By B. Thorek. College of Saint Catherine.
If they cannot be con- trolled by a direct act of will serophene 50mg generic pregnancy risks over 40, they can be controlled indirectly discount serophene 25 mg with visa 4 menstrual cycles a year. If we cannot drive out a negative feeling by mak- ing a frontal assault upon it buy serophene 50 mg on line womens health za, we can accomplish the same result by substituting a positive feeling order 100 mg serophene amex menstruation quotes. Feeling coincides with, and is appropriate to, what our nervous system accepts as "real" or the "truth about environment. Instead, we should immediately concentrate upon positive imagery—upon filling the mind with wholesome, positive, desirable images, imaginations, and memories. If, on the other hand, we concentrate only upon "driv- ing out," or attacking worry thoughts, we necessarily must concentrate upon negatives. And even if we are suc- cessful in driving out one worry thought, a new one, or even several new ones, are likely to rush in—since the general mental atmosphere is still negative. Jesus warned us about sweeping the mind clean of one demon, only to have seven new ones move in, if we left the house empty. Matthew Chappell, a modern psychologist, recom- mends exactly the same thing in his book How to Control Worry (Matthew N. We are worriers because we practice worrying until we become adept at it, says Dr. We habitually indulge in negative imagery out of the past, and in anticipating the future. The worrier then makes an "effort" to stop worrying, and is caught in a vicious cycle. In time worry will defeat itself because it becomes a stimulus for practicing anti- worrying. Chappell, is not to overcome some particular source of worry, but to change mental habits. As long as the mind is "set" or geared in a passive, defeatist, "I hope nothing happens" sort of attitude, there will always be something to worry about. Psychologist David Seabury says that the best piece of advice his father ever gave him was to practice positive mental imagery—immediately and "on cue," so to speak, whenever he became aware of negative feelings. Negative feelings literally defeated themselves by becoming a sort of "bell" which set off a conditioned reflex to arouse posi- tive states of mind. When I was a medical student I remember being called upon by the professor to orally answer questions on the subject of pathology. Yet, on other occasions, when I looked into the microscope at a slide and answered the typewritten questions before me, I was a different person. I was relaxed, and substituted that "winning feeling" for the negative feeling when quizzed orally. At the end of the semester I did very well in both oral and written examina- tions. The negative feeling had finally become a sort of "bell" which created a conditioned reflex to arouse that "win- ning feeling. Throughout twenty-five years of practice as a plastic surgeon I have operated on soldiers mutilated on the battlefield, children born with disfigurements, men, women, and children injured in accidents at home, on the highway and in industry. In giving them another chance at capturing that "win- ning feeling," I myself became skillful in the art of having that same feeling. All of us must do the same With our inner scars, our negative feelings, if we want to get more living out of life. The Choice Is Up to You Within you is a vast mental storehouse of past experi- ences and feelings—both failures and successes. Like in- active recordings on tape, these experiences and feelings are recorded on the neural engrams of your gray matter. There are recordings of stories with happy endings, and [recordings of stories with unhappy endings. Another interesting scientific finding about these en- grams is that they can be changed or modified, somewhat as a tape recording may be changed by "dubbing in" addi- tional material, or by replacing an old recording with a lew by recording over it. Eccles and Sherrington tell us that the engrams in the human brain tend to change slightly each time they are "played back. Also, each individual neuron may become a part of perhaps one hundred separate and distinct pat- terns—much as an individual tree in an orchard may form a part of a square, a rectangle, a triangle, or any number of larger squares, etc. The neuron in the original engram, of which it was a part, takes on some of the characteris- tics of subsequent engrams of which it becomes a part, and in so doing, changes somewhat the original engram. It gives us reason to believe that adverse and unhappy childhood ex- periences, "traumas. We now know that not only does the past influence the present, but that the present clearly influences the past. Because we did have unhappy childhood experiences and traumas which left engrams behind, does not mean that we are at the mercy of these engrams, or that our pat- terns of behavior are "set," predetermined and unchange- able. Our present thinking, our present mental habits, our attitudes toward past experiences, and our attitudes to- ward the future—all have an influence upon old recorded engrams. Old Recordings Can Be Changed Another interesting finding is that the more a given en- gram is activated, or "replayed," the more potent it be- comes. Eccles and Sherrington tell us that the permanence of engrams is derived from synaptic efficacy (the effi- ciency and ease of connections between the individual neurons that make up the chain) and further, that synaptic efficiency improves with use and diminishes with disuse. Here again, we have good scientific ground for forgetting and ignoring those unhappy experiences from the past and concentrating upon the happy and pleasant. These concepts have developed not from wild specula- tion, a weird mumbo-jumbo about mentally constructed straw men such as the "Id," "Super-Ego" and the like, but from sound scientific research into brain physiology. They go a long way toward restoring the dignity of man as a responsible child of God, able to cope with his past and plan his future, as opposed to the image of man as helpless, victim of his past experiences. No longer can you derive sickly comfort