor Performance -In controlled studies, ZOLOFT did not cause sedation and did not interfere with psychomotor performance.
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These plans provide hospital and medical insurance coverage, and some also provide prescription drug coverage. Original Medicare helps pay for the diabetes services, supplies, and equipment listed below. In addition, Medicare covers some preventive services for people who are at risk for diabetes. A person must have Medicare Part B or Medicare Part D to receive these covered services and supplies. More details are available by calling 1-800-MEDICARE (1-800-633-4227) and requesting the free booklet Medicare Coverage of Diabetes Supplies & Services. More information about Medicare is available at www. The website has a full range of information about Medicare including free publications like Medicare & You, the official Government handbook about Medicare, and Medicare Basics?A Guide for Families and Friends of People with Medicare. Through the Medicare website, people can alsofind out if they are eligible for Medicare and when they can enrolllearn about their Medicare health plan optionsfind out what Medicare coversfind a Medicare Prescription Drug Plancompare Medicare health plan options in their areafind a doctor who participates in Medicareget information about the quality of care provided by nursing homes, hospitals, home health agencies, and dialysis facilitiesCalling 1-800-MEDICARE (1-800-633-4227) is another way to get help with Medicare questions, order free publications, and more. Help is available 24 hours a day, every day, and is available in English, Spanish, and other languages. Medicare information can also be obtained from the following agencies or programs:Each state has a State Health Insurance Assistance Program (SHIP) that provides free health insurance counseling. SHIP counselors can help people choose a Medicare health plan or a Medicare Prescription Drug Plan. The phone number for the SHIP in each state is available by by calling Medicare or visiting www. People can contact the agency at 1-800-772-1213, visit its web-site at www. State Medical Assistance (Medicaid) offices in each state can provide information about help for people with Medicare who have limited income and resources. People who enroll in Medicare can register for MyMedicare. People can view their claims, order forms and publications, and see a description of covered preventive services. Help for Diabetics with Medicare Who Have Limited Income and ResourcesDiabetics who have Medicare and have limited income and resources may qualify for help paying for some health care and prescription drug costs from one of the following programs:Extra help paying for Medicare prescription drug coverage. Those who meet certain income requirements may qualify for extra help from Medicare to pay prescription drug costs. People can apply for this help by calling Social Security; visiting www. Several states have SPAPs that help certain people pay for prescription drugs. Each SPAP makes its own rules about how to provide drug coverage to its members. State Medicaid programs help pay medical costs for some people with Medicare who have limited income and resources. States also have programs called Medicare Savings Programs that pay Medicare premiums and, in some cases, may also pay Medicare Part A and Part B deductibles and coinsurance. The phone number for the State Medical Assistance (Medicaid) office for each state can be obtained by calling Medicare. Medicaid, also called Medical Assistance, is a joint federal and state government program that helps pay medical costs for some people with limited income and resources. Medicaid programs and income limits for Medicaid vary from state to state. The State Medical Assistance (Medicaid) office can help people find out whether they qualify for Medicaid or provide more information about Medicaid programs. To contact a state Medicaid office, people cancheck the government pages of the phone book for the local department of human services or department of social services, which can provide the needed informationSCHIP is a federal and state government partnership to expand health coverage to uninsured children from families with income that is too low to afford private or employer-sponsored health insurance but too high to qualify for Medicaid. The free or low-cost coverage is available to eligible children younger than 19. SCHIP provides an extensive package of benefits including doctor visits, hospital care, and more. People who are not eligible for Medicare or Medicaid may be able to purchase private health insurance. Many insurers consider diabetes that has already been diagnosed a pre-existing condition, so finding coverage may be difficult for people with diabetes. Insurance companies often have a specific waiting period during which they do not cover diabetes-related expenses for new enrollees, although they will cover other medical expenses that arise during this time. Many states now require insurance companies to cover diabetes supplies and education. The Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA), passed by Congress in 1996, limits insurance companies from denying coverage because of a pre-existing condition. Some state offices may be called the state insurance department or commission. This office can also help identify an insurance company that offers individual coverage. The Georgetown University Health Policy Institute offers consumer guides on health insurance topics, including guides for each state about getting and keeping health insurance. When leaving a job, a person may be able to continue the group health insurance provided by the employer for up to 18 months under a federal law called the Consolidated Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act, or COBRA. People pay more for group health insurance through COBRA than they did as employees, but group coverage is cheaper than individual coverage. People who have a disability before becoming eligible for COBRA or who are determined by the Social Security Administration to be disabled within the first 60 days of COBRA coverage may be able to extend COBRA coverage an additional 11 months, for up to 29 months of coverage. Department of Labor at 1-866-4-USA-DOL (1-866-487-2365) or visiting www. Some professional and alumni organizations offer group coverage for members. Most states have a high-risk health insurance pool or other means for covering people otherwise unable to get health insurance. Information about high-risk pools is available at www. Some insurance companies also offer stopgap policies designed for people who are between jobs.
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