from blaming your parents, society, your early experiences, or the in- justices of "others" for your present troubles. Blaming them, or even yourself for the past mis- takes, however, will not solve your problem, or improve your present or your future. Like a broken phonograph, you can keep on play- ing the same old "broken record" of the past; reliving past injustices; pitying yourself for past mistakes; all of which reactivates failure patterns and failure feelings which color your present and your future. Or, if you choose, you can put on a new record, and reactivate success patterns and "that winning feeling" which help you do better in the present and promise a more enjoyable future. Use the same technique on the "music" that comes out of your own internal machine. But it is not only possible, but I believe practical, to draw certain conclusions and implications from what is already known. In this chapter I would like to tell you some of the things that I believe and which have been of practical value to me. William James once said that everyone, scientists in- cluded, develops his own "over-beliefs" concerning (known facts, which the facts themselves do not justify. As a practical measure, these "over-beliefs" are not only [permissible, but necessary. Our assumption of a future goal, which sometimes we cannot see, is what dictates our present actions, and our "practical conduct. Otherwise he would not have sailed at all—or having sailed, would not have known whether to set his course to the south, east, north or west. Research experiments are not helter-skelter or aimless, but directed and goal oriented. In this last chapter I want to share with you some of my own over-beliefs, hypotheses, and philosophy, not as an M. Hans Selye has said, there are certain "truths" which cannot be used by medicine, but can be used by the patient. Life Force—The Secret of Healing and the Secret of Youth I believe that the physical body, including the physical brain and nervous system, is a machine, composed of numerous smaller mechanisms, all purposeful, or goal directed. Man him- self is not the machine, any more than electricity is the wire over which it flows, or the motor which it turns.
Treatment These birds may die peracutely or acutely with mor- tality of up to 80% purchase 100 mg serophene otc menstrual like cramps at 36 weeks, depending on the age 100 mg serophene sale women's health clinic jensen beach fl. An age- Administration of hyperimmune serum was not linked resistance has been demonstrated in pheas- shown to have any effect on mortality levels in in- fected pheasants purchase serophene 50 mg on line womens health services lynchburg va. Clinical changes in a group of infected Lady Gouldian Finches included matically with fluids discount 25mg serophene otc menopause bleeding symptoms, vitamins (probably vitamin K) 69 and supportive alimentation. Mortality rates in turkeys with ataxia and chicks) may be used to indicate the presence of in- paralysis is about 6% whereas quail show up to 90% fected mosquitos. Neither the efficacy nor safety Proventriculus/ Lymphocytic proventriculitis, multifocal myositis of this vaccine when used in ostriches has been estab- ventriculus and necrosis, lymphohistiocytic myositis lished. Written permission should be obtained from Serosa Mesenteritis and serositis (intestinal, hepatic) the insurance carrier of an ostrich before vaccination Spleen Heterophilic infiltrates, multifocal is carried out. The recommended vaccination protocol lipogranulomas, lymphoid necrosis includes vaccination at three months of age followed Brain Focal cerebral meningitis, necrotizing by a booster one month later and every six months encephalitis, nonsuppurative encephalitis thereafter. In endemic areas, extensive vacci- Ring-necked Parakeet and experimentally infected chicks with avian serositis virus. At necropsy, the presence of serosal fluid in the abdo- with preference for rodents. However, in swamp ar- men with or without fibrinous clots was the promi- eas some egrets and herons are known to be carriers. In some cases, the liver was swollen and The main avian reservoir is the Striated Heron. Interestingly, all Rubivirus, German Measles the naturally affected birds came from nurseries or were parent-raised on farms where neuropathic gas- Rubivirus (formerly rubellavirus) is classified as a tric dilatation was endemic, and many of the contact member of the Togaviridae. On the other hand, it has been suggested that pigeons may be infected by virus-shedding humans. The disease was initially described in northern Israel (in season with its vectors), but has now been documented in southern Israel and South Africa. The main host is the domesticated turkey, which under field condi- tions becomes sick after ten weeks of age. Clinical changes include progressive paresis and pa- ralysis and spastic, uncoordinated movements. Clinical and histologic changes are similar to Gold Macaw with avian viral serositis (see Color 32. The in- various organs from 24 hours up to 8 days following fluence of birds in distributing virus of the Bunyam- infection. Blood and parenchymal organs can be used vera group is limited to the function of transport for virus isolation. Cri- The Louping Ill virus belongs to the Flaviviridae and mean-Congo hemorrhagic fever causes clinical signs is serologically related to the Siberian tick encepha- in humans. The California encephalitis group virus (important Ixodes ricinus ticks are the main vector. The Tahyna virus shows signs such Grouse and the subspecies Red Grouse, Rock Ptarmi- as fever, headache, vomiting, pharyngitis and more gan, capercaillie, Black Grouse and the Common rarely, interstitial pneumonia. They including migratory birds and Culex univittatus domestic pigeons occur on three different continents and are serologi- cally related. Birds living in the breeding grounds of Bunyaviridae Birds refractory, only transport Hyalomma spp. There are California encephali- Chicken, Canada Goose Aedes triseriatus more than 30 species of susceptible birds that do not tis virus become sick. Avian reservoirs include Brown-headed Tahyna fever virus Chicken, Starling Aedes spp. Birds are not considered natural reservoirs for the rabies virus, but they can nonetheless develop active infections while remaining asymptomatic. Virus iso- lation has been reported from common buzzards, Paramyxoviridae Goshawks, ducks, a Red Kite and a Barn Owl. The Paramyxoviridae family consists of two subfami- lies:325a Paramyxovirinae with the genera Para- Rabies antibodies have been described in free-rang- myxovirus and Morbillivirus (mammalian only); and ing populations including Prairie Falcon, Goshawk, Pneumovirinae with the mammalian respiratory Golden Eagle, Short-eared Owl, crow, raven and star- syncytial viruses and turkey rhinotracheitis virus. Virions are generally pleo- eight percent of the non-predatory scavengers includ- morphic, rounded and 100 to 500 nm in diameter. A ing starlings, crows and ravens had rabies antibody filamentous form 100 nm wide and variable in length titers. These findings suggest that viral exposure has been described but may be an artifact. The self-limiting nature of the virus in avian species is believed to be due to a Virus replication takes place entirely in the cyto- rapid production of antibodies. This explains the limitation of the infection sion of the virus and host cell membranes takes place to one area and the inhibition of viral distribution (mediated by the “F” protein of the virus) and the throughout the body. Clinical Disease and Pathology The clinical course in species naturally and experi- Avian Paramyxovirus mentally infected can take 2 to 42 days. Numerous, serologically dif- vulsions is followed 24 hours later by ataxia, weak- ferent strains of this virus have been isolated world- ness of the limbs, falling on the flanks and, finally, wide. Two weeks raminidase inhibition tests, serum neutralization later somnolence, apathy, compulsive movements tests and comparison of structural polypeptides have and death can occur. Vertical transmission can occur, but is rare with velogenic ** Host-related differences shown by monoclonal antibodies strains because viremic hens usually stop laying. Although virus can be found in respiratory secre- gens in domestic poultry and have prompted control tions, the main route of viral shedding is the feces. Environmental Mechanical vectors that may spread the virus in- and chemical stability, routes of transmission and clude wind, insects, equipment and humans. They are found in Columbiformes and virus to be widely distributed throughout the host’s some Psittaciformes. Dyspnea may be caused by lung congestion and tibodies are necessary to distinguish infection caused damage to the respiratory center. Birds from previous virus exposure, pathotype of virus and titer these islands should be considered immunologically of infecting virus. These divisions are applicable only to produce varying clinical disease in chickens. Virulence is host-specific and clinical expression varies widely in other birds, even varies considerably with experimental infections in 46 between two species of the same genus. Acute respiratory infections with clinical changes, including de- Budgerigar Low (natural), pression and dyspnea, are characteristic. In short, these can be summarized as follows: Falconiformes (falcon) Low (13), moderate (9) Accipitriformes (vulture, hawk) Low (13 or 15), moderate (8) Peracute death; several hours of depression Saggitariiformes (secretary bird) Low (13) caused by viremia. Surface ducks Latency (20,21) Acute respiratory disease; upper respiratory Bay ducks Latency exudates, rales and dyspnea. Partial immunity can alter Passeriformes the clinical progression of disease and pathologic Crow Latency (17), lesions (Figure 32. Lymphatic Direct Virus Demonstration: Virus isolation can be tissue in association with the hemorrhagic lesions achieved using feces, cloacal swabs or discharge from forms “boutons,” which are pathognomonic in Pha- the respiratory tract. The fact that latently in- The histopathologic lesions are as variable as the fected birds have low virus titers and that vaccine clinical signs. Histologic lesions rarely correlate with the severity Specific characterization can be accomplished with of clinical signs. Therefore, rule, the incubation time is prolonged in these cases, indirect virus demonstration by humoral antibodies and histopathologic lesions may be difficult to docu- may be difficult.
Vitamin B12 body stores during oral and parenteral treatment of pernicious anaemia cheap 100 mg serophene menopause fatigue. Folic acid and L-5-methyltetrahydrofolate: comparison of clinical pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics order 25 mg serophene amex menopause lubricant. Ten-year follow-up of survival and myocardial infarction in the randomized Coronary Artery Surgery Study serophene 25 mg low cost womens health group manhattan ks. Does visual interpretation of the coronary angiogram predict the physiologic importance of a coronary stenosis buy 100 mg serophene amex womens health weekly. Depletion of plasma vitamin C but not vitamin E in response to cardiac operations. Protection of coenzyme Q10 from myocardial reperfusion injury during coronary artery bypass grafting. Low plasma ascorbic acid independently predicts the presence of an unstable coronary syndrome. Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of ascorbate on the preventive effect of nitrate tolerance in patients with congestive heart failure. Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of supplemental vitamin E on attenuation of the development of nitrate tolerance. Propionyl-L-carnitine: a new compound in the metabolic approach to the treatment of effort angina. Effects of L-propionylcarnitine on ischemia-induced myocardial dysfunction in men with angina pectoris. The therapeutic effect of L-carnitine in patients with exercise-induced stable angina. Effects of L-carnitine on exercise tolerance in patients with stable angina pectoris. Beneﬁcial effects of L-carnitine in the reduction of the necrotic area in acute myocardial infarction. Effectiveness of long-term treatment with pantethine in patients with dyslipidemias. Effects of pantethine on lipids and apolipoproteins in hypercholesterolemic diabetic and non-diabetic patients. Controlled evaluation of pantethine, a natural hypolipidemic compound, in patients with different forms of hyperlipoproteinemia. Effects of pantethine on action potential of canine papillary muscle during hypoxic perfusion. Biomedical and clinical aspects of coenzyme Q: proceedings of the International Symposium on Coenzyme Q, vols. Role of magnesium in reducing mortality in acute myocardial infarction: a review of the evidence. The rationale of magnesium supplementation in acute myocardial infarction: a review of the literature. Effect of supplemental oral L-arginine on exercise capacity in patients with stable angina pectoris. Oral administration of L-arginine in patients with angina or following myocardial infarction may be protective by increasing plasma superoxide dismutase and total thiols with reduction in serum cholesterol and xanthine oxidase. Promising hypotensive effect of hawthorn extract: a randomized double- blind pilot study of mild, essential hypertension. Acupuncture in angina pectoris: do psychosocial and neurophysiological factors relate to the effect? Effects of transcendental meditation on symptoms and electrocardiographic changes in patients with cardiac syndrome X. Red cell membrane omega-3 fatty acids are decreased in nondepressed patients with social anxiety disorder. Associations between increases in plasma n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids following supplementation and decreases in anger and anxiety in substance abusers. Omega-3 supplementation lowers inﬂammation and anxiety in medical students: a randomized controlled trial. The major psychoses and neuroses as omega-3 essential fatty acid deﬁciency syndrome: substrate pellagra. Evaluation of combining kava extract with hormone replacement therapy in the treatment of postmenopausal anxiety. Effects of oxazepam and an extract of kava roots ( Piper methysticum) on event-related potentials in a word recognition task. International Journal of Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics 2001; 39: 477–479. Kava hepatotoxicity: comparison of aqueous, ethanolic, acetonic kava extracts and kava- herbs mixtures. Nonsteroidal anti-inﬂammatory drugs stimulate 15-lipoxygenase/leukotriene pathway in human polymorphonuclear leukocytes. Safety of cold-adapted live attenuated inﬂuenza vaccine in a large cohort of children and adolescents. High intestinal IgA associates with reduced risk of IgE-associated allergic diseases. Effect of allergen avoidance in infancy on allergic manifestations at age two years. Children with allergic rhinitis and/or bronchial asthma treated with elimination diet. IgE to food allergens are highly prevalent in patients allergic to pollens, with and without symptoms of food allergy. Dietary factors in the pathogenesis of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Nutrition and respiratory health in adults: ﬁndings from the health survey for Scotland. Dietary intake of soy genistein is associated with lung function in patients with asthma. A mechanism of beneﬁt of soy genistein in asthma: inhibition of eosinophil p38- dependent leukotriene synthesis. The effects of genistein and puerarin on the activation of nuclear factor-kappaB and the production of tumor necrosis factor-alpha in asthma patients. The effects of dietary supplementation with ﬁsh oil lipids on the airway response to inhaled allergen in bronchial asthma. Reduced asthma symptoms with n-3 fatty acid ingestion are related to 5-series leukotriene production. Effects of dietary tryptophan restrictions on clinical symptoms in patients with endogenous asthma. Double-blind trial of pyridoxine (vitamin B6) in the treatment of steroid-dependent asthma. Serum total antioxidant status in severe exacerbation of asthma: correlation with the severity of the disease. Antioxidant supplementation and lung functions among children with asthma exposed to high levels of air pollutants. Ascorbic acid supplementation attenuates exercise-induced bronchoconstriction in patients with asthma. Metabolic transformation has a profound effect on anti-inﬂammatory activity of ﬂavonoids such as quercetin: lack of association between antioxidant and lipoxygenase inhibitory activity. Oral administration of the purple passion fruit peel extract reduces wheeze and cough and improves shortness of breath in adults with asthma.
In general purchase serophene 50 mg free shipping menstrual weight, haemodialysis is effective for the removal of small molecu- lar weight solutes and becomes increasingly less effcient as molecular weight rises above a thousand daltons generic serophene 100 mg without prescription women's health virginia. Forni introducing a countercurrent fow of dialysate into the non-blood-containing compart- ment of the haemodiaflter buy 25mg serophene menopause medication. This theoretically increases the effciency of clearance of small molecular weight solutes over that of haemofltration without dialysis purchase 25 mg serophene otc menstrual emotions. As such they are viewed as complementary therapies in patients with acute kidney injury. Conclusions from the limited number of randomized prospective studies are also somewhat contradictory. For example, one of the earliest studies randomized 166 patients with acute kidney injury to either continuous or intermittent techniques and demonstrated a higher all- cause mortality with continuous therapies. However, on adjustment for severity of ill- ness no such association was observed . With regard to renal recovery, often defned as the need for long-term renal replacement therapy, again no defnitive conclusions can be driven, although several meta-analyses point to a beneft with continuous treat- ments although when just randomized trials are included no difference is seen [12, 18]. Key Messages • Continuous treatment is often an aspirational treatment goal and there are often many reasons why treatment may be interrupted. This originally led to the introduction of continuous therapies but more recently several newer technologies have sought to achieve this aim without nec- essarily being continuous in nature. The aim, therefore, is to optimize the potential advantages offered by both approaches thus solute clearances achieved, for example, 14 Type of Renal Replacement Therapy 183 may not be as effcient as intermittent dialysis but the techniques are maintained for longer periods of time. Numerous regimens/techniques have evolved which can be collectively referred to by the umbrella term ‘hybrid therapies’. Potential benefts include effcient solute removal with reduced ultrafltration rate, thereby minimizing haemodynamic instabil- ity. Furthermore, there may be lower anticoagulant needs as well as reduced costs and perhaps most importantly improved patient mobility particularly in the rehabilitative phase of critical illness. Although a trend to lower blood pressure and cardiac output was observed, this did not reach signifcance and no differ- ence in outcomes were observed. Although at present these techniques account for less than 10 % of treatments offered to critically ill patients with acute kidney injury, the potential benefts including that of cost may mean that they become more prevalent. Key Messages • Hybrid therapies may deliver desired solute clearance without haemody- namic compromise. The replacement fuid may be returned to the circuit either before (predilution) or after the haemoflter (postdilution). Solute clearance will be, in the main, determined by the sieving coeffcient and the ultrafltration rate. Although postdilution haemofltration provides higher solute clearance, it is limited by the attainable blood fow rate. At fl- tration fractions that are greater than 25 %, secondary membrane effects and con- centration polarization both impair flter performance. In turn, this affects the amount of solute removed by convection as well as increasing the replacement fuid utilization. However, flter viability is improved by predilution as it reduces the risk of clotting in the flter by reducing the haematocrit. Key Messages • Replacement fuids can be delivered to the extracorporeal circuit before the flter (predilution) or after the flter (postdilution). Transport phenomena and living systems: biomedical aspects of momentum and mass transport. Renal replacement techniques: descriptions, mechanisms, choices and controversies. The frst interna- tional consensus conference on continuous renal replacement therapy. Brain density changes during renal replacement in critically ill patients with acute renal failure: continuous hemofltration versus intermittent hemodialysis. Schortgen F, Soubrier N, Delclaux C, Thuong M, Girou E, Brun-Buisson C, Lemaire F, Brochard L. Hemodynamic tolerance of intermittent hemodialysis in critically ill patients usefulness of practice guidelines. Continuous versus intermittent renal replacement therapy for critically ill patients with acute kidney injury: a meta-analysis. Choice of renal replacement therapy modality and dialysis dependence after acute kidney injury: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Acute renal failure in criti- cally ill patients a multinational, multicenter study. A randomized clinical trial of continuous versus intermittent dialysis for acute renal failure. Continuous venove- nous haemodiafltration versus intermittent haemodialysis for acute renal failure in patients with multiple-organ dysfunction syndrome- a multicentre randomised trial. Dialysis in intensive care unit patients with acute kidney injury: continuous therapy is superior. Effcacy and cardiovascular tolerability of extended dialysis in critically ill patients: a randomized con- trolled study. Binding to endothelial cells and macrophages leads to rapid internalization and depolymerization, whereas renal elimination is a much slower process. Given the many safe citrate protocols (see below), regional anticoagulation with heparin–protamin is nowadays not recommended anymore. They exhibit linear pharmacokinetics with stationary distribution volume and clearance processes, obviating the need of anti-Xa monitoring during continuous dosing. The drugs most frequently investigated are daltepa- rin, enoxaparin and nadroparin. This is termed heparin induced thrombocytopenia type 1, and the fall in peripheral platelet count is typically modest, and the platelet count recovers spontaneously. On the other hand heparin induced thrombocytopenia type 2 leads to marked thrombocytopenia (typically >50 % fall in peripheral platelet count) due to autoantibody mediated platelet activation which can be life-threatening, and necessitates heparin withdrawal to aid recovery . Heparins are large negatively charged proteoglycans which can nonspeciﬁcally bind to proteins. In the critically ill patient there are often many other potential causes of peripheral thrombocytopenia, ranging from reduced platelet production to increased consumption . The lower the platelets count the greater the risk of thrombosis and need for systemic anticoagulation. Typically thrombocytopenia starts to recover within 72 h fol- lowing heparin withdrawal, and if there is no response to heparin withdrawal, then an alternative explanation for thrombocytopenia should be considered. Currently systemic anticoagulation options include the direct thrombin inhibitor argatroban, and the hepa- rinoids, danaparoid and fondaparinux [25, 26]. Both danaparoid and fondaparinux are renally excreted and accumulate in patients with acute kidney injury and chronic kid- ney disease. Once the platelet count has recovered to >150,000 × 106/l, then warfarin therapy can be considered, as there is a risk of precipitating skin gangrene if warfarin ther- apy is started before the platelet count has recovered. Argatroban prolongs the pro- thrombin time, and therefore caution is required when converting patients from intravenous argatroban to oral warfarin therapy. Key Messages Heparin Induced Thrombocytopenia • Consider heparin induced thrombocytopenia in any patient with a 50 % fall in peripheral platelet count after starting heparin within the previous 10 days. At higher infusion doses it is also a potent smooth muscle relaxant and vasodilator.
A toxin is deﬁned as any compound that has a detrimental effect of cell function or structure generic serophene 50mg visa breast cancer awareness jewelry. Our modern environment seriously overloads the liver purchase serophene 100 mg on-line pregnancy category c, resulting in increased levels of circulating toxins in the blood serophene 100mg without a prescription breast cancer 2014, which damage most of our body’s systems serophene 100 mg on line women's health issues in america. A toxic liver sends out alarm signals, which are manifested as psoriasis, acne, chronic headaches, inﬂammatory and autoimmune diseases, and chronic fatigue. Heavy metals tend to accumulate within the brain, kidneys, liver, immune system, and other body tissues, where they can severely disrupt normal function. Most of the heavy metals in the body are a result of environmental contamination from industry. In the United States alone, industrial sources dump more than 600,000 tons of lead into the atmosphere, to be inhaled or—after being deposited on food crops, in fresh water, and in soil—to be ingested. Although we are no longer using leaded gasoline in cars (it is still used in piston engine airplanes and helicopters, however), its use for so many decades added a large amount of lead to the environment, from which it is only very slowly cleared. Other common sources of heavy metals include lead from the solder in tin cans, pesticide spray cans, and cooking utensils; cadmium and lead from cigarette smoke; mercury from dental ﬁllings, contaminated ﬁsh, and cosmetics; and aluminum from antacids and cookware. Some professions with extremely high exposure include battery makers, gasoline station attendants, printers, roofers, solderers, dentists, and jewelers. Toxic metals cause damage in three main ways: by blocking the activity of enzymes (for example, mercury blocks the enzyme that converts the thyroid hormone T4 to the more active T3, resulting in functional hypothyroidism), by displacing minerals (such as lead replacing calcium in bones, making them weaker), and by increasing oxidative stress, which negatively affects virtually all tissues and functions in the body. Mild cases of toxicity may be associated with headache, fatigue, and impaired ability to think or concentrate. A person with severe toxicity may experience muscle pains, indigestion, tremors, constipation, anemia, pallor, dizziness, and poor coordination. Heavy metals have a very strong afﬁnity for body tissues composed largely of fat, such as the brain, nerves, and kidneys. As a result, heavy metals are almost always linked to disturbances in mood and brain function as well as neurological problems (including multiple sclerosis) and high blood pressure (the kidneys regulate blood pressure). Numerous studies have demonstrated a strong relationship between intelligence, childhood learning disabilities, and body stores of lead, aluminum, cadmium, and mercury. Determination of Heavy Metal Toxicity Determining the body load of toxic metals can be difﬁcult and is controversial. Measuring blood levels of mercury, lead, cadmium, and arsenic is good for determining current exposure. However, it is not very good for determining total body load, which better correlates with toxicity. In the past, hair mineral analysis was considered a useful tool for measuring toxic heavy metals. Unfortunately, more recent research shows that some people have trouble eliminating heavy metals from the body, so they can show low levels in the hair even when the body levels are high. This involves taking drugs that chelate heavy metals in the body; the resulting chelation products are then excreted in the urine. The level of toxic metals in the urine after chelation correlates with the body load. Anyone who is interested in optimal health should be evaluated for heavy metal load. This recommendation is particularly true if you have been exposed to heavy metals or have symptoms associated with heavy metal toxicity (see the table). Persistent Organic Pollutants This category of toxins is primarily dealt with by the liver and includes drugs, alcohol, solvents, formaldehyde, pesticides, herbicides, and food additives. It is staggering to contemplate the tremendous load placed on the liver as it detoxiﬁes the incredible quantity of toxic chemicals it is constantly exposed to. Most common are psychological and neurological symptoms such as depression, headaches, mental confusion, mental illness, tingling in the hands and feet, abnormal nerve reﬂexes, and other signs of impaired nervous system function. Respiratory tract allergies and increased rates for many cancers are also noted in people chronically exposed to chemical toxins. Microbial Compounds Toxins produced by bacteria and yeast in the gut can be absorbed by the body, causing signiﬁcant disruption of body functions. Examples of these types of toxins include endotoxins, exotoxins, toxic amines, toxic derivatives of bile, and various carcinogenic substances. Gut-derived microbial toxins have been implicated in a wide variety of diseases, including liver diseases, Crohn’s disease, ulcerative colitis, thyroid disease, psoriasis, lupus erythematosus, pancreatitis, allergies, asthma, and immune disorders. In addition to toxic substances being produced by microorganisms, antibodies formed against microbial antigens can cross-react with the body’s own tissues, thereby causing autoimmune diseases. Diseases that have been linked to cross-reacting antibodies include rheumatoid arthritis, myasthenia gravis, diabetes, and autoimmune thyroiditis. To reduce the absorption of toxic substances, we recommended a diet rich in ﬁber, particularly soluble ﬁber, such as that found in vegetables, guar gum, pectin, and oat bran. Fiber has an ability to bind to toxins within the gut and promote their excretion. The immune system as well as the liver is responsible for dealing with the toxic substances that are absorbed from the gut. Breakdown Products of Protein Metabolism The kidneys are largely responsible for the elimination of toxic waste products of protein breakdown (ammonia, urea, etc. You can support this important function by drinking adequate amounts of water and avoiding excessive protein intake. Diagnosis of Toxicity In addition to directly measuring toxin levels in the blood or urine, or by biopsy of fat, there are a number of special laboratory techniques useful in assessing how well we detoxify the chemicals we are exposed to. Clearance tests measure the levels of caffeine, acetaminophen, benzoic acid, and other compounds after ingestion of a speciﬁed amount. Other tests for liver function (serum bilirubin and liver enzymes) are also important but are less sensitive. Genetic testing is a newer option that can determine which detoxiﬁcation enzymes are not optimal. Perhaps the best way to help determine if your liver is functioning up to par is to look over the following list. If any factor applies to you, we recommend following the guidelines for improving liver function given below: • More than 20 pounds overweight • Diabetes • Presence of gallstones • History of heavy alcohol use • Psoriasis • Natural and synthetic steroid hormone use Anabolic steroids Estrogens Oral contraceptives • High exposure to certain chemicals or drugs: Cleaning solvents Pesticides Antibiotics Diuretics Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs Thyroid hormone • History of viral hepatitis Naturopathic physicians use a number of special laboratory techniques to determine the presence of microbial compounds, including tests for the presence of abnormal microbial concentrations and disease-causing organisms (stool culture); microbial by-products (urinary indican test); and endotoxins (erythrocyte sedimentation rate is a rough estimator). The determination of the presence of high levels of breakdown products of protein metabolism and kidney function involves both blood and urine measurement of these compounds. How the Body’s Detoxification System Works The body eliminates toxins either by directly neutralizing them or by excreting them in the urine or feces (and to a lesser degree through the hair, lungs, and skin). Toxins that the body is unable to eliminate build up in the tissues, typically in our fat stores. The Liver The liver is a complex organ that plays a key role in most metabolic processes, especially detoxiﬁcation. The liver is constantly bombarded with toxic chemicals, both those produced internally and those coming from the environment. The metabolic processes that make our bodies run normally produce a wide range of toxins for which the liver has evolved efﬁcient neutralizing mechanisms. However, the level and type of internally produced toxins increase greatly when metabolic processes go awry, typically as a result of nutritional deficiencies. Yet even those eating unprocessed organic foods need an effective detoxiﬁcation system, because even organically grown foods contain naturally occurring toxic constituents. It ﬁlters the blood to remove large toxins, synthesizes and secretes bile full of cholesterol and other fat-soluble toxins, and enzymatically disassembles unwanted chemicals. The liver also plays a critical role in the excretion of metal toxins such as mercury.
Employing measures outlined in the chapter “A Positive Mental Attitude” can be quite useful in improving the immune system serophene 100 mg visa menstruation 101. It was easily accepted by conventional medical authorities that negative emotional states adversely affect the immune system order serophene 100mg with visa women's health issues in thrombosis and haemostasis, but for some reason the medical community initially scoffed at the notion that positive emotional states can actually enhance immune function proven serophene 100 mg menopause 20s. Although a stressor does not have to be a major life event to cause depressed immune function buy 50mg serophene breast cancer 914 3682554, it is safe to say that the more signiﬁcant the stressor, the greater the impact on the immune system. The loss of a spouse, perhaps the most stressful life event, was strongly associated with increased sickness and death well before a link between the mind and immune function was documented. In fact, it was not until 1977 that a study of 26 bereaved spouses documented that grief led to a signiﬁcant depression in immune function (natural killer cell activity was signiﬁcantly reduced). But in 1979, Norman Cousins’ popular book Anatomy of an Illness caused a signiﬁcant stir in the medical community. Cousins’s book provided an autobiographical anecdotal account that positive emotional states can cure the body of even a quite serious disease. But they soon demonstrated in numerous studies that laughter and other positive emotional states can in fact enhance the immune system. Stress Many clinical and experimental studies have clearly demonstrated that stress, personality, attitude, and emotion are etiologic or contributory in suppressing the immune system as well as leading to the development of many and diverse diseases. The variations in response help account for the wide diversity of stress-induced illnesses. Stress causes increases in blood levels of the adrenal hormones adrenaline and cortisol, leading to an immune-suppressed state and leaving the host susceptible to infectious and carcinogenic illnesses. This immune suppression is proportional to the level of stress, and although the effects are numerous, they appear to involve a common mechanism: increases in cortisol, pro-inﬂammatory compounds known as cytokines, and adrenaline, resulting in signiﬁcant decrease in white blood cell function, thymic function, and the formation of new white blood cells. More than 150 clinical studies have now shown that stress can alter immune function and contribute to the development of signiﬁcant disease and poor health. Research studies often use the response to a vaccine to simulate the response to an infectious organism as a measure of immune system function. For example, the chronic stress associated with caring for a spouse with Alzheimer’s disease or, for younger people, experiencing stressful life events was associated with a poorer antibody response to an inﬂuenza virus vaccine than was the case in well-matched control subjects. Consistent with this concept, subjects who show poorer responses to vaccines also experience higher rates of clinical illness as well as longer- lasting infectious episodes. Fortunately, the effects of stress on the immune system can be attenuated or even overcome with positive mood, effective stress reduction techniques, humor, laughter, and guided imagery. This beneﬁt is perhaps most obvious when one looks at the effects of lifestyle on natural killer cell activity. One particular lifestyle factor that is absolutely critical to healthy immune function is adequate sleep. In healthy humans, sleep deprivation has consistently been demonstrated to impair different components of immune function and mood. Interestingly, the deterioration of immune function precedes the plummeting of subjective well-being and psychosocial performance in sleep-deprived subjects. Dietary factors that depress immune function include nutrient deﬁciency, excessive consumption of sugar, consumption of allergenic foods, and high cholesterol levels in the blood. Dietary factors that enhance immune function include all essential nutrients, antioxidants, carotenes, and ﬂavonoids. Consistent with good health, optimal immune function requires a healthy diet that: • Is rich in whole, natural foods, such as fruits, vegetables, grains, beans, seeds, and nuts • Is low in fats and refined sugars • Contains adequate but not excessive amounts of protein In addition, individuals are encouraged to drink ﬁve or six 8-ﬂ. These dietary recommendations, along with a positive mental attitude, a good high-potency multivitamin and mineral supplement, a regular exercise program, daily deep breathing and relaxation exercises (meditation, prayer, etc. Although research relating nutritional status to immune function has historically concerned itself with severe malnutrition states (i. The large body of clinical and experimental data has made inevitable the conclusion that a single nutrient deﬁciency can profoundly impair the immune system. Given the widespread problem of multiple marginal (subclinical) nutrient deﬁciencies in Americans, it can be concluded that many people are suffering from impaired immunity that would be amenable to nutritional supplementation. Numerous studies have shown that almost all elderly Americans are deﬁcient in at least one nutrient, and most are deﬁcient in many. Likewise, numerous studies show that taking a multivitamin and mineral supplement enhances immune function in elderly subjects (whether they suffer from overt nutritional deﬁciency or not). The oral administration of 100 g portions of carbohydrate as glucose, fructose, sucrose, honey, or orange juice signiﬁcantly reduces neutrophil phagocytosis, while starch has no effect. As can be seen in the ﬁgure below, effects start within half an hour and last for more than ﬁve hours, and typically there is a 50% reduction in phagocytic activity at the peak of inhibition (usually two hours after ingestion). Oral administration of increasing amounts of glucose progressively lowers neutrophil phagocytosis, with maximal inhibition corresponding to maximal blood glucose levels. The Effects of Sugar on White Blood Cell Function In addition, oral ingestion of 75 g glucose has been shown to depress lymphocyte response; lymphocytes are the primary white blood cells that ﬁght viruses. It has been hypothesized that the ill effects of high glucose levels are a result of elevation of insulin values and competition with vitamin C for membrane transport sites. Once inside the white blood cell, glucose and vitamin C appear to have opposite effects on immune function. Considering that the average American consumes 125 g sucrose plus 50 g other reﬁned simple sugars each day, the conclusion that most Americans have chronically depressed immune systems is inescapable. It is clear, particularly during an infection, that the consumption of simple sugars, even in the form of fruit juice, is harmful to the host’s immune status. Fasting during the ﬁrst phase of an infection might be helpful because it results in a signiﬁcant increase (up to 50%) in the phagocytic index. Obesity Obesity is associated with decreased immune status, as evidenced by the reduced ability of the white blood cells of obese individuals to destroy bacteria. Obesity is also associated with higher infection rates as well as an increase in risk for certain cancers. Increased blood levels of cholesterol, free fatty acids, triglycerides, and bile acids inhibit various immune functions, including:28,29 • Formation of new white blood cells • Response to infectious agents • Antibody response • Movement of white blood cells to areas of infection • Phagocytosis Optimal immune function therefore depends on control of these serum components. Interestingly, carnitine, even at minimal concentrations, has been shown to neutralize lipid-induced immunosuppression. Individuals with elevations in blood lipids experiencing frequent infections may want to supplement with carnitine (900–1,500 mg per day). Alcohol Alcohol consumption increases the susceptibility to experimental infections in animals, and alcoholics are known to be more susceptible to infections, especially pneumonia. Studies of immune function in alcoholics show a profound depression in most indicators of immunity. Vitamin A has also been shown to stimulate and/or enhance numerous immune processes. Also, vitamin A deﬁciency may predispose an individual to an infection, and during the course of an infection vitamin A stores typically plummet. Vitamin A may be helpful in boosting immune function beyond reversal of vitamin A deﬁciency, because many immune functions are further enhanced by the administration of (supposedly) excessive levels of vitamin A. In addition to being converted into vitamin A, carotenes function as antioxidants. Because the thymus gland is so susceptible to damage by free radicals, beta-carotene has advantages in enhancing the immune system that are different from vitamin A (retinol) through its ability to protect the thymus. However, taking sufﬁcient vitamin A is still important, as about 25% of the population does not effectively convert beta-carotene to vitamin A. Vitamin C Vitamin C (ascorbic acid) plays an important role in the natural approach to immune enhancement.